Critical Literacy
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Critical Literacy

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Teaching students to analyze, evaluate, and take a critical stance and readers and information consumers is not easy feat. These lessons are designed to help facilitate these conversations.

Teaching students to analyze, evaluate, and take a critical stance and readers and information consumers is not easy feat. These lessons are designed to help facilitate these conversations.

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  • Thank you so much for posting this powerpoint. Even though I teach ninth graders, this will be extremely helpful. It aligns with the National Standards nicely!
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  • This is great stuff! Our school has been focusing on writing the past school year and the year to come will be even greater. As the media specialist I can use this info to help teach and promote writng/reading.
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Critical Literacy Critical Literacy Presentation Transcript

  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 Critically Literate Angela Maiers,2008 angelamaiers.com
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 Code Breaker Text User Meaning Maker Text Critic 21 st Century Reading Proficiency
    • Ultimately, the product that any writer has to sell is not the subject being written about, but who he or she is. This is the personal transaction that is at the heart of great reading and great writing.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008 From: Writing Well: The Classic Guide to Powerful Writing By William Inset, pp.5-6
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 Do YOU believe?
    • Say Hello to
    • Dalton Sherman
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • NAEP Content Area Findings 2005
    • “ High school seniors demonstrated consistently low performance across content areas when asked to move beyond literal level interpretations. Fewer than 10 percent appear to have a deep understanding of specialized material in which they are required to, evaluate, interpret, integrate, infer, analyze, generalize, and articulate conclusions from.”
    • Accelerating Academic Achievement: A Summary of Findings from 20 years of NAEP , The National Assessment of Educational Progress, p.6.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Why does critical reading matter?
    • The author’s purpose for writing is…
    • The tone of this passage is?
    • The writer believes that…
    • Why did the author probably write this passage?
    • Which sentence helps convey the mood of the text?
    • Read the passage, which passage best describes the author’s purpose ?
    • Which writer is most qualified to say . . .
    • The author thinks that . . .
    • The author is believable because…
    • The following assumptions about the author suggest…
    • The author uses sarcasm to….
    • The tone of this poem can best be described as…?
    • Why might the author recommend . . .
    • The purpose of this is to…?
    • What is this paragraph suggest that the authors’ believes that…?
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • 2 Goals:
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008 What is critical literacy? How do we teach it?
  • Clearing Things Up!
    • Authors Purpose : To inform
    • (Reason for Writing) To Instruct
    • To entertain
    • To persuade
    Decided By… Features Structures Organization Author’s View Point/Pt of View Position, attitude, beliefs about The topic they are writing about Text Form Tone Opinions Background/Bias Style Words Choose Perspective Author’s Credibility/Craft Identified By… Validity Objectivity Relevancy Types of Support 1. Topic of Writing : (What or Who Am I Writing About) 2. Audience (Who Do I want to Say Something To?) ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • POP QUIZ: CRITICAL READING
    • What is the author’s purpose for writing nonfiction? Describe three of those purposes.
    • How is an authors point of view different in fiction texts than in nonfiction texts?
    • Name three ways a reader can determine the writers attitude or view of the topic he/she is writing about?
    • What is difference between tone and mood?
    • Does bias exist in all nonfiction text ? Explain
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • Getting Started…
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • READ/THINK LIKE A WRITER!!!
    • What do I know about, care about, or have researched enough about to write down? (TOPIC)
    • What is my goal in writing this information down? What do I want to accomplish by writing this information down? (PURPOSE)
    • Who would benefit from knowing these facts? (AUDIENCE)
    • What would be the best way to share this information with my readers? (FORMAT)
    • How should I organize the information so the reader can easily read and understand it? (STRUCTURE/ORGANIZATION)
    • What can I do hook readers’ attention? (FEATURES/STYLE)
    • How do I know this is my very best writing? (CRAFT/CREDIBILITY )
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 WE MUST Get Them To Think About the Writer!
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 Critical Literacy
    • Author purpose
    • Author intention
    • Author motivation
    • Author viewpoint
    • Author point of view
    • Author bias
    • Analysis of author credibility
    • Validity of author’s writing
    • Adequacy of a author’s writing
    • Relevance of author’s writing
    • Tools of craft used by author to affect thinking
    • Making overall judgments and inference about author’s work
  • Clearing Things Up!
    • Authors Purpose : To inform
    • (Reason for Writing) To Instruct
    • To entertain
    • To persuade
    Decided By… Features Structures Organization Author’s View Point/Pt of View Position, attitude, beliefs about The topic they are writing about Text Form Tone Opinions Background/Bias Style Words Choose Perspective Author’s Credibility/Craft Identified By… Validity Objectivity Relevancy Types of Support 1. Topic of Writing : (What or Who Am I Writing About) 2. Audience (Who Do I want to Say Something To?) ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • ALL Writers Write About…
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • Things they KNOW about
    • Things they CARE about
    • Things they WONDER about
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 Writing as CONSTUCTION
  • How do Writers Construct Big Ideas ©Angela Maiers, 2008 Text Features Language/Words Visuals Text Structures
  • Thinking Aloud: Writers Write for Readers
    • As you go to write today and over the next few days, I want you to try very hard to keep me in mind. I am your audience, so it is important that I understand your message while I am reading your writing. You must remember that I am at home, just dying to learn about what you want to say. I am hoping that your writing has given me what I need to understand your message. Be sure to use what you know about great writers and the tools that they use. I am taking your writing home over the weekend and I can not wait to hear what you have to save and teach me about your topics. Take your time and PLAN CAREFULLY!!
    • Love,
    • Mrs. Maiers
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 SARA
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 JAKE
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 First, put on your super hero shirt.
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 Finally, secure your belt.
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 What: Who: Why: My message is: Big Idea 1. 2. 3. 4.
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 INSTRUCTABLES
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 Reading as DE-CONSTUCTION
  • Encouraging the Relationship
    • Introduce Students to Writers
    • Talk About Writers using NAME
    • Domain Consistency:
    • Writers of History, Writers of Mathematics
    • Bridge Text: Magic Tree House, Parrot Books
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Talking to the Author
    • Name ______________________________________________ Date ___________
    • (+ for always, for sometimes, - for not yet)
    • I, the reader:
    • ___ notice/comment on the way a text is organized or the way in which information is
    • withheld and presented
    • ___ notice/comment on the words and vocabulary used
    • ___ notice/comment on the style of the author
    • ___ notice and identify conventions/textual codes used by the author
    • ___ notice and comment on how conventions and constructions are used to make the
    • author’s point
    • ___ evaluate the way the text is written
    • ___ indicate some conception of the author, what kind of purpose he/she has in writing this
    • text, what kind of person they might be, and so on
    • ___ consider the author’s meaning, the point being made through the text
    • ___ indicate agreement, adaptation to, or argument with the author’s meaning
    • ___ indicate reason for agreement or disagreement
    • ___ indicate ways in which story meaning may inform my own thinking and action
    • Which of these moves did you make in your latest text? Give examples.
    • Which ones did you not try but think you might like to try with your next reading?
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 THE WRITERS’ BLUEPRINT VISION: THE BIG IDEA Nonfiction Text Organization
    • Text Features
        • Fonts and Effects
        • Graphics
        • Text organizers
        • Illustrations and Photographs
    • Text Structures
        • Description
        • Compare/contrast
        • Cause & effect
        • Problem/solution
        • Question & answer
        • Sequence
  • Nonfiction Text Structures
    • Description
    • Compare/Contrast
    • Cause and Effect
    • Chronology/Sequence
    • Procedural
    • Persuasive
    • Question/Answer
    • Problem/Solution
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Physical Text Features
    • Text organizers
    • Index
    • Preface
    • Table of contents
    • Glossary
    • Appendix
    • Bibliography
    • Footnote
    • Photo Credit
    • Fonts and effects
    • Titles
    • Headings
    • Subheadings
    • Boldface print
    • Italics
    • Bullets
    • Captions
    • Color, Size
    • Labels
    • Font Style
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • Illustrations and Photographs
    • Illustrations Icons
    • Photographs Visual Layout
    • Graphics
    • Diagrams
    • Cutaways
    • Cross sections
    • Overlays
    • Tables
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Word bubbles
    • Timelines
    • Distribution
    • Maps
    • Flow Charts
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008 tail mouth
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Final Step: Explicit Instruction
    • Author purpose
    • Author intention
    • Author motivation
    • Author viewpoint
    • Author point of view
    • Author bias
    • Analysis of author credibility
    • Validity of author’s writing
    • Adequacy of a author’s writing
    • Relevance of author’s writing
    • Tools of craft used by author to affect thinking
    • Making overall judgments and inference about author’s work
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • POP QUIZ: CRITICAL READING
    • What is the author’s purpose for writing nonfiction? Describe three of those purposes.
    • How is an authors point of view different in fiction texts than in nonfiction texts?
    • Name three ways a reader can determine the writers attitude or view of the topic he/she is writing about?
    • What is difference between tone and mood?
    • Does bias exist in all nonfiction text ? Explain
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • Authors Purpose Lessons
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Purpose: The Reason for Writing
    • Authors purpose is defined as the reason authors write. Authors write for different purposes.
    • To Entertain
    • To Persuade
    • To Inform
    • To Explain
    • The author's purpose ( the reason for their writing) affects what he writes.  It's important for readers to recognize purpose.
    •  
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • AUTHOR PURPOSE
    • The  giant panda is a bear-like animal that has thick white fur with black markings on its ears, limbs, shoulders, and around its eyes. The giant panda feeds on bamboo forests at high altitudes in western China. It also eats bulbs, roots, eggs, and some small mammals. The cubs are born in late winter. The giant panda is an endangered species and is protected by the Chinese government.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • What is the author’s purpose?
    • It's New!  It's Refreshing!  It's Slurpy Soda! This is the best soda in the world!  If you drink this soda you will jump higher, run faster and be smarter in school.
    • Try one today!!!!
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • What is the Author’s Purpose Here?
    •   Hunting, stalking, and killing of animals, has been an American tradition since early man lived here.  Today it exists as a "sport". There is no longer an excuse or reason for stalking and killing an animal in his or her habitat. However, people continue to hunt animals today and they feel they have every right to continue to do so. Animals need to be protected from this attack by humans.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • What About Now?
    • I remember my first hunting trip with my dad.  He taught me to aim and shoot straight.  I remember how proud I was when I brought that first rabbit home and the family feasted on my "achievement". Today I continue to tramp through the fields or the woods.  It brings back such fond memories of those trips with Dad.  And I still get a feeling of satisfaction out of being able to bring something home--whether a small rabbit or a graceful deer.  Hunting brings me great joy!  I wish everyone had an opportunity to experience that feeling of accomplishment.
    •  
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Identifying Purpose
    • READERS MUST ASK…
    • Based on the title, why do think the author wrote this selection?
    • Which words do you think best describe the main reason the author wrote this selection: to provide readers with information? To describe a person, event, or issue? To express their own thoughts and feelings? To persuade readers to think about an issue in a certain way and to take action? Or to entertain the reader?
    • Why did the author write the article from a particular point of view?
    • How did the author influence your response to the selection?
    • Was the author’s purpose specifically stated?
    • Do you think that the author achieved his/her intended purposes?
    • Did the article effectively give information? Entertain readers? Express the author’s thoughts and feelings? Persuade readers to think about an issue and/or take action?
    • What examples from the text support your conclusions about author’s purpose?
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Think Aloud: Author’s Purpose
    • I remember my first hunting trip with my dad.  He taught me to aim and shoot straight.  I remember how proud I was when I brought that first rabbit home and the family feasted on my "achievement". Today I continue to tramp through the fields or the woods.  It brings back such fond memories of those trips with Dad.  And I still get a feeling of satisfaction out of being able to bring something home--whether a small rabbit or a graceful deer.  Hunting brings me great joy!  I wish everyone
    • TA: I am always asking myself. Why was this piece written? I know writers have many reasons to write. What clues can I notice about why this author may be writing to me about hunting…This writer believes that hunting animals is good .  His writing contains only information to persuade you to hunt.
    •  
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • Author Viewpoint Lessons
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Identify Viewpoint
    • READERS MUST ASK…
    • What opinions or belief statements are evident in the article?
    • Why do you think the author has this particular opinion or point of view?
    • What background information about the author does the reader have that may help understand the writer’s point of view? (Point of reference) Would another author have a different point of view depending on his/her background experiences?
    • What pictures does the author paint for a reader?
    • What evidence did the author include to support their opinions?
    • What facts were missing?
    • What words and phrases did the author use to present the information? (Students collect samples of the language an author uses to identify the context in which ideas are presented.)
    • Why did the author write this selection? Identifying the author’s purpose helps students recognize possible viewpoints, especially in persuasive writing.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  •           ©Angela Maiers, 2008 What is the author’s viewpoint of deer?
    • Deer are beautiful creatures.  They are so graceful to watch as they run through the forest.  It's hard to understand how anyone could do anything to harm these beautiful animals.    
    • The author favors deer hunting.
    •   The author is not in favor of deer hunting.
    • The deer population has grown tremendously in recent years.  Each year at hunting season, hunters are able to help control the deer population and prevent many deer from starving.
    •  
    • The author favors deer hunting.
    •   The author is not in favor of deer hunting.
    •  
  • Discovering Viewpoint
    • The average school day for kindergarteners is getting longer, and it's paying off in improved reading skills.  Public schoolchildren who attended kindergarten for a full day showed more improvement than those enrolled in half-day programs.  This improvement will be carried on in elementary school and even high school.  These children will be able to get better jobs when they are adults.
    •       
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • What is the author's viewpoint of full day kindergarten?                
    • What are the clues they left for you?
    • improved reading skills
    • paying off
    • more improvement
    • get better jobs
    • Other?
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Same Topic-Different Viewpoint?
    • The trend toward full day kindergarten  
    • programs in public schools is taking its toll on
    • the young children of today.  Recent studies
    • showing improved reading skills may be
    • misleading. This improvement in reading is
    • unlikely to carry on as these children progress
    • through elementary school. 
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Authors Point of View or View Point
    • When authors write, their stories reflect their own feelings or beliefs.  An author reveals their viewpoint in many ways.
    • HERE IS HOW THEY DO IT:
    • Word Choice-Diction
    • Connation /Denotation
    • Tone
    • Style
    • Purpose for Writing 
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Word Choice
    • Diction: the words writers a choose to
    • express meaning.
    • Clues to Meaning:
    • Words and phrases
    • Context of words/phrases as arranged in sentences
    • Patterns-repeated words or phrases
    • Details about people, places, and things
    • Denotation (dictionary meaning)
    • Connotation (implied meaning)
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Word Choice
    • 1. During the meeting they will try to
    • work things out.
    • 2. During the meeting, they enter
    • negotiations as both parties attempt
    • to move toward a swift and efficient
    • conflict resolution.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Connotation and Denotation
    • Sam is looking really slim .
    • Sam is looking really thin.
    • This is clearly a risky situation.
    • This is clearly a life-threatening situation.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • TONE: Mood conveyed by the words or speech ©Angela Maiers, 2008 Dear Patron, We received your letter noting suggestions to better the service you received. We are noting your recommendations. Your feed back is appreciated. Sincerely, Jet Fast Airlines Dear Valued Traveler, Thank you for your letter of concern. We appreciate you taking your time to voice Your suggestions. We are always seeking ways to improve our service to you. We Are taking each suggestion very seriously and truly appreciate your feedback. We recognize that you have many choices when it comes to air travel, and Appreciate your loyalty to us. Members like yourself, help us keep our promise of making this the best possible flying experience for you each time you fly Jet Fast Airlines. We will get back to you within the week. Most Sincerely, Customer Service Jet Fast Airlines
  • Varieties of Tone
    • Sincere/Insincere Matter-of-Fact
    • Angry Respectful
    • Annoyed Threatening
    • Indifferent Uplifting
    • Confident Cheerful
    • Critical Somber
    • Playful Mocking
    • Mocking Apologetic
    • Complimentary Nostalgic
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • TONE CONVEYED?
    • For Pete’s sakes, can you get your own pen!!!
    • You had better have that turned in by 4 p.m. sharp, or else!
    • Give me that, right this minute!
    • Um, I was wondering, could I please borrow your pen, if you do not mind. That is, if it is no trouble or inconvenience.
    • I am really, really sorry that I got you in trouble. I never meant for that to happen. I am so sorry.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Author Bias, Purpose, Intent
    • People kill people. But handguns make it easier. When other weapons such a a knife or rope are used, the consequences are not near as great. These items take very different degree of energy and intent than pulling a trigger. Registration for handguns will not interfere with hunting or other rifle sports, but will simply allow more control over who will be able to carry a handgun. It is insane to think that if a burglar had a gun in his hand that you will be able to assemble and ready your gun in a quick draw contest like the wild West. In fact, 70% of all the guns used in crimes are stolen. In other words, the supply o handguns used for holdups and burglaries comes from a great extent from the household these guns were supposed to protect.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • You Decide:
    • Does the author favor or oppose gun control laws? How do you know?
    • What is the purpose for writing?
    • Would the author agree with the following opinion:
    • All murders are basically the same/
    • Citizens should keep a handgun in their bedrooms.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Author Viewpoint Intro:
    • MODEL/THINK ALOUD: Everything you read is affected by the author’s viewpoint. An author’s viewpoint is his or her attitude or feelings toward the subject he/she is writing about. It is very important that we as good readers are able to identify the authors beliefs in order to know where he or she is coming from. When the authors viewpoint and opinions are expressed in a number of ways:
    • The words they choose
    • The writing style and language
    • The format and organization of the text
    • The tone in the writers voice as they are speaking to us
    • The choice of details included and excluded
    • These clues are very important to be on the lookout for in order to successfully distinguish between what is fact and what is the authors opinions. It helps us read with a much more critical eye which will help our comprehension a great deal.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • The Author’s Viewpoint of ____________is…
    • What are the clues that help you?
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Author’s Purpose
    • MODEL: As a good reader I know, the authors' writing pieces have a purpose.  If I can identify why this author has written this piece, I know it will help me comprehend what I am reading! Identify the author's purpose of each piece. When I read_______, I am thinking that the authors purpose for writing this is to____________; I know this because the author is using/saying_____________ which leads me to believe that the writing is writing to___________.
    •   SHARE: Remember, identifying the author's purpose helps you comprehend while you read. Let’s practice trying to identify the writers purpose. Let’s look at some writing, and see if we can figure out why the
    • writer is sharing this information with us. Authors can write to:
    • Explain
    • Inform
    • Persuade
    • Entertain
    • Let’s read this passage and try to see if we can decide from the information, what the writers purpose is. (Do with the provided examples)
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • Author’s Purpose Organizer for Guided and Independent Practice
    • Name __________________________ Date______________________________
    • Authors often have a purpose or reason for writing a story. Sometimes it is to
    • give information, describe something, make us laugh, help us see a point of
    • view or an opinion.
    • Think about the book we read and answer the questions.
    • Title ____________________________________Author_____________________
    •  
    • 1. What was the author's purpose in writing this story ? (Think about what the author wanted the reader to know or think about after reading the book.)
    • ________________________________________________________________
    • ________________________________________________________________
    • ________________________________________________________________
    • ________________________________________________________________
    • What do you think the author wants you to know about_________________
    • 3. What might the author be showing you about__________________________
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • Authors purpose/message:
    • The authors’ purpose for writing is…
    • The reason the author wrote this passage is..
    • The author is writing this section to…
    • The big idea in the writing is…
    • The authors reason for writing this is…
    • The author is showing me that _________because…
    • The authors message is…
    • Point of view:
    • When I read____, I can see the author feels…
    • The author feels that ____, because ____...
    • This passage suggests that the author’s opinion about…
    • The author is clearly suggesting…
    • The author believes that…
    • Tone/Bias:
    • The tone of this passage seems to be_____ because...
    • I believe the does the author feels_____ because…
    • The authors feelings about____ can best be described as…
    • I notice the author used the word___, that makes me think t
    • they feel…
    • It is clear that the author wants…
    • The writer is taking the stance that…
    • This writer believes that…
    • I know the writer feels___, so they…
    Author credibility: The author provides support by… The author is best qualified to say… The writer is making the assumption that… The author used_____ to support their ideas about… Author Craft: Writers of nonfiction help readers by… When the writer_____, it helps make a strong point because… When the writer uses words like… Good writers use… Good writers always… This is powerful because the writer… I notice that good writers will___, that helps readers because… General Critical Thinking…. When I see _____, it makes me think… When the author did_____, it helps me… I agree/disagree with that point…. When the writer said____, I think… The writer says____, but I think that… I will use this information to… This information seems… The writers opinion about____ is… I think the information provide is… CRITICAL READING PROMPTS ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • Audience: The person or persons the author wishes to receive his/her message or information
    • Authors Message: The point the writer is making about the topic-the “Big Idea” expressed within the text
    • Author Purpose: The reason the author is writing the text
    • Author View Point: The way the writer sees or feels about the topic he/she is writing about
    • B ias - a writer’s prejudice or preference to one particular point of view on the writing topic. or perspective. All writing to some extent is influenced by the authors beliefs, attitude, and experiences. Bias generally is associated when the writers belief system influences the way the information is being presented.
    • Connotation - all suggested meanings and associations a word brings to mind beyond its denotation or literal meaning The connotative meaning of a word is based on implication, or shared emotional association with a word.
    • Denotation : the literal meaning of the words chosen
    • Credibility: The abilities and experience which make the writer qualified to share the information presented. Credibility is influence by several factors: proof of writers background experiences, abilities, credentials, reputation, other published works, associations, etc…
    • Fact: A statement of fact expresses only what actually happened, or what could be proven by objective data.
    • Opinion: A statement of opinion expresses an attitude toward something – it makes a judgment, view, or conclusion, or
    • gives an opinion that cannot be proven true or false.
    • Reliability: the probability that the information the author provided will withstand scrutiny within the time frame the
    • information was published.
    • Style - author’s choice and arrangement of words in any kind of writing to convey individuality, theme and purpose
    • Theme - main idea of story, usually expressed as a statement about life
    • Tone- the attitude the writer expresses towards the subject ad reader. May be casual, angry, amused or indifferent.
    • Writer Craft: The tools and techniques that skilled writers use to construct powerful pieces of writing
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
    • .
    200 100 50 25 1 People per 1000 (Poverty Line) In two hundred thousand inhabitants, over twenty thousand live significantly below the poverty line Annual Yearly Income ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • SAME INFORMATION?
    • When you walk through a town like this, two hundred thousand inhabitants of whom at least twenty thousand own literally nothing except the rags they stand up in, you see how people live, and still more how easily they live, and how easily they die; it is always difficult to believe that you are walking among human beings.
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008
  • POP QUIZ: CRITICAL READING
    • What is the author’s purpose for writing nonfiction? Describe three of those purposes.
    • How is an authors point of view different in fiction texts than in nonfiction texts?
    • Name three ways a reader can determine the writers attitude or view of the topic he/she is writing about?
    • What is difference between tone and mood?
    • Does bias exist in all nonfiction text ? Explain
    ©Angela Maiers, 2008