Máster en formación del profesorado de SecundariaAprendizaje y enseñanza de la materia (Carmen Camus) Autor: Angélica Albuerne Gayo Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition
Introduction: theory and practice•What is the relationship between secondlanguage teaching and second languageacquisition?•Theory is not the only way to focus onmethodology•Language teaching solutions are notinnovations or sophistication but use of thetools we have such as language for realcommunication
Three Approaches to method 1. Second 1. Second 2. Applied 2. Applied Language Language Linguistic Linguistic Acquisition Acquisition Research Research Approah Approah •This reaseach •This reaseach •Series of •Series of tries to establish tries to establish hypotheses hypotheses comparisons comparisons proved with proved with between different between different experimental data experimental data approaches and approaches and •Part of •Part of see which one is see which one is theoretical theoretical the most the most Linguistics Linguistics adecuate for the adecuate for the • This theory • This theory students to learn students to learn needs supporting needs supporting a second a second evidence evidence language language
3. Ideas and intuitions from experience •This third method relies on the insights of •This third method relies on the insights of experienced language teachers as well as experienced language teachers as well as on introspections by language students. on introspections by language students. •Empirical support is not required since •Empirical support is not required since the word of the teacher is sufficient the word of the teacher is sufficient evidence. evidence.
Interactions among the three approaches to practiceFig.1.1 Ideal relationship between theory, applied linguistics research, ideas and intuitions and language teaching practice. Applied linguistics Research Second Language Ideas and Acquisition inntuitions theory Language teaching practice
Actual relationship between theory, applied linguisticsresearch, ideas and intuitions and language teaching practice Applied Applied linguistics linguistics research research Second Second Ideas Ideas language language and and acquisition acquisition intuitions intuitions theory theory Language Language teaching teaching practice practice
4.Theoreticians thought that the best 4.Theoreticians thought that the best way to learn a language was through way to learn a language was through drill pattern and dialogueCONSIDERATIONS drill pattern and dialogue1. There should be more1. There should be more 6. Applied 6. Applied 5. Another way to apply 5. Another way to applyinteraction betweeninteraction between transformation transformation linguistic theory into linguistic theory intoreseachers and teachersreseachers and teachers al grammar al grammar practice was through the practice was through the work was work was applied transformational applied transformational based on based on theoretical grammar grammar theoretical syntax and syntax and phonology phonology2. Little interaction between2. Little interaction betweentheory and applied reseachtheory and applied reseach is present an extremely an extremely is present important important contribution which contribution which 7. 7. Transformatio easily outdid easily outdid Transformatio 3. An example of 3. An example of nal grammar nal grammar previous theories previous theories behavioristic method was behavioristic method was should be should be based on linguistic the audio-lingual method based on linguistic the audio-lingual method considered as considered as structure structure
Both theories failed•Behaviouristic theory failed because it was notconsidered a language acquisition theory•Transformational grammar theory failedbecause it was a theory of product and resultinstead of being a theory of process•There is a break from theory, nowmethodology is more based on what seems towork in class and not in theory.
What the three approaches have to say about METHOD• The best methods for language acquisition are those which have sufficient comprehensible input in stressless situation.• These methods are called input methods supplying comprehensible input and free pressure-situations.• A decade ago teaching language was oriented to grammatical description nowadays, there an intereset in promoting real communication, exposing students to real input and participating in conversations.• The ideas that work are those based on role-playing, socio- drama, and above all we want a methodology that lowers student’s anxiety
Goals of this book!A. Present the theory as ititis seen today as A. Present the theory as is seen today aswell as its implications. well as its implications.B. Connect teachers to theory and give B. Connect teachers to theory and givethem the confidence they need. them the confidence they need.C. Theory is not the ultimate goal in second C. Theory is not the ultimate goal in secondlanguage acquisition language acquisitionD. Our ideas should be considered as a D. Our ideas should be considered as asource for future methods and materials source for future methods and materialstogether with the experiences of teachers together with the experiences of teachersand on the other hand as acquirers of and on the other hand as acquirers oflanguage. language.
Conclusion• What is better to focus on • Methodology is not only correctness or rather on the theory but also practice use of the language? based on experience and• What if we take into knowledge account both at the same • The audiolingual method level? and the TG were not• Not to trust to much on appropriate to acquire a theory but also trust language : they were more intuition and experience focus on product than in• This is the beginning of the process itself. humanistics approaches • The Natural Approach that take into account the states a new way of feelings of students acquiring a language more student-centered