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experimntSecuenDidact experimntSecuenDidact Presentation Transcript

    • Incorporación propuestas de mejora.
    • Experimentación en el aula.
    • Resultados de la experimentación.
    • Mª Ángeles García y Cristina Olave
  • SECUENCIA DIDÁCTICA INTEGRADA Unidad Didáctica: ESTADOS DE LA MATERIA Asignaturas: Física y Química ; L2-Inglés . nivel: 3ºESO / edad: 14-15 años nivel L2: A2 expresión oral y escrita ; B1 comprensión oral y escrita.
    • INTRODUCCIÓN A LA TAREA : Realizar actividades que sean más novedosas, atractivas y entretenidas para los alumnos. Además han de favorecer la participación y comunicación en L2.
    • OBJETIVOS :
    • Comprender oralmente y por escrito en L2, los contenidos estudiados sobre los estados de la materia y los cambios de estado.
    • Explicar, utilizando una terminología sencilla y a la vez correcta en L2, las propiedades de sólidos, líquidos y gases y el modelo de partículas para los 3 estados.
    • Hacer descripciones cortas y con lenguaje sencillo en L2 sobre los cambios de estado.
    • Identificar los cambios de estado que se producen en situaciones o procesos observables en la vida diaria.
    • Representar e interpretar curvas de calentamiento o de enfriamiento de determinadas sustancias.
    • Diferenciar entre evaporación y ebullición.
    • Explicar los cambios de estado según la teoría cinética de la materia.
    • Los contenidos de conocimiento están relacionados con: propiedades de la materia; ciclo del agua; calor y temperatura que se estudian en Ciencias Naturales y Física y Química.
    • Los contenidos de habilidades están relacionados con:
    • Construcción de gráficas (Matemáticas).
    • Expresión oral y escrita en L2 (Inglés).
    • Consultar y buscar información en diccionario digital y páginas web (TICs).
    • Colaborar y participar en el trabajo por grupos.
    • La Terminología utilizada es la específica de la Unidad junto con otras expresiones y palabras de uso común. En las actividades 9, 10 y 11 están las expresiones y el vocabulario específico en L2 utilizado en esta Unidad Didáctica.
    • INSTRUMENTOS DE EVALUACIÓN :
    • Realizar las actividades propuestas, que han de estar recogidas en su cuaderno de clase.
    • Colaborar y participar en las actividades en grupo.
    • Comunicar oral y por escrito en L2 los contenidos de la Unidad.
    • Examen escrito con preguntas similares a las tareas realizadas.
    • MATERIALES Y RECURSOS :
    • Aula Digital, páginas web utilizadas en esta Unidad:
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/chemical_material_behaviour/particle_model/revise1.shtml
    • http://concurso.cnice.mec.es/cnice2005/93_iniciacion_interactiva_materia/curso/materiales/estados/cambios.htm
    • www.thefreedictionary.com
    • http://www.oddcast.com/home/demos/tts/tts_example.php
    • http://lgfl.skoool.co.uk/keystage3.aspx?id=64
    • Herramientas web 2.0: Puzzlemaker, Slideshare, Blogger.
    • Cartulinas y rotuladores para preparar carteles y tarjetas para las actividades.
    • Libro de texto, Diccionario científico impreso en L2.
    • COMENTARIOS : Se explicitan, desarrollan y experimentan varias de las actividades planificadas y secuenciadas en la programación de la Unidad Didáctica “ ESTADOS DE LA MATERIA ”.
    • COMPETENCIAS BÁSICAS :
    • Competencia lingüística en Castellano y en Inglés.
    • Competencia matemática.
    • Competencia en el conocimiento y la interacción con el mundo físico.
    • Competencia digital.
    • Competencia social y ciudadana.
    • Competencia para aprender a aprender.
    • Autonomía e iniciativa personal.
    • Competencia del mundo artístico.
  • SECUENCIACIÓN
    • La Unidad Didáctica “ESTADOS DE LA MATERIA” se desarrolla en 8 sesiones de clase, las actividades explicitadas en esta presentación se corresponden con las siguientes sesiones:
    • Sesión 3: Actividad 4 , tareas sobre los cambios de estado .
    • Sesión 4: Actividad 5 , curva de calentamiento del agua . En la misma sesión los alumnos realizan en su cuaderno esta tarea y también representan e interpretan curvas de calentamiento o de enfriamiento de otras sustancias.
    • Sesión 7: Actividad 9 , leer, comentar y escuchar en distintos acentos un texto en L2 sobre los estados de la materia . Es conveniente contar con el apoyo de la lectora de Inglés en esta sesión.
    • Sesión 8: Actividades 10 y 11 , repaso de los contenidos de la unidad.
  • Activity 4: Changes of state
    • The students prepare the following cards:
    • They stick these cards on their bodies and place themselves to represent the diagram of the changes of state
    • Complete this table:
    Smell a perfume Heat Iodine Dry clothes in the open air Frost Snow Form clouds Warm butter in a saucepan ADDING OR REMOVING HEAT FINAL STATE INITIAL STATE CHANGE OF STATE PROCESS
  • Activity 5:HEATING CURVE FOR WATER
    • Previously the teacher:
    • Talks with the Maths’ teacher and they agree the best day to do the activity.
    • Prepares the cards needed to label the graph.
    • In the classroom:
    • A group about 10 students help to arrange the classroom.
    • They draw the axis and mark the units, one square represent 2 min on time-axis and one square represent 10ºC on Temperature-axis.
    • They write on the blackboard the table shown below, with the data of Temperature-time.
    • The whole group represent these data, each student is going to be a point of the graph. The teacher says aloud a pair of values T-t and the student has to find his/her point and stay on this spot till the rest of the group complete the graph.
    120 110 100 100 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0 -10 -20 T(ºC) 32 31 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 0 t(min)
  • The graph should be seen on the floor like this one represented on paper.
  •  
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  • Activity 9: ORAL COMPREHENSION
    • The students read this text adapted to their level of English and then listen it with different accents using this link:
    • http://www.oddcast.com/home/demos/tts/tts_example.php
    • THE FOURTH STATE OF MATTER
    • You know that any substance, called matter, can exist as a solid material, liquid, or gas. These three different forms are called states . Matter can change its state when heated.
    • As a solid , matter has a fixed volume and shape and is usually unable to flow, except in the case of glaciers. For instance, an ice cube or snowflake is the solid state of water.
    • When the solid state of matter is heated, it turns into a liquid . As a liquid, a substance has a fixed volume, but its shape changes to fill the shape of its container. For instance, a glass of water is the liquid state of water.
    • When the liquid state of matter is heated, it turns into a gas . As a gas, a substance does not have a fixed volume or shape. Gas expands to fill the shape and volume of its container. For instance, the steam that comes out of a hot teakettle, making the whistle blow, is water as a gas.
    • Heat causes matter to change its state because, when heated, the molecules within the substance to move around faster.
    • But there is other state of matter: plasma. Plasma is the fourth state of matter.
    • Although it is the least familiar state of matter to us here on Earth, plasma is actually the most common form of matter – in fact, plasma makes up 99% of all visible matter in the Universe
    • This term is relatively unknown outside of the scientific world. What is plasma?
    • Almost everything is made up of atoms (your dog, your science book, this computer...). The atom has a nucleus which has a positive charge. Electrons orbit the nucleus. The electrons (which have a negative charge) are attracted to the nucleus. Remember, opposites attract! But sometimes something comes along that sets the electrons free from orbiting the nucleus. Really hot temperatures can do this! When electrons are no longer trapped in orbits around the nucleus, we have the plasma state.
    • Stars are made of plasma , so plasma is the most abundant form of matter in the universe (stars are so hot that their matter can only exist in the plasma)
    • Essentially, the sun, like most stars, is a great big ball of plasma
    • This figure shows the four common states of matter: solid , liquid , gas , and plasma .
    • You don’t see lots of plasmas here on Earth because it’s too cold for most matter to reach that state. In the rest of the Universe however, plasma is more common than solids, liquids or gases. Our Sun is made of plasma, as are all stars. Their intense heat can turn nearby gas to plasma.
    • Although naturally occurring plasma is rare on Earth (e.g. a lightning strike), there are many man-made examples. Plasma glows when it conducts electricity in neon signs and fluorescent bulbs. The hottest candle flame is plasma. Scientists have constructed special chambers to experiment with plasma in laboratories
    • Making Plasma
    • Think of water – when it’s frozen, it’s a solid. When it melts, it’s a liquid. Heat it and it turns into a vapor or gas. If you heat it even more – to around 1,500°F – water becomes a plasma.
  • Activity 10: REVISION STATES OF MATTER
    • Previously the teacher:
    • Prepares two sets of 30 cards with the definitions or descriptions required.
    • Plans the suitable arrangement for groups and cards to do the activity.
    • In the classroom:
    • Divide the class in 5 groups of 4 students each group.
    • Give 12 cards to each group.
    • A student picks up a card, memorize the definition and say it to his/her mates without reading the card. They have to guess the word corresponding to that definition.
    • In turns they repit the process with the 12 cards.
    • Each group write down on a paper the words corresponding to their cards.
    • Repit the process with 12 different cards on each group.
  • DEFINITIONS/DESCRIPTIONS
    • A state in which the particles are quite close together and arranged in a regular pattern.
    • A state in which the particles can vibrate in a fixed position but cannot move from place to place.
    • These substances have a fixed shape, cannot flow and cannot be compressed.
    • In this state the particles are close together and arranged in a random way.
    • In this state the particles can move around each other and the bonds between them are weaker than in a solid.
    • A state of matter that take the shape of the container, can flow but cannot be compressed.
    • In this state the particles are far apart and moving at high speeds in any direction.
    • A state in which particles are arranged in a random way and there are no bonds between them.
    • A state of matter that completly fill their container, flow and can be compressed.
    • A property of a gas caused by the gas particles hitting the container walls.
    • This process happens when a body or a substance is heated up and get bigger. The particles do not change size only increases the space between them.
    • This process happens when a body is cooled down and get smaller. The particles do not change size only the space between them decreases.
    • An instrument that works because the liquid inside it expands and rises up the tube when it gets hotter.
    • A property which measure the average kinetic energy of the particles and increases when the gas is heated up.
    • A change of state from solid to liquid. It is caused by heating a solid.
    • This phenomenon happens on heating water between 0ºC and 4ºC, as the water contracts instead of expanding.
    • The change in state from liquid to solid. It usually happens cooling down a liquid.
    • The rapid change in state from a liquid to a gas (or vapour) usually caused by heating.
    • The temperature at which all of a liquid changes into a gas. The temperature doesn’t change during the process.
    • Temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. The temperature keeps the same during the change of state.
    • The process of a liquid changing into a gas at temperatures below its boiling point. It only happens on the surface of a liquid.
    • The change of state from gas (or vapour) to a liquid. It is normally caused by cooling.
    • The direct change of state from a solid to a gas.
    • It is a graph showing changes in temperature with time for a substance being heated.
    • A graph showing changes in temperature with time for a substance being cooled.
    • It’s a state of matter that can flow, like gases or liquids.
    • Strong forces of attraction between the particles of a solid or a liquid.
    • To move or run smoothly as a liquid or a gas move through a pipe.
    • This process happens when the volume of a gas decreases by increasing its pressure and the temperature is kept the same.
    • A temperature scale in which the zero value is given to the lowest possible temperature.
  • CORRECTION KEY Activity 10
    • 1-2-3 SOLID ; 4-5-6 LIQUID ; 7-8-9 GAS ; 10 PRESSURE ;
    • 11 EXPANSION ; 12 CONTRACTION ; 13 THERMOMETER ;
    • 14 TEMPERATURE ; 15 MELTING ; 16 ANOMALOUS EXPANSION OF WATER;
    • 17 FREEZING ; 18 BOILING ; 19 BOILING POINT ; 20 MELTING POINT;
    • 21 EVAPORATION ; 22 CONDENSATION ; 23 SUBLIMATION ; 24 HEATING CURVE;
    • 25 COOLING CURVE ; 26 FLUID ; 27 BONDS ; 28 FLOW ; 29 COMPRESSION;
    • 30 ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE SCALE.
  • Activity 11: Revision vocabulary
    • WORD SEARCH: Find 12 words related with the unit “The States of Matter”.
    • Match the words found on the WORD SEARCH with the following definitions:
        • Strong force of attraction between particles in a substance.
        • The change of state from a solid to a liquid.
        • The rapid change in state from a liquid to a gas.
        • A state in which the particles move freely in any direction.
        • A state in which the particles vibrate about fixed positions.
        • This change of state happens when a liquid is cooled.
        • It is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a gas.
        • It is the result of the particles of a gas hitting the container walls.
        • To move or run smoothly as a liquid or a gas move through a pipe.
        • To decrease the volume increasing the pressure on the gas.
        • To increase the volume of a substance usually by heating.
        • A state in which a substance has a fixed volume but can change shape.
  • CORRECTION KEY Activity 11
    • Bond
    • Melting
    • Boiling
    • Gas
    • Solid
    • Freezing
    • Temperature
    • Pressure
    • Flow
    • Compress
    • Expand
    • Liquid
  • RESULTADOS DE LA EXPERIMENTACIÓN
    • Se pretendía realizar actividades más novedosas, entretenidas y en las que participen más activamente los alumnos, con el objetivo de captar su interés y conseguir que comprendan y expresen oralmente y por escrito estos contenidos en L2.
    • Las novedades introducidas han sido la escenificación de contenidos en el aula en las actividades 4 y 5 y la utilización de pasatiempos como la sopa de letras, para el repaso del vocabulario específico en la actividad 11.
    • En general, los alumnos han realizado estas nuevas actividades con mayor diligencia e interés que en otras más tradicionales.
    • No hemos experimentado en el aula las actividades 9 y 10, al no dar clase a los alumnos del programa bilingüe.