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GEOG 100 Lecture 08--Airmasses and Storms
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GEOG 100 Lecture 08--Airmasses and Storms

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Air Masses, Stormsand other scary stuff
    • 2. What Is An Air Mass?
    • 3. What Is An Air Mass? A large parcel of air with characteristics which distinguish it from surrounding air
    • 4. What Is An Air Mass? A large parcel of air with characteristics which distinguish it from surrounding air 1000 mi (1600 km) across, several miles deep
    • 5. What Is An Air Mass? A large parcel of air with characteristics which distinguish it from surrounding air 1000 mi (1600 km) across, several miles deep Conditions of temp., humidity, stability consistent horizontally at any altitude
    • 6. What Is An Air Mass? A large parcel of air with characteristics which distinguish it from surrounding air 1000 mi (1600 km) across, several miles deep Conditions of temp., humidity, stability consistent horizontally at any altitude Moves as a coherent whole, not easily torn apart by local turbulence
    • 7. What Is An Air Mass? A large parcel of air with characteristics which distinguish it from surrounding air 1000 mi (1600 km) across, several miles deep Conditions of temp., humidity, stability consistent horizontally at any altitude Moves as a coherent whole, not easily torn apart by local turbulence Sourceregion: Where an air mass originates
    • 8. Source Regions
    • 9. Source Regions Extensive, physically uniform surface area
    • 10. Source Regions Extensive, physically uniform surface area High or low latitude
    • 11. Source Regions Extensive, physically uniform surface area High or low latitude Not found in the midlatitudes (too much atmospheric activity)
    • 12. Source Regions Extensive, physically uniform surface area High or low latitude Not found in the midlatitudes (too much atmospheric activity) High pressure zones are common source regions (because air sinks, stays close to the ground, where it picks up surface characteristics)
    • 13. Lake-effect snow:cP air crossing warmer water 5
    • 14. Lake-effect snow:cP air crossing warmer water Areas commonly affected around the Great Lakes 5
    • 15. Lake-effect snow:cP air crossing warmer water Areas commonly affected around the Great Lakes Buffalo, NY (Dec., 2001)--Nearly seven feet of lake effect snow fell in 5 days 5
    • 16. Air Mass Classification
    • 17. Air Mass Classification Latitude A = arctic/antarctic P = polar T = tropical E = equatorial
    • 18. Air Mass Classification Latitude A = arctic/antarctic P = polar T = tropical E = equatorial Surface Conditions m = maritime c = continental
    • 19. Major Air Mass Source Regions
    • 20. Major Air Mass Source Regions (c)A
    • 21. Major Air Mass Source Regions (c)A mP
    • 22. Major Air Mass Source Regions (c)A mP cP
    • 23. Major Air Mass Source Regions (c)A mP cP mT
    • 24. Major Air Mass Source Regions (c)A mP cP mT cT
    • 25. Major Air Mass Source Regions (c)A mP cP mT cT (m)E
    • 26. Air Masses of North America
    • 27. So what happens when these air masses meet???
    • 28. So what happens when these air masses meet??? They start frontin’.
    • 29. Frontal lifting
    • 30. Movement of a Warm Front
    • 31. Warm Front: Development
    • 32. Movement of a Cold Front
    • 33. Cold Front: Development
    • 34. Comparison: Note the shapeof the frontal boundary
    • 35. Stationary Front
    • 36. Occluded Front
    • 37. Fronts on a Weather Map
    • 38. Putting it together:Note line A – A’
    • 39. A cross section along line A – A’ (fromthe map on the previous slide)
    • 40. Real-World Application:An Atlantic Storm
    • 41. Life-cycle of a Midlatitude Cyclone
    • 42. A Hypothetical Weather Map(note the alternating Highs and Lows…)
    • 43. How do theUpper-level Winds Move?
    • 44. Major Midlatitude Disturbances Midlatitudes are the most dynamic weather region Where polar and tropical air masses meet and mix Midlatitude cyclones (a.k.a. depressions, lows, wave cyclones) Large low pressure systems (1000+ miles across) moving from west to east in the region of the Westerlies (35º to 70º N and S latitude)
    • 45. Characteristic weather changes withthe passage of a cold front:
    • 46. Characteristic weather changes withthe passage of a cold front: Sharp temp. drop as the front approaches
    • 47. Characteristic weather changes withthe passage of a cold front: Sharp temp. drop as the front approaches As the front approaches, wind direction is southerly
    • 48. Characteristic weather changes withthe passage of a cold front: Sharp temp. drop as the front approaches As the front approaches, wind direction is southerly After the front passes, wind shifts to more northerly (opposite for the Southern Hemisphere)
    • 49. Characteristic weather changes withthe passage of a cold front: Sharp temp. drop as the front approaches As the front approaches, wind direction is southerly After the front passes, wind shifts to more northerly (opposite for the Southern Hemisphere) Air pressure drops as the front approaches, rises after it passes
    • 50. Characteristic weather changes withthe passage of a cold front: Sharp temp. drop as the front approaches As the front approaches, wind direction is southerly After the front passes, wind shifts to more northerly (opposite for the Southern Hemisphere) Air pressure drops as the front approaches, rises after it passes Clear skies, followed by clouds and precip. along the edge of the front, then colder with clear skies again as the front passes
    • 51. Mapping it out:
    • 52. Midlatitude Anticyclones High pressure systems moving west to east No fronts Subsidence Clear, dry weather Cold in winter May stagnate, stalling other weather systems behind them
    • 53. Now on to the fun stuff!
    • 54. Lightning
    • 55. Lightning
    • 56. Lightning
    • 57. Thunder
    • 58. Tornadoes
    • 59. Tornado formation
    • 60. 35
    • 61. 36
    • 62. Tropical Disturbances Tropical Depression - winds up to 38 mph Tropical Storm - winds 39 - 73 mph Hurricane - winds 74+ mph
    • 63. HurricanesFour different namesfor the same event: Hurricane Typhoon Cyclones, tropical cyclones Baguios
    • 64. HurricanesFour different namesfor the same event: Hurricane Typhoon Cyclones, tropical cyclones Baguios
    • 65. Hurricane Origins
    • 66. Hurricane Origins Form in tropical and subtropical zones approx. 8° to 15° N or S latitude
    • 67. Hurricane Origins Form in tropical and subtropical zones approx. 8° to 15° N or S latitude Rarely form within 3° N or S of equator (no Coriolis force), rarely cross it
    • 68. Hurricane Origins Form in tropical and subtropical zones approx. 8° to 15° N or S latitude Rarely form within 3° N or S of equator (no Coriolis force), rarely cross it Tend to form in or just poleward of the ITCZ
    • 69. Hurricane Origins Form in tropical and subtropical zones approx. 8° to 15° N or S latitude Rarely form within 3° N or S of equator (no Coriolis force), rarely cross it Tend to form in or just poleward of the ITCZ Tend to form in late summer and fall (warmest sea sfc. temps.)
    • 70. Hurricane Origins Form in tropical and subtropical zones approx. 8° to 15° N or S latitude Rarely form within 3° N or S of equator (no Coriolis force), rarely cross it Tend to form in or just poleward of the ITCZ Tend to form in late summer and fall (warmest sea sfc. temps.) Storm’s low pressure cell feeds off warm sea sfc. temps. (up to 81°F!)
    • 71. Hurricane Origins Form in tropical and subtropical zones approx. 8° to 15° N or S latitude Rarely form within 3° N or S of equator (no Coriolis force), rarely cross it Tend to form in or just poleward of the ITCZ Tend to form in late summer and fall (warmest sea sfc. temps.) Storm’s low pressure cell feeds off warm sea sfc. temps. (up to 81°F!) Gains energy from release of latent heat of condensation during intense precipitation
    • 72. Hurricane Origins Form in tropical and subtropical zones approx. 8° to 15° N or S latitude Rarely form within 3° N or S of equator (no Coriolis force), rarely cross it Tend to form in or just poleward of the ITCZ Tend to form in late summer and fall (warmest sea sfc. temps.) Storm’s low pressure cell feeds off warm sea sfc. temps. (up to 81°F!) Gains energy from release of latent heat of condensation during intense precipitation Always form over oceans
    • 73. Hurricane Origins Form in tropical and subtropical zones approx. 8° to 15° N or S latitude Rarely form within 3° N or S of equator (no Coriolis force), rarely cross it Tend to form in or just poleward of the ITCZ Tend to form in late summer and fall (warmest sea sfc. temps.) Storm’s low pressure cell feeds off warm sea sfc. temps. (up to 81°F!) Gains energy from release of latent heat of condensation during intense precipitation Always form over oceans Do not / rarely form in the south Atlantic or southeast Pacific because the water is too cold and air pressure too high
    • 74. Hurricane Origins Form in tropical and subtropical zones approx. 8° to 15° N or S latitude Rarely form within 3° N or S of equator (no Coriolis force), rarely cross it Tend to form in or just poleward of the ITCZ Tend to form in late summer and fall (warmest sea sfc. temps.) Storm’s low pressure cell feeds off warm sea sfc. temps. (up to 81°F!) Gains energy from release of latent heat of condensation during intense precipitation Always form over oceans Do not / rarely form in the south Atlantic or southeast Pacific because the water is too cold and air pressure too high Storm intensity lessens as it gains latitude (into cooler waters) or moves over land
    • 75. Hurricanes
    • 76. Hurricane Tracking
    • 77. Pressure Signature of a Hurricane
    • 78. Hurricane Structure
    • 79. Hurricane Katrina making landfall
    • 80. Storm Surge