Teaching Nonfiction Reading Strategies

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Student’s ability to navigate and understand expository text is fundamental to their academic and real world success. This session will provide classroom-ready strategies that help students cope with the challenges and complexities of nonfiction genre, texts, and formats ensuring all students become confident and competent readers of information in every content area.

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  • Teaching Nonfiction Reading Strategies

    1. 1. Teaching for Understanding in Nonfiction
    2. 2. N on F iction… the Good the Bad the Ugly
    3. 3. ©Angela Maiers, 2007 The G ood
    4. 4. ©Angela Maiers, 2007   Girls, Too !!!!
    5. 5. ©Angela Maiers, 2007 The Bad
    6. 6. The Ugly
    7. 7. <ul><li>73% 3F/P levels below fiction </li></ul><ul><li>15% 3 GRADE LEVELS below fiction </li></ul><ul><li>6% Struggled with decoding </li></ul><ul><li>(Boys = Girls) </li></ul><ul><li>Stead, 2007 </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>ALL EXPRESS AND IMPLIED WARRANTIES FOR THE PRODUCT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE LIMITED IN TIME TO THE TERM OF THE LIMITED WARRANTY PERIOD REFLECTED ON YOUR PACKING SLIP OR INVOICE. NO WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WILL APPLY AFTER THE LIMITED WARRANTY PERIOD HAS EXPIRED. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON HOW LONG AN IMPLIED WARRANTY LASTS, SO THIS LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. WE DO NOT ACCEPT LIABILITY BEYOND THE REMEDIES PROVIDED FOR IN THIS LIMITED WARRANTY OR FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY LIABILITY FOR THIRD-PARTY CLAIMS AGAINST YOU FOR DAMAGES, FOR PRODUCTS NOT BEING AVAILABLE FOR USE, OR FOR LOST DATA OR LOST SOFTWARE. OUR LIABILITY WILL BE NO MORE THAN THE AMOUNT YOU PAID FOR THE PRODUCT THAT IS THE SUBJECT OF A CLAIM. THIS IS THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT FOR WHICH WE ARE RESPONSIBLE. </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2007 ?
    9. 9. We can sooo change that!
    10. 10. © Maiers, 2008
    11. 11. Thinking about Fiction
    12. 12. “ Life” Story “ Book” Story (THEME) Fiction = Stories of Life
    13. 13. The Orange
    14. 14. BIG IDEA (Whole text) Main Idea ( Section Level)
    15. 15. M ain Idea vs . B ig Idea
    16. 16. ©Maiers, 2008
    17. 17. ©Angela Maiers, 2007
    18. 18. ©Maiers, 2008
    19. 19. ©Maiers, 2008
    20. 20. ©Maiers, 2008
    21. 21. BIG IDEAS in Nonfiction
    22. 22. <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Intention </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Craft </li></ul>
    23. 23. ©Angela Maiers, 2006 Bears 1. 2.
    24. 24. P E N G U I N F R A N L A N T I N G
    25. 33. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    26. 34. ©Angela Maiers, 2006 Convention Purpose How it Helps Caption Information directly relating to a photo or illustration Tells the reader what to focus on in the picture that is important Comparison Show size relationship between two or more objects of ideas Helps the readers take something familiar to show how it relates or compares with something new Close-Up A smaller more detailed section of the larger photo or illustration It allows the reader to see inside or a smaller part of a large area so we can understand it in a more detailed way Table of Contents Located in the front of the book to share a list of key topics or chapter in which the book addresses in the order in which they appear in the text It allows me to see the chapters and topics and know exactly what pages they are on so I can get to the information I need in the quickest way. Glossary Index Cutaways Print Size
    27. 35. Captions Labels Graphics Images Font Color Layout TOC Glossary Headings
    28. 38. Reading “Blindly” <ul><li>The icy ghost appeared to him from out of the dark as he surveyed from his position atop the graceful lady of steal. “Yet eyes deceive, Captain Smith thought and failed to stop her momentum. Moments later the festive celebration of the two thousand was smashed to bits. Carpathia, 58 miles away, caught the SOS and race to the rescue of the fortunate seven hundred and five, one of whom remarked, years later, when turned her deck away from us as though to hide from our sight the awful spectacle.” </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2006
    29. 39. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    30. 40. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    31. 41. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    32. 42. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    33. 43. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    34. 44. Steve Moline’s Website <ul><li>K-8visual.info./ </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2006
    35. 45. <ul><li>Home | What is visual literacy? | Examples of visual texts | Using visual literacy | Assessing visual literacy | Books for children | Books for teachers | Free materials for teachers | Seminars & workshops | About us | Contact us | Copyright | </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of visual texts   </li></ul><ul><li>View an example of: </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram with cutaways <NEW> </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaway diagram with detail    </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram with color coding </li></ul><ul><li>Exploded diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Flow charts </li></ul><ul><li>Special: What are maps for?    </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Table </li></ul><ul><li>Tree diagram   </li></ul><ul><li>We usually add a new Visual Literacy Example to this page each month. </li></ul><ul><li>Other examples of visual texts on this site: </li></ul><ul><li>Bar graph or &quot;bar chart&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Cartogram </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Chart&quot; (see table or graph) </li></ul><ul><li>Column graph </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Concept map &quot; (see web) </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2006
    36. 46. Visual Text: Cross Section ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    37. 47. Text Structures Following the Road to Meaning
    38. 48. <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Compare/Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Chronology/Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Question/Answer </li></ul><ul><li>Problem/Solution </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2006
    39. 49. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    40. 50. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    41. 51. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    42. 52. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    43. 53. <ul><li>The fire was started by sparks from a campfire left by a careless camper. Thousands of acres of important watershed burned before the fire was brought under control. As a result of the fire, trees and the grasslands on the </li></ul><ul><li>slopes of the valley were gone. Smoking black stumps were all that remained of </li></ul><ul><li>tall pine trees. </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2006
    44. 54. Words for Comparison-4 th Grade Holt Mathematics Text <ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Same </li></ul><ul><li>compare </li></ul><ul><li>Alike </li></ul><ul><li>Match </li></ul><ul><li>Equal </li></ul><ul><li>Together </li></ul><ul><li>Similar </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent </li></ul><ul><li>Synonym </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Even </li></ul><ul><li>Regular </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2006 Difference Different Contrast Not Alike Mismatch Does not Match Unequal Separate Opposite Dissimilar Antonym Contrastable Inequality Uneven Irregular
    45. 55. Signal Words Point the Way… © Maiers, 2008 Text Structure & Signal Words Description/ Hierarchical List Cause & Effect Compare / Contrast Problem/ Solution Question & Answer Sequence For instance For example Furthermore Such as Also To begin with Most important Also In fact In addition And to illustrate Since Because This led to On account of Due to As a result of For this reason Consequentially Then…so… Therefore thus In like manner Likewise Similar to The difference between As opposed to After all However And yet But Nevertheless On the other hand One reason for the… A solution A problem Where The question is One answer is Recommendations include How When What Next Why Who How many The best estimate It could be that One may conclude Until Before After Finally Lastly First…last… Now…then On (date) At (time) First, second Meanwhile Not long after initially ©Maiers, 2008
    46. 56. Text-Wiseness <ul><li>Teaching students how to </li></ul><ul><li>recognize and represent the </li></ul><ul><li>organizational patterns commonly </li></ul><ul><li>used by authors can significantly </li></ul><ul><li>influence students’ learning and </li></ul><ul><li>comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Palinstar, Ogle, Carr, 97 </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2006
    47. 57. ©Maiers, 2008 Grades 2-4 Grades 4-8
    48. 58. BIG IDEAS in Nonfiction
    49. 59. ©Angela Maiers, 2006 THE WRITERS’ BLUEPRINT VISION: THE BIG IDEA Nonfiction Text Organization <ul><li>Text Features </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fonts and Effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text organizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations and Photographs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Text Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare/contrast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause & effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem/solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question & answer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 60. ©Angela Maiers, 2006 Big Idea: <ul><li>Author’s Purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the author write about this topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What did they want to accomplish? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think that? </li></ul><ul><li>Organization/Text Features </li></ul><ul><li>After previewing the text, what features did the </li></ul><ul><li>author emphasize and why? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the text organized? </li></ul><ul><li>How does these support the author’s goal? </li></ul><ul><li>Text Critic Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Did the author make their point clearly? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree/disagree? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the author’s opinion about the topic evident? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you detect bias in the tone or language used? </li></ul>
    51. 65. Content Specific Strategies <ul><li>Careful reading or skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the text through the index </li></ul><ul><li>Using heading ,captions, pictures,… </li></ul><ul><li>Determining what to read, order of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Noting organizational pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Deterring what to pay attention to </li></ul><ul><li>Determining what to ignore </li></ul><ul><li>What information fits with schema, what is new: how to sort it </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2006
    52. 66. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    53. 67. ©Angela Maiers, 2006
    54. 68. Content Bibliography <ul><li>I See What You Mean by Steve Moline </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfiction in the Primary Years by Nell Duke </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Non-Fiction 2-4 and 4-8 Scholastic Prof. Books </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfiction Matters by Stephanie Harvey </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfiction in Focus by Kristo and Bamford </li></ul><ul><li>Text Forms and Features by Margaret Mooney </li></ul><ul><li>Make It Real by Linda Hoyt </li></ul><ul><li>Informational Text by Margaret Mooney and Linda Hoyt </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing in Multiple Genre by Byers </li></ul><ul><li>Picture Story Books to Teach Literary Devices by Susan Hill </li></ul>©Angela Maiers, 2006

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