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Fallacies

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Fallacies

1. 1. FALLACIES
2. 2. FALLACIESWhat are fallacies?false statements or arguments
3. 3. FALLACIES Dicto Simpliciter an argument based on an unqualified generalization1.Exercise is good. Therefore, everybody should exercise.2.The things you learn in school don’t have anything to do with life.
4. 4. FALLACIES Dicto Simpliciter an argument based on an unqualified generalizationFORMULA= starts with a statement that is true for some cases but not all= applied to all cases
5. 5. FALLACIES Hasty Generalizationa conclusion reached with too few instances as support1.You can’t speak French. He can’t speak French. No one can speak French.2.We’ve had five good dates. We’re well-matched.
6. 6. FALLACIES Hasty Generalizationa conclusion reached with too few instances as supportFORMULA= starts with the statement of at least two cases= proceeds with the cases being applied to other cases
7. 7. FALLACIES Post Hocfaulty cause-and-effect relationship1.It rains every time Bill comes. Bill causes the rain.
8. 8. FALLACIES Post Hocfaulty cause-and-effect relationshipFORMULA= event 1 takes place before event 2= event 1 is said to cause event 2
9. 9. FALLACIES Contradictory Premises premises of an argument that contradict each other1.God can do everything, so He canmake a stone so heavy He can’t liftit. irresistible force: immovable object
10. 10. FALLACIES Contradictory Premises premises of an argument that contradict each otherFORMULA= two truths are given; the truthsare true on different levels= the two truths are made tocontradict
11. 11. FALLACIES Ad Misericordiam an appeal to emotions rather than reason1.A man’s qualifications for a job are his unfortunate circumstances.2.You are the whole world to me, the moon and the stars…
12. 12. FALLACIES Ad Misericordiam an appeal to emotions rather than reasonFORMULA= an emotional situation is given= the listener is swayed to lose
13. 13. FALLACIES False Analogy comparisons between two completely different things1.Students should be allowed to look at books because professionals are.2.Dating is like a cake; you don’t have to eat a whole cake to know it’s good.
14. 14. FALLACIES False Analogy comparisons between two completely different thingsFORMULA= the situation in one case is given= the situation is likened or applied to a completely different case
15. 15. FALLACIES Hypothesis Contrary to Fact • there is a factual error in the statement1.Radium would not be discovered if Madame Curie had not been careless. If not for this, radium wouldn’t have been discovered.2.You wouldn’t learn about fallacies if not for me. Be thankful to me.
16. 16. FALLACIES Hypothesis Contrary to Fact • there is a factual error in the statementFORMULA= an untrue statement is given= a conclusion, either true or untrue, is made based on the false statement
17. 17. FALLACIES Poisoning the Well unfair judgment1.My opponent is a notorious liar. You can’t believe him.2.You can’t go out with Petey Bellows who is a liar, a cheat, and a rat.
18. 18. FALLACIES Poisoning the Well unfair judgmentFORMULA= something negative is attributed= another negative trait is unjustifiably attributed based
19. 19. FALLACIES
20. 20. Every time I pray the rosary the nightbefore cards are given, I don’t get agrade lower than 88. I’ll always praythe rosary, so I will always get 2ndhonors.A.Post HocB.Ad MisericordiamC.Contradictory PremisesD.Hypothesis Contrary to FactE.No Fallacy
21. 21. Every time I pray the rosary the nightbefore cards are given, I don’t get agrade lower than 88. I’ll always praythe rosary, so I will always get 2ndhonors.A.Post HocB.Ad MisericordiamC.Contradictory PremisesD.Hypothesis Contrary to FactE.No Fallacy
22. 22. I’ve had to change phones twice this yearbecause my Nokia phones keep conkingout. When I buy another phone, I’ll makesure that it won’t be a Nokia becauseNokia phones are of poor quality.A.No FallacyB.False AnalogyC.Ad MisericordiamD.Dicto SimpliciterE.Hasty Generalization
23. 23. I’ve had to change phones twice this yearbecause my Nokia phones keep conkingout. When I buy another phone, I’ll makesure that it won’t be a Nokia becauseNokia phones are of poor quality.A.No FallacyB.False AnalogyC.Ad MisericordiamD.Dicto SimpliciterE.Hasty Generalization
24. 24. The suspect should be set freebecause his wife just died, andthere is no one left to take care ofhis three-year-old kid.A.False AnalogyB.Ad MisericordiamC.Poisoning the WellD.Hypothesis Contrary to FactE.No Fallacy
25. 25. The suspect should be set freebecause his wife just died, andthere is no one left to take care ofhis three-year-old kid.A.False AnalogyB.Ad MisericordiamC.Poisoning the WellD.Hypothesis Contrary to FactE.No Fallacy
26. 26. Science has proven that energy is nevercreated nor destroyed, but simplytransformed from one form to another.Therefore, the government is wrong tosay we’re wasting energy each day.A.False AnalogyB.No FallacyC.Ad MisericordiamD.Poisoning the WellE.Contradictory Premises
27. 27. Science has proven that energy is nevercreated nor destroyed, but simplytransformed from one form to another.Therefore, the government is wrong tosay we’re wasting energy each day.A.False AnalogyB.No FallacyC.Ad MisericordiamD.Poisoning the WellE.Contradictory Premises
28. 28. I am 17. During the interaction, I foundout that more than half of the Povedanson their junior year are 16. From then on,I started believing that majority of thePovedans in that batch are younger.A.Ad MisericordiamB.Post HocC.No FallacyD.Hasty GeneralizationE.Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
29. 29. I am 17. During the interaction, I foundout that more than half of the Povedanson their junior year are 16. From then on,I started believing that majority of thePovedans in that batch are younger.A.Ad MisericordiamB.Post HocC.No FallacyD.Hasty GeneralizationE.Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
30. 30. Water, no matter how filthy, is made toundergo filtration to be used again.Therefore, the leftover food forsegregation should be reheated andresold to conserve precious resources.A.Post HocB.False AnalogyC.Dicto SimpliciterD.Ad MisericordiamE.No Fallacy
31. 31. Water, no matter how filthy, is made toundergo filtration to be used again.Therefore, the leftover food forsegregation should be reheated andresold to conserve precious resources.A.Post HocB.False AnalogyC.Dicto SimpliciterD.Ad MisericordiamE.No Fallacy
32. 32. The student’s claim that he did notcheat in the exams should not bebelieved because nothing truthfulhas ever come out of that student’smouth.A.No FallacyB.Post HocC.False AnalogyD.Dicto SimpliciterE.Poisoning the Well
33. 33. The student’s claim that he did notcheat in the exams should not bebelieved because nothing truthfulhas ever come out of that student’smouth.A.No FallacyB.Post HocC.False AnalogyD.Dicto SimpliciterE.Poisoning the Well
34. 34. Philippine education is poor.Therefore, Xaverians receive lowquality education.A.Post HocB.False AnalogyC.Dicto SimpliciterD.No FallacyE.Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
35. 35. Philippine education is poor.Therefore, Xaverians receive lowquality education.A.Post HocB.False AnalogyC.Dicto SimpliciterD.No FallacyE.Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
36. 36. Xavier School is strictly forstudents with some Chinese blood.Therefore, Filipinos are not at allwelcome in Xavier School.A.Post HocB.False AnalogyC.Dicto SimpliciterD.No FallacyE.Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
37. 37. Xavier School is strictly forstudents with some Chinese blood.Therefore, Filipinos are not at allwelcome in Xavier School.A.Post HocB.False AnalogyC.Dicto SimpliciterD.No FallacyE.Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
38. 38. All men have a Y chromosome. Therefore, if I encounter a male, he has a Y chromosome.A.Ad MisericordiamB.Poisoning the WellC.Contradictory PremisesD.No FallacyE.Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
39. 39. All men have a Y chromosome. Therefore, if I encounter a male, he has a Y chromosome.A.Ad MisericordiamB.Poisoning the WellC.Contradictory PremisesD.No FallacyE.Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
40. 40. FALLACIES What is the value in learning the fallacies? Isn’t it enough to knowif something is a fallacy or not?