Geography: A Holistic
Homeschool Framework
Angela Orr
How did you get here, today?
How did you get here, today?
CONGRATULATIONS! You just “did” Geography!
44
““I think it is a very interesting class andI think it is a very interesting class and
relevant to our lives. I like th...
55
2006 Roper Survey2006 Roper Survey
National Geographic SocietyNational Geographic Society
 63% of Americans aged 18-24...
66
 54% do not know that Sudan is in Africa54% do not know that Sudan is in Africa
• 20% place Sudan in Asia20% place Sud...
77
One-third (34%) would go inOne-third (34%) would go in
the wrong direction in thethe wrong direction in the
event of an...
88
GeographyGeography
It could just save your life.It could just save your life.
99
What Does a Tidal WaveWhat Does a Tidal Wave
Look Like?Look Like?
Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada
1010
TsunamiTsunami
Geography is holisticGeography is holistic
►Interested inInterested in
interrelationshipsinterrelationships
►Informed by m...
Honor Your Mother
What is Geography?What is Geography?
You may think that Geography is all about:You may think that Geography is all about:
...
What is Geography?What is Geography?
►Where things are in the worldWhere things are in the world
What is Geography?What is Geography?
►The study of EarthThe study of Earth
What is Geography?What is Geography?
►Earth’s landformsEarth’s landforms
What is Geography?What is Geography?
►How humans and theHow humans and the
environment interact with oneenvironment intera...
What is Geography?What is Geography?
If you thought geography was about any ofIf you thought geography was about any of
th...
The most importantThe most important
question inquestion in GeographyGeography
isis::
Why is it there?
Where did “Geography” come from?Where did “Geography” come from?
Geo- Greek “ge” = “Earth”Geo- Greek “ge” = “Earth”
((geoi...
Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers?
The Greeks were notThe Greeks were not
the first to “do”the...
Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers?
Ancient Egyptian gold mine map on papyrusAncient Egyptian g...
►The GreeksThe Greeks
Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers?
Eratosthenes
276 - 194 BCE
Strabo
c. ...
Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers?
►China, Japan, and KoreaChina, Japan, and Korea
Chinese map...
Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers?
►Muslim geographersMuslim geographers
Tabula Rogeriana by M...
The Subdivisions of GeographyThe Subdivisions of Geography
►Geography can be divided into any number ofGeography can be di...
Physical GeographyPhysical Geography
►Physical geographyPhysical geography is the study of Earth’sis the study of Earth’s
...
BiogeographyBiogeography
►The study of the spatial distribution of plantsThe study of the spatial distribution of plants
a...
►The study of how people use the land, how theyThe study of how people use the land, how they
perceive it and relate to it...
Geoinformatics/Geoinformatics/
Technical GeographyTechnical Geography
Technical GeographyTechnical Geography
►All of the t...
The FundamentalsThe Fundamentals
► Every study of Geography incorporates oneEvery study of Geography incorporates one
or m...
The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts
of Geographyof Geography
►1.1. Location—Location—stud...
►2.2. PlacePlace—study of the—study of the site and situationsite and situation
characteristics of a particular portion of...
The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts
of Geographyof Geography
►2.2. PlacePlace—study of th...
Sense of Place
an artist’s interpretation
Sense of Place
some “imaginary” places
GLADIATOR
film
music
JIMMY BUFFETT
THE PERFECT
VACATION
advertising
“MARGARITAVILLE...
Sense of Place
some “imaginary” places
GLADIATOR
film
music
JIMMY BUFFETT
“MARGARITAVILLE”
(vs. REALITY!)
?
The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts
of Geographyof Geography
►3.3. MovementMovement—study...
The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts
of Geographyof Geography
►3.3. MovementMovement—study...
The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts
of Geographyof Geography
►3.3. MovementMovement—study...
The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts
of Geographyof Geography
►3.3. MovementMovement—study...
The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts
of Geographyof Geography
►4.4. Human-EarthHuman-Earth...
The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts
of Geographyof Geography
►4.4. Human-EarthHuman-Earth...
The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts
of Geographyof Geography
The worst possible outcome o...
4949
Environmental PerceptionEnvironmental Perception
• GeomancyGeomancy—land-use planning based on—land-use planning base...
5050
Putting feng shui into practice:Putting feng shui into practice:
““Water and RiversWater and Rivers are something tha...
5151
Putting feng shui into practice:Putting feng shui into practice:
►5.5. RegionRegion——
study of an area on Earth’s surface that exhibitsstudy of an area on Earth’s surface that exhibits
so...
Homogeneity of specific features
Functional linkages to a
central node
Geography Is All AboutGeography Is All About
Interconnections...Interconnections...
Earth’s 4 SpheresEarth’s 4 Spheres
Biosphere
Lithosphere
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
AtmosphereAtmosphere
LithosphereLithosphere
HydrosphereHydrosphere
The Lone Cypress
Pebble Beach, CA
Biosphere
So how can studying GeographySo how can studying Geography
help my child (and me) to thrivehelp my child (and me) to thriv...
6161
Interdisciplinary ConnectionsInterdisciplinary Connections
 Geography can foster the development ofGeography can fos...
6262
Geography prepares students…Geography prepares students…
 ……to be informed, active, engaged citizens in ato be infor...
6363
 Appreciates and celebrates the diversity ofAppreciates and celebrates the diversity of
cultures and environments fo...
6464
Geography students say:Geography students say:
““This...is a great way to open one’s eyes to the worldThis...is a gre...
The Mother of All Sciences: Geography As A Holistic Homeschool Framework
The Mother of All Sciences: Geography As A Holistic Homeschool Framework
The Mother of All Sciences: Geography As A Holistic Homeschool Framework
The Mother of All Sciences: Geography As A Holistic Homeschool Framework
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The Mother of All Sciences: Geography As A Holistic Homeschool Framework. Presented at the Homeschool Association of California (HSC) Adventures in Homeschooling Conference, Aug. 2, 2014.

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  • The Greeks named it, codified it, expanded its scope...but the real reason Western Geography follows in the Greeks footsteps is because their works survived and were translated into many different languages (esp. Latin) and disseminated around Europe, from which our national academic traditions came, by and large.
    Eratosthenes (276 BCE - 194 BCE)
    Strabo (c. 64 BCE to 24 CE) is most famous for his work Geographica ("Geography"), which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era.[3] Proposes an explanation of fossil shells on land: ‘It is not,' he says, 'because the lands covered by seas were originally at different altitudes, that the waters have risen, or subsided, or receded from some parts and inundated others. But the reason is, that the same land is sometimes raised up and sometimes depressed, and the sea also is simultaneously raised and depressed, so that it either overflows or returns into its own place again.’”
    Hipparchus (c. 190 – c. 120 BC) thoroughly and often unfairly criticized Eratosthenes mainly for internal contradictions and inaccuracy in determining positions of geographical localities. Hipparchus insists that a geographic map must be based only on astronomical measurements of latitudes and longitudes and triangulation for finding unknown distances. In geographic theory and methods Hipparchus introduced three main innovations.[34] He was the first to use the grade grid, to determine geographic latitude from star observations, and not only from the sun’s altitude, a method known long before him, and to suggest that geographic longitude could be determined by means of simultaneous observations of lunar eclipses in distant places. In the practical part of his work, the so-called "table of climata", Hipparchus listed latitudes for several tens of localities. In particular, he improved Eratosthenes' values for the latitudes of Athens, Sicily, and southern extremity of India.[35] In calculating latitudes of climata (latitudes correlated with the length of the longest solstitial day), Hipparchus used an unexpectedly accurate value for the obliquity of the ecliptic, 23°40′ (the actual value in the second half of the 2nd century BC was approximately 23°43′), whereas all other ancient authors knew only a roughly rounded value 24°, and even Ptolemy used a less accurate value, 23°51′.[36] Hipparchus opposed the view generally accepted in the Hellenistic period that the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and the Caspian Sea are parts of a single ocean. At the same time he extends the limits of the oikoumene, i.e. the inhabited part of the land, up to the equator and the Arctic Circle.[37] These Hipparchus’ ideas found their reflection in the Geography of Ptolemy. In essence, Ptolemy’s work is an extended attempt to realize Hipparchus’ vision of what geography ought to be.
  • Silk map showing the topographic features of the area covered by the Han dynasty state of Changsha and the kingdom of Nanyue, corresponding to parts of the modern provinces of Hunan, Guangdong and Guangxi. Found in 1973 in Tomb 3 of the Mawangdui Western Han tomb complex. Datable to circa 168 BC. Map was folded five times into 32 sections which later disintegrated along the folds into thirty-two sheets. Dimensions: 96 × 96 cm. Scale: approximately 1:18,000. Oriented with south to the top. See also Mawangdui Military Map.
    Song Dynasty Map, 1137
    The Yu Ji Tu, or Map of the Tracks of Yu Gong (Yu the Great), carved into stone in 1137, located in the Stele Forest of Xian. This 3 ft (0.91 m) squared map features a graduated scale of 100 li for each rectangular grid. China's coastline and river systems are clearly defined and precisely pinpointed on the map.
    The Chinese Yu Ji Tu (Map of the Tracks of Yu the Great), a map carved into stone in the year 1137 during the Song Dynasty, located in the Stele Forest of modern-day Xian, China. Yu the Great refers to the Chinese deity described in the Chinese geographical work of the Yu Gong, a chapter of the Classic of History. Needham and Chavannes assert that the original map must have predated the 12th century. The graduated scale of this gridded map is at 100 li (Chinese mile) squared for every representative square in the grid. The overall size of the map is 3 ft squared. The coastal outline is relatively firm and the precision of the network of river systems is incredibly accurate. The name of the geographers and cartographers who initially created the map are unknown. In the year 1142 a copy of the map was preserved at Zhenjiang in Jiangsu province by a certain Yu Chi, who was then a Prefectural Director of Studies. There is also mention of an earlier copy of about 1100 AD which itself was based on the Chang'an version. Needham asserts that the map was used primarily to instruct students while referring to sites described in the ancient Yu Gong chapter of the Classic of History. This image is taken from Joseph Needham's Science and Civilization in China: Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth, on the page PLATE LXXXI, as well as described on pages 547 to 549 (hardback copy).
  • The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.
    Tabula Rogeriana, 1154 - upside-down with north oriented up
    Al-Idrisi incorporated the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East gathered by Islamic merchants and explorers and recorded on Islamic maps with the information brought by the Norman voyagers to create the most accurate map of the world in pre-modern times,[4] which served as a concrete illustration of his Kitab nuzhat al-mushtaq, (Latin: Opus Geographicum), which may be translated A Diversion for the Man Longing to Travel to Far-Off Places.[5]
    The Tabula Rogeriana was drawn by Al-Idrisi in 1154 for the Norman King Roger II of Sicily, after a stay of eighteen years at his court, where he worked on the commentaries and illustrations of the map. The map, with legends written in Arabic, while showing the Eurasian continent in its entirety, only shows the northern part of the African continent and lacks details of the Horn of Africa and Southeast Asia.
    For Roger it was inscribed on a massive disc of solid silver, two metres in diameter.
    On the geographical work of al-Idrisi, S.P. Scott wrote in 1904:
    The compilation of Edrisi marks an era in the history of science. Not only is its historical information most interesting and valuable, but its descriptions of many parts of the earth are still authoritative. For three centuries geographers copied his maps without alteration. The relative position of the lakes which form the Nile, as delineated in his work, does not differ greatly from that established by Baker and Stanley more than seven hundred years afterwards, and their number is the same. The mechanical genius of the author was not inferior to his erudition. The celestial and terrestrial planisphere of silver which he constructed for his royal patron was nearly six feet in diameter, and weighed four hundred and fifty pounds; upon the one side the zodiac and the constellations, upon the other-divided for convenience into segments-the bodies of land and water, with the respective situations of the various countries, were engraved.[4]
    Al-Idrisi inspired Islamic geographers such as Ibn Battuta, Ibn Khaldun and Piri Reis. His map also inspired Christopher Columbus and Vasco Da Gama.
  • Physical geography is the study of Earth’s natural systems, their spatial distributions, and interactions. It is the study of the natural and human-induced processes that shape the surface of our planet. Subfields include geomorphology, climatology, hydrogeography, etc. Maintains connections with other physical sciences
    Biogeography is the study of the spatial distribution of plants and animals. Subfields include phytogeography, zoogeography, pedology (cross-over with physical geography), etc. Often considered a subfield of Physical Geography
    Human Geography is the study of how people use the land, how they perceive it and relate to it; the spatial variations between human groups. Subfields include: cultural geography, economic geography, urban geography, political geography, ethnic geography, geodemography, religious geography, geolinguistics, proxemics, etc. Maintains connections with all other social sciences
  • Geography is about the spatial patterning of phenomena--any phenomena--
    and the relationships of those phenomena to everything else, over time.
    If you’re studying everything, you need a jumping-off point. Reality is chaotic, multi-faceted, complex.
    How do you organize it all? How do you guide a child who wants to learn in such a soup of over-information?
  • Site: actual location, composed of physical characteristics of the landscape specific to the area: landforms (i.e. is the area protected by mountains or is there a natural harbor present?), climate, vegetation types, availability of water, soil quality, minerals, wildlife, etc.
    Situation: the location of a place relative to its surroundings and other places. Includes accessibility, the extent of connections with other places, proximity to raw materials if not located on site, etc.
  • Every artist sees a landscape in a different way. Each brings to the canvas a sense of the place they are trying to interpret.
  • -Filmmakers must also understand sense of place--every film has a setting. I like to think of film as VISUAL GEOGRAPHY.
    -Musicians can give you a sense of a place through sound and lyrics. Where is “Margaritaville”?
    -In creating ads, advertising agencies play on your sense of place to build an image, a feeling.
    Often these places are “imaginary”--based on real places, but not actually “real” at all.
  • -Filmmakers must also understand sense of place--every film has a setting. I like to think of film as VISUAL GEOGRAPHY.
    -Musicians can give you a sense of a place through sound and lyrics. Where is “Margaritaville”?
    -In creating ads, advertising agencies play on your sense of place to build an image, a feeling.
    Often these places are “imaginary”--based on real places, but not actually “real” at all.
  • The Mother of All Sciences: Geography As A Holistic Homeschool Framework

    1. 1. Geography: A Holistic Homeschool Framework Angela Orr
    2. 2. How did you get here, today?
    3. 3. How did you get here, today? CONGRATULATIONS! You just “did” Geography!
    4. 4. 44 ““I think it is a very interesting class andI think it is a very interesting class and relevant to our lives. I like that sherelevant to our lives. I like that she makes us take quizzes on the physicalmakes us take quizzes on the physical geography of the world and countrygeography of the world and country because those are things we should allbecause those are things we should all know, but don’t.”know, but don’t.”
    5. 5. 55 2006 Roper Survey2006 Roper Survey National Geographic SocietyNational Geographic Society  63% of Americans aged 18-24 cannot63% of Americans aged 18-24 cannot find Iraq or Saudi Arabia on a map offind Iraq or Saudi Arabia on a map of the Middle Eastthe Middle East •75% cannot find Iran or Israel75% cannot find Iran or Israel •44% cannot find even one of these four44% cannot find even one of these four countriescountries  Nine in ten (88%) cannot findNine in ten (88%) cannot find Afghanistan on a map of AsiaAfghanistan on a map of Asia
    6. 6. 66  54% do not know that Sudan is in Africa54% do not know that Sudan is in Africa • 20% place Sudan in Asia20% place Sudan in Asia • 10% put it in Europe10% put it in Europe  70% cannot find North Korea on a map70% cannot find North Korea on a map • 63% do not know its border with South Korea is63% do not know its border with South Korea is the most heavily fortified in the worldthe most heavily fortified in the world  69% can find China on a map69% can find China on a map • 18% know Mandarin Chinese is the most widely18% know Mandarin Chinese is the most widely spoken native language in the world; 74% say itspoken native language in the world; 74% say it is Englishis English  33% cannot find Louisiana on a U.S. map33% cannot find Louisiana on a U.S. map and 48% cannot find Mississippi; 50%and 48% cannot find Mississippi; 50% cannot find New York Statecannot find New York State
    7. 7. 77 One-third (34%) would go inOne-third (34%) would go in the wrong direction in thethe wrong direction in the event of an evacuationevent of an evacuation
    8. 8. 88 GeographyGeography It could just save your life.It could just save your life.
    9. 9. 99 What Does a Tidal WaveWhat Does a Tidal Wave Look Like?Look Like? Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada
    10. 10. 1010 TsunamiTsunami
    11. 11. Geography is holisticGeography is holistic ►Interested inInterested in interrelationshipsinterrelationships ►Informed by many otherInformed by many other sciencessciences  Geography is actually theGeography is actually the Mother of many other fieldsMother of many other fields of scienceof science
    12. 12. Honor Your Mother
    13. 13. What is Geography?What is Geography? You may think that Geography is all about:You may think that Geography is all about: ► MapsMaps
    14. 14. What is Geography?What is Geography? ►Where things are in the worldWhere things are in the world
    15. 15. What is Geography?What is Geography? ►The study of EarthThe study of Earth
    16. 16. What is Geography?What is Geography? ►Earth’s landformsEarth’s landforms
    17. 17. What is Geography?What is Geography? ►How humans and theHow humans and the environment interact with oneenvironment interact with one anotheranother
    18. 18. What is Geography?What is Geography? If you thought geography was about any ofIf you thought geography was about any of these, you arethese, you are correctcorrect.. Geography is about all of these things…Geography is about all of these things… ……AND MORE!!!AND MORE!!!
    19. 19. The most importantThe most important question inquestion in GeographyGeography isis:: Why is it there?
    20. 20. Where did “Geography” come from?Where did “Geography” come from? Geo- Greek “ge” = “Earth”Geo- Greek “ge” = “Earth” ((geoid, geology, geometry)geoid, geology, geometry) -graphy from Greek “graphe” = “writing” or “description” (Wait... “Graph”?)
    21. 21. Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers? The Greeks were notThe Greeks were not the first to “do”the first to “do” Geography…Geography… Mesopotamian land ownershipMesopotamian land ownership map on a clay tabletmap on a clay tablet
    22. 22. Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers? Ancient Egyptian gold mine map on papyrusAncient Egyptian gold mine map on papyrus
    23. 23. ►The GreeksThe Greeks Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers? Eratosthenes 276 - 194 BCE Strabo c. 64 BCE - c. 24 CE Hipparchus c. 190 - c. 120 BCE
    24. 24. Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers? ►China, Japan, and KoreaChina, Japan, and Korea Chinese map on silk, circa 168 BCE The Yu Ji Tu, China, stone, 1137 (copy of an even older map)
    25. 25. Who were the first Geographers?Who were the first Geographers? ►Muslim geographersMuslim geographers Tabula Rogeriana by Muhammad al-Idrisi, 1154
    26. 26. The Subdivisions of GeographyThe Subdivisions of Geography ►Geography can be divided into any number ofGeography can be divided into any number of subfields. The main divisions are:subfields. The main divisions are:  Physical GeographyPhysical Geography ►BiogeographyBiogeography  Human GeographyHuman Geography  Geoinformatics (Technical Geography)Geoinformatics (Technical Geography)
    27. 27. Physical GeographyPhysical Geography ►Physical geographyPhysical geography is the study of Earth’sis the study of Earth’s natural systems, their spatial distributions, andnatural systems, their spatial distributions, and interactions. It is the study of the natural andinteractions. It is the study of the natural and human-induced processes that shape thehuman-induced processes that shape the surface of our planet.surface of our planet.  Subfields include geomorphology, climatology,Subfields include geomorphology, climatology, hydrogeography, etc.hydrogeography, etc.  Maintains connections with other physical sciencesMaintains connections with other physical sciences
    28. 28. BiogeographyBiogeography ►The study of the spatial distribution of plantsThe study of the spatial distribution of plants and animals.and animals.  Subfields include phytogeography, zoogeography,Subfields include phytogeography, zoogeography, pedology (cross-over with physical geography), etc.pedology (cross-over with physical geography), etc.  Often considered a subfield of Physical GeographyOften considered a subfield of Physical Geography
    29. 29. ►The study of how people use the land, how theyThe study of how people use the land, how they perceive it and relate to it; the spatial variationsperceive it and relate to it; the spatial variations between human groupsbetween human groups  Subfields include: cultural geography, economicSubfields include: cultural geography, economic geography, urban geography, political geography,geography, urban geography, political geography, ethnic geography, geodemography, religiousethnic geography, geodemography, religious geography, geolinguistics, proxemics, etc.geography, geolinguistics, proxemics, etc.  Maintains connections with all other social sciencesMaintains connections with all other social sciences Human GeographyHuman Geography
    30. 30. Geoinformatics/Geoinformatics/ Technical GeographyTechnical Geography Technical GeographyTechnical Geography ►All of the technical specialties within the fieldAll of the technical specialties within the field which assist geographic studies.which assist geographic studies.  Cartography (GIS)Cartography (GIS)  Remote sensingRemote sensing  Statistical studiesStatistical studies  Maintains connections with information technologies,Maintains connections with information technologies, mathematics, computer sciences, etc.mathematics, computer sciences, etc.
    31. 31. The FundamentalsThe Fundamentals ► Every study of Geography incorporates oneEvery study of Geography incorporates one or more of the following 5 Fundamentalor more of the following 5 Fundamental Concepts in Geography:Concepts in Geography: 1.1. LocationLocation 2.2. PlacePlace 3.3. MovementMovement 4.4. Human-Environment InteractionsHuman-Environment Interactions 5.5. RegionRegion
    32. 32. The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography ►1.1. Location—Location—study ofstudy of wherewhere something is foundsomething is found in Earth spacein Earth space
    33. 33. ►2.2. PlacePlace—study of the—study of the site and situationsite and situation characteristics of a particular portion of spacecharacteristics of a particular portion of space The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography
    34. 34. The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography ►2.2. PlacePlace—study of the—study of the site and situationsite and situation characteristics of a particular portion of spacecharacteristics of a particular portion of space  ““Sense of Place” is an important geographicalSense of Place” is an important geographical conceptconcept
    35. 35. Sense of Place an artist’s interpretation
    36. 36. Sense of Place some “imaginary” places GLADIATOR film music JIMMY BUFFETT THE PERFECT VACATION advertising “MARGARITAVILLE” ?
    37. 37. Sense of Place some “imaginary” places GLADIATOR film music JIMMY BUFFETT “MARGARITAVILLE” (vs. REALITY!) ?
    38. 38. The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography ►3.3. MovementMovement—study of—study of thethe circulationcirculation ofof systems, objects,systems, objects, people, and ideas, andpeople, and ideas, and theirtheir distributiondistribution (spatial(spatial patterning) on Earth’spatterning) on Earth’s surfacesurface
    39. 39. The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography ►3.3. MovementMovement—study of—study of thethe circulationcirculation ofof systems, objects,systems, objects, people, and ideas, andpeople, and ideas, and theirtheir distributiondistribution (spatial(spatial patterning) on Earth’spatterning) on Earth’s surfacesurface
    40. 40. The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography ►3.3. MovementMovement—study of—study of thethe circulationcirculation ofof systems, objects,systems, objects, people, and ideas, andpeople, and ideas, and theirtheir distributiondistribution (spatial(spatial patterning) on Earth’spatterning) on Earth’s surfacesurface
    41. 41. The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography ►3.3. MovementMovement—study of—study of thethe circulationcirculation ofof systems, objects,systems, objects, people, and ideas, andpeople, and ideas, and theirtheir distributiondistribution (spatial(spatial patterning) on Earth’spatterning) on Earth’s surfacesurface
    42. 42. The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography ►4.4. Human-EarthHuman-Earth InteractionsInteractions—study of—study of how humans perceive,how humans perceive, use, and alter theuse, and alter the planet, and how theplanet, and how the environment affects andenvironment affects and changes humans, inchanges humans, in returnreturn
    43. 43. The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography ►4.4. Human-EarthHuman-Earth InteractionsInteractions—study of—study of how humans perceive,how humans perceive, use, and alter theuse, and alter the planet, and how theplanet, and how the environment affects andenvironment affects and changes humans, inchanges humans, in returnreturn
    44. 44. The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography The worst possible outcome of a poor understanding of human-environment interactions...
    45. 45. 4949 Environmental PerceptionEnvironmental Perception • GeomancyGeomancy—land-use planning based on—land-use planning based on auspicious factors of the environment (Example:auspicious factors of the environment (Example: feng shui)feng shui)
    46. 46. 5050 Putting feng shui into practice:Putting feng shui into practice: ““Water and RiversWater and Rivers are something that needs to beare something that needs to be considered very carefully by the Geomancer whenconsidered very carefully by the Geomancer when looking at a residence... If the river flows the wronglooking at a residence... If the river flows the wrong way it would be considered to be draining one'sway it would be considered to be draining one's wealth. Be very careful if thinking about buying awealth. Be very careful if thinking about buying a house near water!”house near water!”
    47. 47. 5151 Putting feng shui into practice:Putting feng shui into practice:
    48. 48. ►5.5. RegionRegion—— study of an area on Earth’s surface that exhibitsstudy of an area on Earth’s surface that exhibits some form of spatial cohesion reflected by asome form of spatial cohesion reflected by a homogeneityhomogeneity of specific features or functionalof specific features or functional linkages to a central nodelinkages to a central node (WHAAAA???)(WHAAAA???) Areas that look similar or work togetherAreas that look similar or work together The 5 Fundamental Spatial ConceptsThe 5 Fundamental Spatial Concepts of Geographyof Geography
    49. 49. Homogeneity of specific features Functional linkages to a central node
    50. 50. Geography Is All AboutGeography Is All About Interconnections...Interconnections...
    51. 51. Earth’s 4 SpheresEarth’s 4 Spheres Biosphere Lithosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere
    52. 52. AtmosphereAtmosphere
    53. 53. LithosphereLithosphere
    54. 54. HydrosphereHydrosphere
    55. 55. The Lone Cypress Pebble Beach, CA Biosphere
    56. 56. So how can studying GeographySo how can studying Geography help my child (and me) to thrivehelp my child (and me) to thrive academically?academically?
    57. 57. 6161 Interdisciplinary ConnectionsInterdisciplinary Connections  Geography can foster the development ofGeography can foster the development of stronger ties between subjects, reinforcingstronger ties between subjects, reinforcing learning on multiple levelslearning on multiple levels • Sociology, history, psychology, anthropology,Sociology, history, psychology, anthropology, economics, ethnic studies, humanities,economics, ethnic studies, humanities, philosophy, political science, urban planning, etc.philosophy, political science, urban planning, etc. • Geology, meteorology, physics, oceanography,Geology, meteorology, physics, oceanography, soil sciences, botany, biology, chemistry,soil sciences, botany, biology, chemistry, medicine, etc.medicine, etc.
    58. 58. 6262 Geography prepares students…Geography prepares students…  ……to be informed, active, engaged citizens in ato be informed, active, engaged citizens in a global societyglobal society  ……to be aware of the vital role they play in ourto be aware of the vital role they play in our changing natural world, the shaping of worldchanging natural world, the shaping of world events, and the global landscapeevents, and the global landscape  ……to make sense of world events,to make sense of world events, environments, cultures, conflicts, and diverseenvironments, cultures, conflicts, and diverse lifestyleslifestyles  Geography prepares them for life in anGeography prepares them for life in an increasingly global communityincreasingly global community
    59. 59. 6363  Appreciates and celebrates the diversity ofAppreciates and celebrates the diversity of cultures and environments found on Earthcultures and environments found on Earth  Critically analyzes differing world-views,Critically analyzes differing world-views, changing landscapeschanging landscapes  Looks at the world from multiple perspectivesLooks at the world from multiple perspectives in an unbiased and non-prejudicial wayin an unbiased and non-prejudicial way  Provides an inviting environment ofProvides an inviting environment of inclusiveness that is intellectually stimulatinginclusiveness that is intellectually stimulating  Encourages students to pursue life-longEncourages students to pursue life-long educational goals with innovation andeducational goals with innovation and creativity, to use skills and knowledge for thecreativity, to use skills and knowledge for the good of allgood of all Geography...Geography...
    60. 60. 6464 Geography students say:Geography students say: ““This...is a great way to open one’s eyes to the worldThis...is a great way to open one’s eyes to the world and gain an understanding to the issues that the worldand gain an understanding to the issues that the world faces now and in the future.”faces now and in the future.” ““The best part...is the exposure I get to differentThe best part...is the exposure I get to different cultures.”cultures.” ““[P]rovides an excellent framework for Social Science[P]rovides an excellent framework for Social Science students.”students.”

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