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Chips and motherboard
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  • 1. CHIPS AND MOTHERBOARD
  • 2. A chip is also called an integrated circuit. Generally it is a small, thin piece of silicon onto which the transistors making up the microprocessor have been etched. A chip might be as large as an inch on a side and can contain tens of millions of transistors.
  • 3. A microprocessor (alsoknown as CPU) is a complete computationenginethatisfabricatedon a single chip.
    Thefirstmicroprocessorwasthe Intel 4004, introduced in 1971.
    Allitcould do wasadd and subtract. Itcouldonlyworkwith 4 bits at a time.
    Thisisthe Intel 8080, thefirstmicroprocessorfor a home computer.
    Itwasintroduced in 1974 and couldworkwith 8 bits at a time.
  • 4. A microprocessordoesthreethings:- Usingits ALU (Arithmetic/LogicUnit) themicroprocessor can performmathematicaloperationslikeaddition, subtraction, multiplication and division.- A microprocessor can move data fromonememorylocationtoanother.- A microprocessor can makedecisions and jumptoanother set of instructionsbasedonthosedecisions.
  • 5. Thisis a ROM chip. On a PC the ROM chip iscalledthe BIOS (Basic Input Output System). Whenthecomputerstarts, themicroprocessorexecutestheinstructionsitfinds in the BIOS.
    Thisis a RAM chip. RAM contains bytes of informationthatthemicroprocessor can readorwrite.
    Oneproblemwithtoday’s RAM chips isthattheyforgeteverything once thepowergoes off. Thatiswhythecomputerneeds ROM.
  • 6. Whenyoutakethe case off of a computeryou can see a piece of equipmentthattiesallthecomponentstogether.
    It’sthemotherboard, thatallowsalltheparts of thecomputertoreceivepower and communicatewithoneanother.
    Thisis a graphiccard.
    Likethemotherboard,itis a printedcircuitthathouses a processor and a RAM.