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GEOG 100--Lecture 09--Global Climates
 

GEOG 100--Lecture 09--Global Climates

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GEOG 100--Lecture 09--Global Climates GEOG 100--Lecture 09--Global Climates Presentation Transcript

  • Global Climates Chapter 7
  • Trivia of the Day
  • What is Climate?
  • What is Climate? Climate is the condition of the lower atmosphere in a particular region on Earth that is the average of at least 30 years worth of weather conditions in that place.
  • How is Climate Determined?
  • How is Climate Determined? Climatic elements considered when determining the climate of a region: • Temperature • Moisture
  • How is Climate Determined? Climatic elements considered when determining the climate of a region: • Temperature • Moisture  Precipitation, humidity, cloudiness, surface water, evaporation conditions • Related to temperature
  • How is Climate Determined? Climatic elements considered when determining the climate of a region: • Temperature • Moisture  Precipitation, humidity, cloudiness, surface water, evaporation conditions • Related to temperature • Vegetation and soil conditions
  • How is Climate Determined? Climatic elements considered when determining the climate of a region: • Temperature • Moisture  Precipitation, humidity, cloudiness, surface water, evaporation conditions • Related to temperature • Vegetation and soil conditions  May be used to determine climatic conditions where unclear
  • Additional Conditions Considered:
  • Additional Conditions Considered: • Air pressure, wind, air mass movements, and global atmospheric circulations are also considered  These are related to latitude, altitude, ocean circulation, topography, and spatial distribution of land and sea
  • Additional Conditions Considered: • Air pressure, wind, air mass movements, and global atmospheric circulations are also considered  These are related to latitude, altitude, ocean circulation, topography, and spatial distribution of land and seaAlso factored in:
  • Additional Conditions Considered: • Air pressure, wind, air mass movements, and global atmospheric circulations are also considered  These are related to latitude, altitude, ocean circulation, topography, and spatial distribution of land and seaAlso factored in: • Extreme weather conditions (flooding, drought, hurricanes, tornadoes, etc.)
  • Why do we care? Climate and vegetation influence animal habitats Climate, vegetation, and animals together provide usable resources for humans These conditions influence (but do not ultimately determine) the manner in which people may inhabit a region
  • Aristotle and Climate Classification
  • Aristotle and Climate ClassificationWhat about the Incas/Mayas/Aztecs? What about Murmansk, Russia?
  • Köppen-GeigerClimate Classification (1900-1940)
  • Köppen-GeigerClimate Classification (1900-1940)
  • Köppen-GeigerClimate Classification (1900-1940)
  • (Köppen only had five original categories—the Highland classificationwas added later)
  • Characteristics of the Major Climate GroupsA Tropical Humid—Avg. temp. of each month is > 64ºF (18ºC)B Dry—Evaporation exceeds precipitationC Mild Mid-Latitude—Average temperature of the coldest month is between 27ºF (-3ºC) and 64ºF (18ºC) Average temp. of the warmest month is > 50ºF (10ºC)D Severe Mid-Latitude—The warmest month is > 50ºF (10ºC) The coldest month is < 27ºF (-3ºC)E Polar—No month has an average temp. > 50ºF (10ºC)
  • 24 Subclassifications of the Climate Groupsf No dry season [German feucht, or “moist”]m Monsoon; a short dry season is opposed by heavy rains in other monthsw Winter dry season (low-sun season)a Hot summersb Warm summersc Cool summersd Very cold wintersW Desert [German wüste, or “desert”]S Steppe (semiarid)h Low-latitude (subtropical) dry climate [German heiss, or “hot”]k Midlatitude dry climate [German kalt, or “cold”]s Summer dry season (high-sun season)T Tundra climatesF Ice cap climates (frost)
  • The Modified KöppenClassification System
  • Would you want to live here? This place exhibits a Csb climate The C = mild midlatitudes • temperatures above 50ºF (10ºC) in summer • winters are short and mild, with little frost The s = summer dry season (winter precipitation) The b = warm summer • warmest summer months below 72°F (22°C)
  • Would you want to live here? This place exhibits a Csb climate The C = mild midlatitudes • temperatures above 50ºF (10ºC) in summer • winters are short and mild, with little frost The s = summer dry season (winter precipitation) The b = warm summer • warmest summer months below 72°F (22°C)Welcome to the lovely Mediterranean climate ofSanta Barbara, California!
  • Modified Köppen Climate Map
  • Climograph Climate classificationTemperature LocationPrecipitation
  • A Climates—In Brief
  • A Climates: Tropical Humid Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Monsoon Tropical SavannaAvg. temperature of eachmonth exceeds 64ºF (18ºC)
  • Typical Daily Precipitation forTropical Rain Forest (Af) Climates
  • Tropical Monsoon (Am) and Tropical Savanna (Aw)
  • B Climates—In Brief
  • B Climates: Dry Subtropical Desert Midlatitude Desert Subtropical Steppe Midlatitude SteppeEvaporation exceeds precipitation
  • Influence of the Subtropical Highs on Dry (B) Climates
  • The Atacama Desert: A Double Whammy of Ocean Currents andTopography
  • BSh—Subtropical (hot) Steppe (semi-arid)
  • BSk—Midlatitude (cold) Steppe (semi-arid)
  • BWh—Subtropical (hot) Desert
  • BWk—Midlatitude (cold) Desert
  • The Four Dry Climate TypesSubtropical Subtropical Midlatitude Midlatitude(hot) Desert (hot) Steppe (cold) Desert (cold) Steppe
  • C Climates—In Brief
  • C Climates: Mild Midlatitude Humid Subtropical—no dry season, hot summer Humid Subtropical—dry winter, hot summer Humid Subtropical—dry winter, warm summer Marine West Coast—no dry season, warm summer Marine West Coast—no dry season, cool summer Mediterranean—dry, hot summer Mediterranean—dry, warm summerAvg. temp. of coldest month between 27ºF (-3ºC) and 64ºF (18ºC)Avg. temp. of warmest month > 50ºF (10ºC)
  • C Climates: Mild MidlatitudeAvg. temp. of coldest month between 27ºF (-3ºC) and 64ºF (18ºC)Avg. temp. of warmest month > 50ºF (10ºC)
  • Csb—Mediterranean(dry, warm summer)
  • Csa—Mediterranean (dry, hot summer)
  • C-climates
  • Cfa—Humid Subtropical
  • Cfc—Marine West Coast
  • D Climates: In Brief
  • D—Severe Midlatitude Climates Humid Continental (hot or warm summers) Subarctic (cool summers or very cold winters)
  • D—Humid Continental
  • Winter In A Humid Continental Climate
  • D—Subarctic
  • Summer in Subarctic Climate Zone:Taiga (Eurasia)/Boreal Forest (Canada)
  • E—Polar Climates Polar—tundra Polar—ice cap
  • E Climates—Tundra
  • Tundra: Lowland and Alpine
  • E Climates—Ice Sheet/Ice Cap
  • Ice Cap—The Arctic
  • Ice Sheet—The Antarctic
  • H—Highland Climates
  • Highland Climates
  • Global Climate Change Please watch the following videos: Al Gore: New thinking on the climate crisis: http://www.ted.com/talks/ al_gore_s_new_thinking_on_the_climate_crisis.ht ml Al Gore warns on latest climate trends (2009): http://www.ted.com/talks/ al_gore_warns_on_latest_climate_trends.html 52