L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />LAN...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />MAI...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />DIG...
No BILINGUALISM No DIGLOSSIA</li></li></ul><li>L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br ...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />II:...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />III...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />IV:...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />DIG...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />The...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />The...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />ADD...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />4 s...
L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />Fac...
Employmentrequiresthe use of themajoritylanguage
Denial of EthnicIdentity
No supportfromgovernment and institutions</li></ul>B: Cultural<br /><ul><li>Lack of Mother-TongueInstitutions
Acceptance of majoritylanguageeducation
No Supportfromculture and religion</li></ul>C: Linguistic<br /><ul><li>Mothertongueis non-standard
Thelanguageisnotimportant at internationallevel
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  1. 1. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />LANGUAGES<br />IN<br />SOCIETY<br />A focusonlanguages at 3 levels: <br />· TheGroup<br />· TheCommunity<br />· TheSociety<br />
  2. 2. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />MAIN IDEA:<br />Thereis no languagewithout a languagecommunity<br />THESOCIOLINGUISTICPERSPECTIVE:<br />SOCIOLINGUISTICS:<br />The INTERPERSONAL dimension of languages<br />
  3. 3. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />DIGLOSSIA<br />Whentwolanguages are used in society.<br />FromtheGreekdisglossos (di: two, glossa: language)<br />BILINGUALISM & DIGLOSSIA= 4 Possible Situations:<br /><ul><li>INDIVIDUAL BILINGUALISM + DIGLOSSIA
  6. 6. No BILINGUALISM No DIGLOSSIA</li></li></ul><li>L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />I: INDIVIDUAL BILINGUALISMcoexistswithDIGLOSSIA<br />In thesecommunititesalmosteveryoneisableto use boththehighlanguage and thelowlanguage<br />Usuallythehighlanguageisusedfor<br />Education and Government<br />Thelowlanguageisused in <br />thefamiliy and local neighborhood<br />
  7. 7. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />II: DIGLOSSIAwithoutBILINGUALISM<br />Onegroup of inhabitantsspeaksonelanguage.<br />Anothergroupspeaks a differentlanguage<br />Theoretical case: fewexamples<br />
  8. 8. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />III: BILINGUALISMwithoutDIGLOSSIA<br />Mostpeople are bilingual and do notrestrictonelanguageto a specific set of purposes.<br />Examples: Wales, theMaoricommunity in New Zealand.<br />“Whenbilingualismexistswithoutdisglossia, themajoritylanguagewillbecomeeven more powerful” <br />(Fishman, 1980)<br />“Keeping up withtheprestige and power of Englishisimpossible, impractical, and unrealizable” <br />(Hudson, 2002)<br />
  9. 9. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />IV: ThereisNeitherBILINGUALISMNorDIGLOSSIA<br />A linguisticallydiversesociety has beenchangedinto a relativelymonolingualsociety<br />Nativelanguageshavebeenexterminated<br />
  10. 10. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />DIGLOSSIAand GLOBALIZATION<br />Travel, mobility, global economy, and urbanizationincreasecontactbetweenlanguagecommunities<br />Theboundariesthatseparateonelanguagefromanother are notpermanent<br />Thesurvival of thelowlanguageiskeptthrough:<br />· Boundariesbetweenthetwolanguages<br />· Compartimentalization of their use in society<br />
  11. 11. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />The TERRITORIAL PRINCIPLE versus ThePERSONALITYPRINCIPLE<br />In theTerritorial Principle:<br />Languagerightsorlawsapplyto a specificregion<br />In thePersonalityPrinciple:<br />Status tothelanguageisgiventoindividualsorgroupswherevertheytravel in a country <br />
  12. 12. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />TheASYMMETRICALPRINCIPLE (AsymmetricalBilingualism)<br />Argument I: Theminoritylanguagecan onlysurviveifitisgivenprotection and preferentialtreatment<br />Thisis a form of positive discrimination<br />Argument II: Themaintenance and spread of thelanguageisbasedonitshistoricexistencewithin a definedgeographical country<br />
  13. 13. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />ADDITIVE AND SUBTRACTIVECONTEXTS<br />In AdditiveBilingualSituations: <br />Theaddition of a secondlanguage and culturedoesnotreplacethefirstlanguage and culture<br />(e.g.English-speaking North Americans<br />wholearnFrenchorSpanish)<br />In SubtractiveBilingualSituations: <br />Whenthesecondlanguage and cultureisacquired, thefirstlanguage and cultureisreplaced<br />(e.g.immigrants)<br />
  14. 14. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />4 stages of Language: SHIFT-DEATH / MAINTENANCE-SPREAD<br />LanguageShiftindicates a downwardslanguagemovement. <br />Thelaststages of languageshift are calledLanguageDeath<br />LanguageMaintenanceisrelatedtostabilitiy and retention of language. <br />Language spread indicatesanincrease in languageusers (numerically, geographicallyorfunctionally)<br />
  15. 15. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />FactorsthatEncourageLanguageLoss<br />A: Political, Social, and Demographical: <br /><ul><li>Remotehomeland
  16. 16. Employmentrequiresthe use of themajoritylanguage
  17. 17. Denial of EthnicIdentity
  18. 18. No supportfromgovernment and institutions</li></ul>B: Cultural<br /><ul><li>Lack of Mother-TongueInstitutions
  19. 19. FewNationalisticAspirations
  20. 20. Acceptance of majoritylanguageeducation
  21. 21. No Supportfromculture and religion</li></ul>C: Linguistic<br /><ul><li>Mothertongueis non-standard
  22. 22. Thelanguageisnotimportant at internationallevel
  23. 23. No tolerance of new termsfrommajoritylanguage
  24. 24. Toomuchtolerance of loan wordsfrommajoritylanguage</li></li></ul><li>L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />FactorsthatEncourageLanguageMaintenance<br />A: Political, Social, and Demographical: <br /><ul><li>Proximitytothehomeland
  25. 25. Employmentrequiresthe use of theminoritylanguage
  26. 26. Reinforcement of EthnicIdentity
  27. 27. Supportfromgovernment and institutions</li></ul>B: Cultural<br /><ul><li>Existence of Mother-TongueInstitutions
  28. 28. ManyNationalisticAspirations
  29. 29. Rejection of majoritylanguageeducation
  30. 30. Supportfromculture and religion</li></ul>C: Linguistic<br /><ul><li>Mothertongueisstandard
  31. 31. Thelanguageisimportant at internationallevel
  32. 32. Tolerance of new termsfrommajoritylanguage
  33. 33. Scarcetolerance of loan wordsfrommajoritylanguage</li></li></ul><li>L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />LANGUAGE DECLINE and DEATH<br />Example(Nancy Dorian, 1981): <br />The decline of Gaelic in East Sutherland (Scotland)<br />InitiallyfisherpeoplewhooriginallyspokeGaelic<br />SurroundedbyEnglish, theybecamebilingual in English and Gaelic<br />Thefishingindustrybeganto decline<br />TheGaelicspeakingfishing-folk begantofindotherjobs<br />TheboundariesbetweentheGaelic and theEnglishbegantocrumble<br />Inter-marriagereplaced in-groupmarriage<br />Over time, thecommunitygave up itsfisheridentity and theGaeliclanguage tended to decline withit.<br />
  34. 34. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />LANGUAGERESURRECTION<br />Example(Gawne, 2003): <br />Theresurrection of ManxGaelic (Isle of Man)<br />1874: 50% of thepopulation in theislandspokeManxGaelic<br />1872: the 1872 EducationActbannedManxGaelic in schools<br />1973: Edward Maddrell, thelastnative speaker of ManxGaelicdies.<br />However, the revival ispossiblethanksto 165 secondlanguagespeakersof Manx<br />1991: Anincreaseto 643 speakersoccurs<br />2001: 1,700 speakers of Manx<br />The revival continuesinspiredbytheenthusiasm<br />and dedication of a smallnumber of <br />“heritagelanguageenthusiasts”<br />
  35. 35. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />LANGUAGECONFLICT<br />Extreme languageconflictmay lead to “linguisticcleansing”: Rwanda, Serbia, Bosnia…<br />Thereal source of languageconflictisoftenrooted in politicalpowerstruggles, economictensions, and issuesaboutrights and privileges<br />
  36. 36. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />LANGUAGE and NATIONALISM<br />Languageisanimportant symbol of nationalidentity<br />Bilingualismisseen as anobstacletonationalism<br />Languageisviewed as a badge of loyaltytothenation<br />Languageisusedforanypurposeotherthancommunication<br />Examples: TheBasque and Catalanlanguages<br />
  37. 37. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />ENGLISH AS A GLOBAL LANGUAGE<br />There are 3 differentsituations of English in theworld:<br /><ul><li>CountrieswhereEnglishisthefirstlanguage:
  38. 38. CountrieswhereEnglishco-existswithotherlanguages:
  39. 39. CountrieswhereEnglish has no official status (butisankwoledged as animportantlanguage):China, Japan, Russia, former Soviet republics, Slovenia.</li></li></ul><li>L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />THE SPREAD OF ENGLISH<br />There are 1,200 to 1,500 millionEnglishspeakers in theworld<br />Crystal (1997)<br />80% of theinformationontheWWWisstored in English<br />Crystal (1997)<br />Englishisimportantforitsnumber of speakers and foritsprestige<br />Englishisthedominantlanguage<br />Thepopularity of the Anglo-American culture has associatedEnglishwith status, power, and wealth<br />
  40. 40. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />THEFUTURE OF ENGLISH<br />
  41. 41. L<br />A<br />N<br />G<br />U<br />A<br />G<br />E<br />S<br />&<br />S<br />O<br />C<br />I<br />E<br />T<br />Y<br />