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  • Gagné R.M., Wager W.W., Golas K.C., Keller J.M. (2005), Principles of Instructional Design, Fifth Edition, ThomsonThe 9 events include: Provide for attention and motivation; present the learning objectives; recall prerequisites or related knowledge; present the new content; provide guidance to the learner; provide for practice; provide for feedback; assess performance; provide for retention and transfer.
  • Hodell (2011) states the importance of evaluation throughout the design process.
  • (1) Brandon (2007) acknowledges that due to time pressures a strategy somewhere between ADDIE and rapid development is often necessitated.
  • (1)Gagné (ibid)Learning objectives should define what the student will be able to do after completing the course rather than what the student will do during the course
  • “It has been found that lists of nonsense syllables with unfamiliar letter combinations are more difficult to learn than those with familiar letter combinations” Gagne (1974)Pachler& Daly (2011: 21) Potential benefits of technology in education are the same content can be presented using different media types including text, two- and three-dimensional graphics, sound, image sequences or simulations.Cottrel S. (1999), The Study Skills Handbook, Palgrave, p.5“The important thing is not to discover which “type” you are but rather to recognise the many different elements that contribute to how you yourself learn best”
  • (1)(Horton, 2006: 532) Overcome the one-path-for-all syndrome.(2) Watson J., (2009), "A case study: developing learning objects with an explicit learning design" ElectronicJournal of e-learning, Volume 8 Issue 1 (pp 41 – 50)Watson provides guidelines on how to create reusable learning objects. They must be small self contained chuncks, consistent in size and style, establish a micro context with a clearly identified learning point.
  • Race (2009) states the importance of having activities to facilitate learning as opposed to simply providing information.Herrington J., Reeves T.C., Oliver R. (2004) A model of authentic activities for online learning in Interactions in Online Education – Implications for Theory and Practice, Juwah. C (2006), Routledge
  • Create bite sized screencasts: it is better for students to choose from a series of short clearly focused screencasts than to have to navigate a smaller number of larger ones. Raftery (2010) Developing Educational Screencasts There is a universal approach to design which is also known as Design for all. A design for all approach leads to a better product being developed for all users – Seale, J., Boyle, T., Ingraham, B., Roberts, G. & McAvinia, C. (2007). Designing digital resources for learning. In line with the personalisation principle as outlined by Clarke and Mayer (2008)
  • (1) The elements of design of any e-learning environment should include discussion of icons, imagery, text, colour, audio, video dialog boxes and navigational systems. Gillani, B. (2003) p. 141
  • (1) The elements of design of any e-learning environment should include discussion of icons, imagery, text, colour, audio, video dialog boxes and navigational systems. Gillani, B. (2003) p. 141
  • ?
  • (1) In keeping with Damien’s advice on the research carried out into how web pages are viewed we will arrange content the F shape that has been shown to be the area that the eye is drawn to. (2) Clarke and Mayer suggest that animated graphics are best used for more advanced learners – content for mind mapping will contain video explanation for the student who has previously encountered mind maps and labelled graphics for the novice mind mapper – Clark, Ruth Colvin & Mayer, Richard E. (2008) e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. Pfeiffer (3) In creating Content for the mind map section of the resource I have referred to the 5 first principles of instruction suggested by Merrill (2009)(4) Signalling Principle applied to content Mayer, R. (2009).
  • F layout proposed again in keeping with Damien’s advice mentioned previously.Mention other references to Cornell in resource, kinesthetic page in particular.As introduced by Di Tommaso (2005)
  • This is the planned layout for the Kinesthetic page, however, depending on the size of the interactive element I may have to move the tips section below the overview, or alternatively I may put them as links to another page within the site.Horton, W. – Do-type ActivitiesAllen, M. (2012,17) “The more similar the skills practiced during learning are to the skills to be performed, the more likely this transfer (of knowledge and skills from learning to actual performance) will occur.”Clark, D. (2006, 19) Ten pedagogic reasons for games in learning
  • Kopper et al in Watson J., (2009), "A case study: developing learning objects with an explicit learning design" ElectronicJournal of e-learning, Volume 8 Issue 1 (pp 41 - 50)  Learning objects are small self contained chunks of learning which are separable from their context of use. Additional course scaffolding can be wrapped around. Each learning object focuses on a clearly identified learning point.
  • (1) VARK site questionnaire is copyrighted – our questions have been redrafted and reworded.
  • Horton, W. (2006, 45) ADDIE process is iterative as opposed to sequential therefore implementation does not lag development but goes on at the same time.

Working story board_v1.19 Working story board_v1.19 Presentation Transcript

  • E VStudy Skills for Students A L U A TPresented by: I OOdette Gabaudan NDebbie HowlettHugh MullanAngela Walsh
  • • Visual • Auditory Study Tips For Students• Read/ • Kinesthetic• Write
  • The ProcessThe ADDIE model was used to structure our thinking process • Who is our audience • What are the expected learning outcomes • Determine the needs • What are the constraints Analysis • Choose Delivery Method • Consider Gagné’s 9 external events (1) Design • Create Story Board • Develop Website to incorporate a combination of new and existing learning objects • Review existing content Develop • Develop Content • User Acceptance testing • Site Testing Implement • Publish Site • Design feedback questionnaire • Review with Focus Group on site usability Evaluate • Implement changes
  • Evaluation Throughout the Process A I E D DFor the purposes of the Storyboard the ADDIE process will be shown as a linear process.However evaluation occurred throughout the process which led forward and backwardmovement between each phase.
  • ANALYSIS
  • Our Audience  Students new to third level education who have recently completed second level education and may be unfamiliar with the demands ofA studying effectively in a new environment  Mature students who have returned to education after a number ofN years  Third level students who have agreed to mentor other students and helpA them study more effectively Identification of their needsL The resource  allows students easily identify their dominant learning styleY  allows students engage with a range of tools that can aid effective study  notifies students of study tips relating to their learning styleS Constraints mainly due to timescale:(1)  not possible to design for full accessibilityI  not possible to design or use large amounts of contentS  not possible to include page for multi modal learning style  Learning curve to use new tools  Time required to develop the website
  • The aims of this resourceAN To help students recognise their dominantA learning stylesLY To develop a range of study techniques that suit students’ learning stylesSI To design a resource that students can use toS coach other students to help improve their study techniques
  • A Learning OutcomesN At the end of this module you will(1)A • Be able to recognise the 4 learning styles in theL VARK modelY • Be able to identify your dominant styleS • Be able to identify study tips associated with each learning styleI • Be able to access websites that provide usefulS tools to aid study techniques • Be able to assist other students in identifying their dominant learning style
  • A RationaleN ResourceA • Many students lack effective study skills. • Students can be unaware of the range of study techniquesL • Students are often unaware of their learning style and how it may change depending on the subject they are studying.Y • Tying study skills to learning styles should foster more effective study practisesS VARK learning styles model • VARK is compatible with multimedia as an engaging and effectiveI method to describe each style • the mnemonic(1) - easier for our target audience to remember the styles • User friendly description of each style (2)S • Point out elements of each style can be suitable for all learners (3)
  • DESIGN
  • Choose Delivery Method Resource will be hosted on external website for ease of accessD Pages and Navigation: (1)  Home Page (Link to each style, quiz & blog)  V(isual) Link to quiz, blog, useful linksE  A(uditory) Link to quiz, blog, useful links Design  R(ead/Write) Link to quiz, blog, useful links Design  K(inesthetic) Link to quiz, blog, useful linksS  Blog/Forum  Quiz (not included in navigation but accessible from each page)I Identify Content (2)  Identify existing learning objects that can be reused  Identify additional content to be createdG General Design  Agree template for website  Agree colour schemes and layout consistencyN  Guidelines from Dyslexic site regarding font will be adhered to as much as possible Story Board  Create storyboard
  • Some Guidelines for Content It is intended to include activities to be performed throughout the website (1)D A model for Authentic Activities in Online Learning (2)E Design DesignSIGN
  • Layout and ConsistencyD Website template selected to suit theme of resource. Logo designed to reflect VARK model.E Layout for all pages agreed with a focus on navigabilityS and easily identifiable blocks of information (F shape) Three study tips only: depth v/ information overloadI Video and podcasts: no more than three minutes (1)G Font and text consistent with guidelines from Dyslexia Association (2)N Tone of site to be informal / conversational (3)
  • Layout and ConsistencyDE Logo appears on the banner of all pages of the website for consistency and reinforcement of the framework used for the presentation of studyS tipsIG On the page of each individual style the logo appears withN appropriate style highlighted and other styles greyed out
  • Home Page (1) Each block leads to Site different learningD Navigation styles LogoES Placeholder for intro byI extranormal Placeholders for overview of each styleG Link to learningN styles Questionnaire Option to download Links to study tips questionnaire for each style
  • Learning style Page (1) Each block leads to Site different learningD Navigation styles LogoESI Placeholder for overview of styleGN Full logo on left side of each page Option to return Placeholder for to questionnaire Web links for study study tips tips
  • Blog/ForumD Forum for student to provide tips and suggestions for others thus encouragingE collaborative learningSIGN
  • Content – Visual Learning styleD Site Banner and navigationE (1) V overview of Tip 1: Using Mind (2)S I S learning style Maps (3) (4)I U A Links to Tip 2: Using graphic Organisers LG external sites Tip 3: Note Taking forN Visual Learners
  • Content - Auditory Learning StyleD Site Banner and navigationE Voki to give Tip 1: Intro and tutorials to Audacity for recording andS A U D overview of learning style editing lectures or notesI I T Links to Tip 2: Using digital voice recorder in O lecturesG R Y external sites Tip 3: Talking andN singing to help recall Quiz on Auditory Tips
  • Content – Read / Write Learning styleD Site Banner and navigationE Tip 1: Effective Note Taking – Bullets, Own Overview of learning Read / Write IconS words etc. mention cornell (1) style (Text)I Tip 2: Effective reading – KWL plus (2)G Tip 3: Diagrams into Example of tip 3 wordsN Links to 3 useful sites
  • Content – Kinesthetic Learning styleD Site Banner and navigationE (1) Tip 1: Cornell Note TakingS Kinesthetic Icon (3) Text and InteractiveI overview of learning style(2) Tip 2: Flash CardsG Tip 3: General Study TipsN for Kinesthetic Learners Links to 3 useful sites
  • DEVELOp
  • Site development and contents Setup Requirements Gmail Account ContentD Yola Site Account Video Tumblr Feed Blog Account PodcastE Dropbox Word Documents Excel spreadsheetsV Links for external ApplicationsE Screenr and CamStudio websites Graphics Xtranormal and VokiL Adobe Photoshop CS3 SWF Files ArticulateO Excel Flashp Prezi Survey Monkey Slideshare ProProfs.com
  • Home PageD  Develop Logo for banner  Provide for access to different learning stylesE  Provide for access to blogV  Develop Xtranormal introduction  Develop overview of each learning style using aE combination of Visual, Auditory, Text and KinaestheticL supports  Create online version of questionnaireO  Create downloadable questionnairep
  • Learning Style PageD  Provide overview of learning style with indication of learning outcomes for that pageE  Study tips for style consistent with information fromV VARK site  Apply “encapsulation” to developed LearningE Objects (1)L  Add useful links to each page  Provide access to the questionnaireOp
  • Learning style Questionnaire  Complete quiz through interactionD  16 questions with four options, respondent selects oneE answer from each question(1)V  Provide feedback on dominant style  Provide Quiz and scoring instructions in PDFE formatL  Respondents receive a result indication how many questions were answered with one of the four learningO stylesp
  • IMPLEMENT
  • I Implementation PhaseM Phase 1 TestP Upload content to siteL Group test of siteE User Acceptance Testing Browser TestME Phase 2 ImplementationN Implement any changes identified after testing phase and launch siteT
  • Proposed Test Script for Home Page The script will test the links on the site to ensure that they working correctly. It will test all aspects of the page to ensure that the objects are loading and playing and it will ensure that the user is viewing the screen as it should appear. Users will be asked to complete the script using a variety of different browsers. Users will be asked to comment on ease of use. It is suggested that the test script for the rest of the site will follow the same formatI Instructions for userM 1. 2. 3. Please work through the list of issues in order that they are listed When issue has been tested please mark it as pass or fail For each fail please include details of what occurredP 4. Issue Add any comments you wish for issues that are marked as passed Pass Fail Comments / Details Site banner should appear at top of screenL Site navigation tabs should appear on left side of screen above banner Wordle image should appear on left hand side of theE screen Click on image to play learning styles overview video – video plays Click on Questionnaire – Questionnaire opens up forM completion Complete questionnaire – profile provided Close questionnaire page and return to home pageE Down load copy of questionnaire Click Visual Tab to access visual page Click Home tab to return to home pageN Click Auditory tab to access auditory page Click Home tab to return to home page Click on Read / Write tab to access read/write page Click Home tab to return to home pageT
  • EVALUATION
  • Evaluation of ResourceE Student group evaluation (questionnaire)V Analysis of feedback and implementation ofA improvements DesignLU Accessibility Future development for use on smart phonesA Fully developed for visually impaired (eg AltT tags, option to increase font size by clicking on aI button)O Further development for dyslexia complianceN
  • EV Process EvaluationA What have we learned:L Self and Peer EvaluationU Group ReviewA ToolsT Application of literature recommendationsION
  • References/Useful links http://www.bdadyslexia.org.uk/about-dyslexia/further-information/dyslexia-style-guide.html http://coe.jmu.edu/LearningToolbox/cornellnotes.html http://www.vark-learn.com/english/index.asp Allen, M. (2012) Michael Allen‘s e-Learning Annual 2012, . San Francisco: Pfeiffer Brandon, B. (Ed.).(2007). The eLearning Guild’s Handbook of e-Learning Strategy. [eBook version]. Retrieved from http://www.elearningguild.com/content.cfm?selection=doc.817 Clark, D. (2006) Games and e-Learning. England: Caspian Learning Clarke, R., Mayer, R. (2008). E-LEARNING and the Science of Instruction. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer Cottrel S. (1999), The Study Skills Handbook, Palgrave, p.5 Di Tommaso, K. (2005). Strategies to facilitate reading comprehension in college transition students. National College Transition Network: Research to Practice, 5. Retrieved from http://www.collegetransition.org/promising/rp5.html Gagne, R. & Briggs, J. (1974). Principles of Instructional Design . USA: Holt, Rinehart & Winston Inc. Gagné R.M., Wager W.W., Golas K.C., Keller J.M. (2005), Principles of Instructional Design, Fifth Edition, Thomson Gillani, B. (2003) Visual design and e-learning. Learning theories and the design of e-learning environments Lanham, MD: University Press of America Herrington J., Reeves T.C., Oliver R. (2004) A model of authentic activities for online learning in Interactions in Online Education – Implications for Theory and Practice, Juwah. C (2006), Routledge Hodell, C. (2011). ISD From the Ground Up: A No-Nonsense Approach to Instructional Design (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press Horton, W, (2006) eLearning by Design, Pfeffier: San Francisco
  • References/Useful links contd Mayer, R. (2009). Signalling principle. Multimedia learning (pp. 108-117). Cambridge; NewYork: Cambridge University Press. Merrill, David M. (2009) First principles of instruction. In C. Reigeluth & A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: building a common knowledge base (vol III) (pp. 41-57) New York: Routledge Pachler, N. & Daly, C.,(2011) Key Issues in e-Learning; Research and Practice, Continuum International Publishing Group: New York Race, R. (2009). Making Learning Happen. London, England: Sage Raftery, D. (2010). Developing educational screencasts: A practitioner’s perspective. In R. Donnelly, J. Harvey & K.C. O’Rourke (Eds.), Critical Design and effective tools for e-learning in higher education theory into practice (pp. 213-226). Hershey PA: Information Science Reference. Seale, J., Boyle, T., Ingraham, B., Roberts, G. & McAvinia, C. (2007). Designing digital resources for learning. In G. Conole & M. Oliver (Eds), Contemporary perspectives in e-learning research: themes, methods and impact on practice (pp. 121-133).London: Routledge Watson J., (2009), "A case study: developing learning objects with an explicit learning design" Electronic Journal of e-learning, Volume 8 Issue 1 (pp 41 - 50)