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ContentLitTwo

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    • 1. Critically Literate Angela Maiers,2008 angelamaiers.com In ALL Content Areas
    • 2. A Content Literate Student A content literate student is a focused, strategic and text-wise reader, one who possesses a heightened awareness and use of the organization and structure of the distinct texts in diverse fields of study, which enable him/her to effectively identify, comprehend, interact with, study, internalize, and apply important subject matter.
    • 3. STEP ONE: Set The Standard! <ul><li>Critical literacy requires: </li></ul><ul><li>1. a set of skills/strategies to process and generate information and beliefs, and understandings </li></ul><ul><li>2. the habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to manage thinking and guide behavior </li></ul>
    • 4. Code Breaker Text User Meaning Maker Text Analyst/Critic 21 st Century Proficiency
    • 5. What are the “ MEANING ” demands? <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul>
    • 6. Making Meaning: Exploring the Tools of Thinking Presented by Angela Maiers, 2007
    • 7. <ul><li>Teachers who successfully </li></ul><ul><li>teach comprehension have made </li></ul><ul><li>a shift from ‘talking about books/content’ </li></ul><ul><li>to talking about the thinking processes proficient readers use to understand the content within the books.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Keene and Zimmermann in Mosaic of Thought) </li></ul>
    • 8. <ul><li> </li></ul>PRODUCT vs. PROCESS
    • 9. <ul><li>You, along with lions, goats, and bats belong to a class called mammals. About 4000 species of mammals live here on earth, and many look different from each other. But, all mammals have certain characteristics that set them apart from other living things. Mammals are all warm blooded and have fur or hair. They can survive in cold places because of their warm blood. Many believe that mammals are the most intelligent animals on earth. </li></ul>
    • 10. What exactly is involved in Deep Comprehension?
    • 11. Comprehension Strategies <ul><li>Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Determining Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizing information </li></ul><ul><li>Using sensory images </li></ul><ul><li>Using fix-up strategies </li></ul>
    • 12. Deep Comprehenders… <ul><li>Integrate knowledge of vocabulary, phonics,grammar,spelling, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Are active and thoughtful </li></ul><ul><li>Have clear goals in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate whether texts are meeting their goals </li></ul><ul><li>Look over text for format,structure,relevancy </li></ul><ul><li>In a state of conscious decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>(when to slow down, reread, question..) </li></ul><ul><li>Draw upon, compare, and integrate background </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor for understanding-have a repertoire of </li></ul><ul><li>strategies to draw on for help </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate text for quality and value </li></ul><ul><li>React to text in range of ways(emotional, intellectually,..) </li></ul><ul><li>Are flexible and adaptive with multiple texts </li></ul><ul><li>Consider author&apos;s purpose,style,beliefs, and intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Have an innate desire to share, reflect, and discuss when seeking understanding </li></ul>
    • 13. TEACHING COMPREHENSION: THE BIG PICTURE
    • 14. A Framework for Successful Comprehension Instruction <ul><li>Phase I: Creating a Context for Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II: Making Thinking Visible </li></ul><ul><li>Phase III: Long Term, Systematic Instruction </li></ul>
    • 15. Context Matters! <ul><li>What do you see? </li></ul>Are You SURE?!?
    • 16. Comprehension Contexts <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Talk </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction </li></ul>
    • 17. Creating Environments Where Thinking Thrives <ul><li>Blocks of time to READ and WRITE </li></ul><ul><li>Immersion in quality texts </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of authors and writing craft </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to multiple genres </li></ul><ul><li>Rich, powerful discussions </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations regarding reading </li></ul><ul><li>TIME!! </li></ul>
    • 18. <ul><li>Making Thinking Visible </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Think Aloud” </li></ul>
    • 19. Think Aloud Template <ul><li>When I was reading_____________, </li></ul><ul><li>I noticed that I________________, </li></ul><ul><li>This helped me ______________. </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy of________ is important </li></ul><ul><li>to readers because…. </li></ul>
    • 20. <ul><li>Their hands were tied or handcuffed, yet their fingers danced, flew, and drew words. The prisoners were hooded, but leaning back they could see a bit, down below. Although they were forbidden to speak, they spoke with their hands. Pinion Underfeld taught me the finger alphabet which he had learned on prison without a teacher. “Some of us had bad handwriting,” he told me; “others were masters of calligraphy.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Uruguayan dictatorship wanted everyone to stand alone, everyone to be no one: in prisons and in barracks and throughout the country communication was a crime. Some prisoners spent more than ten years buried in solitary cells the size of coffins, hearing nothing by clanging bars or footsteps in the corridors. Fernandez Humidor and Mauricio Rosen thus condemned, survived because they could talk to each other by tapping on the wall. In that way, they told of dreams and memories, fallings in and out of love; they discussed, embraced, fought; they shared beliefs and beauties, doubts and guilt’s, and those questions that have no answer. </li></ul><ul><li>When it is genuine, when it is born of the need to speak, no one can stop the human voice. When denied a mouth, it speaks with hundreds of hands or the eyes, or the pores, or anything at all. Because every single one of us has something to say, something that deserves to be celebrated or forgiven by others. </li></ul>
    • 21. Think Aloud Procedure <ul><li>Decide Thinking Focus (Less is more) </li></ul><ul><li>Select Text and provide students access </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Purpose: Translate thoughts into words </li></ul><ul><li>Verbalize Aloud steps of meaning making </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss observations of active processing with students </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for application and practice </li></ul>
    • 22. Comprehension Strategies <ul><li>Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Determining Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizing information </li></ul><ul><li>Using sensory images </li></ul><ul><li>Using fix-up strategies </li></ul>
    • 23. <ul><li>THE LANGUAGE OF COMPREHENSION </li></ul><ul><li>Inferencing is : Using textual clues and information combined with your prior knowledge (schema) to draw conclusions, make critical judgments, and form unique interpretations on information not directly stated by the author. </li></ul><ul><li>Schema is: The organizational structure for storing, retrieving, and processing the readers background knowledge/experience used to actively construct meaning as they interact with new information. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Image is: The ability to access and use all your senses and emotion to create images that allow text to come alive in your brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis is: evolution of understanding; growing thinking to new and different levels by combining new information with what you know and have experienced. </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning is : Actively asking yourself questions and searching for answers before, during, and after reading and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring is: Knowing when understanding breaks down and having effective tools to repair confusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Determining Importance is : The readers ability to chose important information when they read as they sift and sort through information, making conscious decisions about what information they must remember and what they can disregard. </li></ul>
    • 24. Strategy Posters <ul><li>Common Language for students and teachers to talk about thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Shared vision of what “GOOD” reading and thinking look like </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent assessment opportunity </li></ul>
    • 25. Inferring … Uncovering what is not directly stated in the text by combining clues from text with your schema. This makes me think that… These clues are telling me… It might be ______ because… I am concluding that…
    • 26. Powerful Strategy Instruction <ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul>
    • 27. Strategy Instruction <ul><li>The deliberate and systematic teaching of each cognitive process used in reading successfully so that students can become active consumers of information as they construct meaning beyond literal level understandings. </li></ul>
    • 28. PHASE 3 <ul><li>A MODEL FOR INSTRUCTION </li></ul>
    • 29. I Modeled Instruction: SHOW ME HOW!!! Shared Instruction: DO IT WITH ME!!! Guided Instruction: LET ME TRY!!! Independent Instruction: TRUST ME!!!
    • 30. Teaching Sequence <ul><li>1. Define the strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Inferencing is … Schema is…. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Explain the importance of the strategy </li></ul><ul><li>3. Demonstrate how the strategy “works” </li></ul><ul><li>(Concrete and explicit) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Model proficient use of the strategy in action </li></ul><ul><li>5. Provide scaffold practice </li></ul><ul><li>(Shared and Guided Sessions) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Reflect on strategy use and relevance </li></ul><ul><li>7. Arrange and plan for transfer opportunities. </li></ul>
    • 31. &nbsp;
    • 32. Mom loves Chester Mom would not have made him if she did not think it was important because she wants what is best for him Chester’s mom really really loves him and wants him to be happy When I am sad-I want my mom Sometime I have had to do things I did not want My mom has helped me when I was scared before Chester was crying Chester mom made him go to school when he did not want Chester got the kissing hand I INFER I THINK Text Clue
    • 33. Comprehension Resources <ul><li>Blachowicz, C., &amp; Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: Guilford Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Block, C. C., &amp; Pressley, M. (2002). Comprehension Instruction: Research-Based Practices. New York: Guilford Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Fehring, H., &amp; Green, P. (2002). Critical Literacy: A Collection of Articles From the Australian Literacy Educators’s Association </li></ul><ul><li>Keene, E.. O., &amp; Zimmerman, S. (1997). Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader’s Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinamann. </li></ul><ul><li>Harvey, S., &amp; Goodvis, A. (2000). Strategies That Work: Teaching Comprehension and Enhancing Understanding. York, Maine: Stenhouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Allington, R. (2001). What Really Matters For Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman. </li></ul>
    • 34. What are the “TEXT” demands? <ul><li>Format/ Form (blog, website, playbook) </li></ul><ul><li>Mode: Image, podcast, sports center, article,etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Genre (fiction, biography, quote, textbook, directions from game) </li></ul><ul><li>Print or Web based </li></ul>
    • 35. <ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction </li></ul>
    • 36. Are Headings Important: You Decide!?!
    • 37. <ul><li>The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step. It is very important not to overdue things. The whole procedure will at first seem complicated, but soon will become just another fact of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell. After the entire procedure is complete, one arranges the materials onto different groups once again. Then, you are ready to be put items into their proper places. Eventually, they will be used once more, and the whole cycle will have to begin again. </li></ul>
    • 38. A newspaper is better than a magazine, and on a seashore is a better place than a street. At first, it is better to run than walk. Also, you may have to try several times. It takes some skill but it is fairly easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful , complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. One needs lots of room. Rain soaks fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you will not get a second chance.
    • 39. <ul><li>Poised between going on and back, pulled both ways taut like a tightrope-walker. Fingertips pointing the opposites, now bouncing tiptoe like a dropped ball or a kid skipping rope, come on , come on, Running a scattering of steps sidewise, how he teeters, skitters, tingles, teases, and taunts them. He is only flirting, crowd him, crowd him. Delicate, delicate, delicate, …NOW! </li></ul>
    • 40. What DO Headings Do? <ul><li>GIVE THE TOPIC!! </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate aspect of the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Set up Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Hint about the Main Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Help Reader prepare and focus </li></ul><ul><li>Provide transition between parts the text </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the reader to make more successful connections B, D, and A reading </li></ul><ul><li>Provide preview of the entire article </li></ul>
    • 41. Print Size Cutaways Index Glossary It allows me to see the chapters and topics and know exactly what pages they are on so I can get to the information I need in the quickest way. Located in the front of the book to share a list of key topics or chapter in which the book addresses in the order in which they appear in the text Table of Contents It allows the reader to see inside or a smaller part of a large area so we can understand it in a more detailed way A smaller more detailed section of the larger photo or illustration Close-Up Helps the readers take something familiar to show how it relates or compares with something new Show size relationship between two or more objects of ideas Comparison Tells the reader what to focus on in the picture that is important Information directly relating to a photo or illustration Caption How it Helps Purpose Convention
    • 42. &nbsp;
    • 43. Grades 2-4 Grades 4-8
    • 44. Steve Moline’s Website <ul><li>K-8visual.info./ </li></ul>
    • 45. <ul><li>Home | What is visual literacy? | Examples of visual texts | Using visual literacy | Assessing visual literacy | Books for children | Books for teachers | Free materials for teachers | Seminars &amp; workshops | About us | Contact us | Copyright | </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of visual texts   </li></ul><ul><li>View an example of: </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram with cutaways &lt;NEW&gt; </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaway diagram with detail    </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram with color coding </li></ul><ul><li>Exploded diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Flow charts </li></ul><ul><li>Special: What are maps for?    </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Table </li></ul><ul><li>Tree diagram   </li></ul><ul><li>We usually add a new Visual Literacy Example to this page each month. </li></ul><ul><li>Other examples of visual texts on this site: </li></ul><ul><li>Bar graph or &amp;quot;bar chart&amp;quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Cartogram </li></ul><ul><li>&amp;quot;Chart&amp;quot; (see table or graph) </li></ul><ul><li>Column graph </li></ul><ul><li>&amp;quot;Concept map &amp;quot; (see web) </li></ul>
    • 46. Visual Text: Cross Section
    • 47. Table of Contents <ul><li>4.10(E) use the text&apos;s structure or progression of ideas such as cause and effect or chronology to locate and recall information (4-8); </li></ul><ul><li>4.8(B) select varied sources such as nonfiction, novels, textbooks, newspapers, and magazines when reading for information or pleasure (4-5); </li></ul><ul><li>4.10(F) determine a text&apos;s main (or major) ideas and how those ideas are supported with details (4-8); </li></ul><ul><li>4.12(B) recognize that authors organize information in specific ways (4-5); </li></ul><ul><li>4.12(D) recognize the distinguishing features of genres, including biography, historical fiction, informational texts, and poetry (4-8) </li></ul><ul><li>4.13(B) use text organizers, including headings, graphic features, and tables of contents, to locate and organize information (4-8); </li></ul><ul><li>4.11(A) offer observations, make connections, react, speculate, interpret, and raise questions in response to texts (4-8); (schema – connections; inferring; questioning) </li></ul>
    • 48. <ul><li>This strategy was very simple and cut everything down to size to make sure I understand. This was the easiest way to do this that I know/understand. </li></ul><ul><li>I think this could help while studying, but it’s going to take quite a bit of practice. Once you get better at this strategy I think studying would be easier. This is a good strategy to help keep you on thinking about things. </li></ul><ul><li>I really like this method. I am excited to use it in the future! I really feel like I learned a lot about our brain subject and feel like I will learn a lot with this. </li></ul><ul><li>It kind of made sense to me, but I don’t know if I’ll remember it. I usually just memorize what I read, but not really absorb it. </li></ul><ul><li>I think this is really going to help me in the future because I usually have trouble with this stuff. </li></ul><ul><li>I like it because it is an easy way to simplify and organize information. It would help me think about the topic. It will help me to know information I need to and no more. </li></ul><ul><li>It helped me, because I was always use to taking too much notes and the night before I would study like crazy, and in the morning all I remembered the subject I studied for. </li></ul><ul><li>It seems a little complicated. I do something like this already, but simpler. My mind would still wander. </li></ul><ul><li>I think that this reading strategy is pretty good. You really get to think about it and make connections and it could help you remember the facts. But I do think it may take a long time if you are thinking really hard. </li></ul>
    • 49. Code Breaker Text User Meaning Maker Text Analyst/Critic 21 st Century Proficiency
    • 50. Creating Text Wise Readers <ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Angela Maiers, 2007 </li></ul>
    • 51. Genre Standards <ul><li>Students will read a variety of fiction and nonfiction text with understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Students will read a variety of texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Students will understand elements and features of nonfiction text: ex. TOC, Index </li></ul><ul><li>Students will understand nonfiction text structures. </li></ul>
    • 52. “ Text-Wiseness” <ul><li>Teaching students how to recognize and represent the organizational patterns commonly used by authors can significantly influence students’ learning and comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Palinstar, Ogle, Carr, 97 </li></ul>
    • 53. Considering Genre...
    • 54. Making a Case for Non-Fiction <ul><li>90% of our daily reading is devoted to non-fiction or informational materials </li></ul><ul><li>Futurists predict that by 2020 the amount of information will double every 73 days </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 96% of the sites on the World Wide Web are expository in form </li></ul>(Nell Duke, CIERA 2002)
    • 55. VS.
    • 56. Planning Framework <ul><li>PHASE I: Fiction vs. Nonfiction </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE II: Physical Features </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE III: Organizational Structures </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE IV: Planned Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE V: Content Specific Knowledge </li></ul>
    • 57. THE WRITERS’ BLUEPRINT VISION: THE BIG IDEA Nonfiction Text Organization <ul><li>Text Features </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fonts and Effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text organizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations and Photographs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Text Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare/contrast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause &amp; effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem/solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question &amp; answer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 58. Purpose: The Reason for Writing <ul><li>Authors purpose is defined as the reason authors write. Authors write for different purposes. </li></ul><ul><li> To Entertain </li></ul><ul><li> To Persuade </li></ul><ul><li> To Inform </li></ul><ul><li>To Explain </li></ul><ul><li>The author&apos;s purpose ( the reason for their writing) affects what he writes.  It&apos;s important for readers to recognize purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    • 59. PHASE TWO : Physical Features <ul><li>Text organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Index </li></ul><ul><li>Preface </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Footnote </li></ul><ul><li>Photo Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Fonts and effects </li></ul><ul><li>Titles </li></ul><ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Subheadings </li></ul><ul><li>Boldface print </li></ul><ul><li>Italics </li></ul><ul><li>Bullets </li></ul><ul><li>Captions </li></ul><ul><li>Color, Size </li></ul><ul><li>Labels </li></ul><ul><li>Font Style </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations and Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations Icons </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs Visual Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaways </li></ul><ul><li>Cross sections </li></ul><ul><li>Overlays </li></ul><ul><li>Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Word bubbles </li></ul><ul><li>Timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Flow Charts </li></ul>
    • 60. PHASE THREE: Expository Text Structures <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Compare/Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Chronology/Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Question/Answer </li></ul><ul><li>Problem/Solution </li></ul>
    • 61. Relationship
    • 62. &nbsp;
    • 63. tail mouth
    • 64. &nbsp;
    • 65. &nbsp;
    • 66. GIFTS FOR READERS
    • 67. &nbsp;
    • 68. &nbsp;
    • 69. <ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction </li></ul>
    • 70. Are Headings Important: You Decide!?!
    • 71. <ul><li>The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step. It is very important not to overdue things. The whole procedure will at first seem complicated, but soon will become just another fact of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell. After the entire procedure is complete, one arranges the materials onto different groups once again. Then, you are ready to be put items into their proper places. Eventually, they will be used once more, and the whole cycle will have to begin again. </li></ul>
    • 72. A newspaper is better than a magazine, and on a seashore is a better place than a street. At first, it is better to run than walk. Also, you may have to try several times. It takes some skill but it is fairly easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful , complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. One needs lots of room. Rain soaks fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you will not get a second chance.
    • 73. <ul><li>Poised between going on and back, pulled both ways taut like a tightrope-walker. Fingertips pointing the opposites, now bouncing tiptoe like a dropped ball or a kid skipping rope, come on , come on, Running a scattering of steps sidewise, how he teeters, skitters, tingles, teases, and taunts them. He is only flirting, crowd him, crowd him. Delicate, delicate, delicate, …NOW! </li></ul>
    • 74. What DO Headings Do? <ul><li>GIVE THE TOPIC!! </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate aspect of the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Set up Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Hint about the Main Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Help Reader prepare and focus </li></ul><ul><li>Provide transition between parts the text </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the reader to make more successful connections B, D, and A reading </li></ul><ul><li>Provide preview of the entire article </li></ul>
    • 75. Print Size Cutaways Index Glossary It allows me to see the chapters and topics and know exactly what pages they are on so I can get to the information I need in the quickest way. Located in the front of the book to share a list of key topics or chapter in which the book addresses in the order in which they appear in the text Table of Contents It allows the reader to see inside or a smaller part of a large area so we can understand it in a more detailed way A smaller more detailed section of the larger photo or illustration Close-Up Helps the readers take something familiar to show how it relates or compares with something new Show size relationship between two or more objects of ideas Comparison Tells the reader what to focus on in the picture that is important Information directly relating to a photo or illustration Caption How it Helps Purpose Convention
    • 76. &nbsp;
    • 77. Grades 2-4 Grades 4-8
    • 78. Steve Moline’s Website <ul><li>K-8visual.info./ </li></ul>
    • 79. <ul><li>Home | What is visual literacy? | Examples of visual texts | Using visual literacy | Assessing visual literacy | Books for children | Books for teachers | Free materials for teachers | Seminars &amp; workshops | About us | Contact us | Copyright | </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of visual texts   </li></ul><ul><li>View an example of: </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram with cutaways &lt;NEW&gt; </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaway diagram with detail    </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram with color coding </li></ul><ul><li>Exploded diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Flow charts </li></ul><ul><li>Special: What are maps for?    </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Table </li></ul><ul><li>Tree diagram   </li></ul><ul><li>We usually add a new Visual Literacy Example to this page each month. </li></ul><ul><li>Other examples of visual texts on this site: </li></ul><ul><li>Bar graph or &amp;quot;bar chart&amp;quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Cartogram </li></ul><ul><li>&amp;quot;Chart&amp;quot; (see table or graph) </li></ul><ul><li>Column graph </li></ul><ul><li>&amp;quot;Concept map &amp;quot; (see web) </li></ul>
    • 80. Visual Text: Cross Section
    • 81. Planning Framework <ul><li>PHASE I: Fiction vs. Nonfiction </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE II: Physical Features </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE III: Organizational Structures </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE IV: Planned Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE V: Content Specific Knowledge </li></ul>
    • 82. &nbsp;
    • 83. &nbsp;
    • 84. &nbsp;
    • 85. &nbsp;
    • 86. &nbsp;
    • 87. Signal Words Point the Way… Text Structure &amp; Signal Words Description/ Hierarchical List Cause &amp; Effect Compare / Contrast Problem/ Solution Question &amp; Answer Sequence For instance For example Furthermore Such as Also To begin with Most important Also In fact In addition And to illustrate Since Because This led to On account of Due to As a result of For this reason Consequentially Then…so… Therefore thus In like manner Likewise Similar to The difference between As opposed to After all However And yet But Nevertheless On the other hand One reason for the… A solution A problem Where The question is One answer is Recommendations include How When What Next Why Who How many The best estimate It could be that One may conclude Until Before After Finally Lastly First…last… Now…then On (date) At (time) First, second Meanwhile Not long after initially
    • 88. Planning Framework <ul><li>PHASE I: Fiction vs. Nonfiction </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE II: Physical Features </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE III: Organizational Structures </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE IV: Planned Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE V: Content Specific Knowledge </li></ul>
    • 89. PHASE 3.5: TEXT FORMATS <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Journal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plays </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Source </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Report </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notebook or Log </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 90. &nbsp;
    • 91. Grades 2-4 Grades 4-8
    • 92. &nbsp;
    • 93. &nbsp;
    • 94. &nbsp;
    • 95. Steve Moline’s Website <ul><li>K-8visual.info./ </li></ul>
    • 96. <ul><li>Home | What is visual literacy? | Examples of visual texts | Using visual literacy | Assessing visual literacy | Books for children | Books for teachers | Free materials for teachers | Seminars &amp; workshops | About us | Contact us | Copyright | </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of visual texts   </li></ul><ul><li>View an example of: </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram with cutaways &lt;NEW&gt; </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaway diagram with detail    </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram with color coding </li></ul><ul><li>Exploded diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Flow charts </li></ul><ul><li>Special: What are maps for?    </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Table </li></ul><ul><li>Tree diagram   </li></ul><ul><li>We usually add a new Visual Literacy Example to this page each month. </li></ul><ul><li>Other examples of visual texts on this site: </li></ul><ul><li>Bar graph or &amp;quot;bar chart&amp;quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Cartogram </li></ul><ul><li>&amp;quot;Chart&amp;quot; (see table or graph) </li></ul><ul><li>Column graph </li></ul><ul><li>&amp;quot;Concept map &amp;quot; (see web) </li></ul>
    • 97. Visual Text: Cross Section
    • 98. <ul><li>The fire was started by sparks from a campfire left by a careless camper. Thousands of acres of important watershed burned before the fire was brought under control. As a result of the fire, trees and the grasslands on the slopes of the valley were gone. Smoking black stumps were all that remained of tall pine trees. </li></ul>
    • 99. Structures and Features of History <ul><li>Narrative Description of Effects and Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Chronology </li></ul><ul><li>Historical anecdotes </li></ul><ul><li>Links to primary source connections </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple formats: diaries, letters, speeches,… </li></ul><ul><li>Maps, timelines, graphs </li></ul>
    • 100. Structures in Science Text <ul><li>Sidebar information with connections to other subject areas </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary review </li></ul><ul><li>“Mini-Lab” or problem solving piece </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Compare/contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul>
    • 101. Structures in Math Text <ul><li>Sidebar information with connections to other subject areas </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on examples-sample problems </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary review </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Application Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul>
    • 102. Structures in Literature <ul><li>Character Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Variation: Backdrop vs. Integral </li></ul><ul><li>Problem/Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution/Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Plot Variations: Parallel, Circular, etc,,, </li></ul><ul><li>Literary Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Writers Craft, Style, and Purpose </li></ul>
    • 103. Planning Framework <ul><li>PHASE I: Fiction vs. Nonfiction </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE II: Physical Features </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE III: Organizational Structures </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE IV: Planned Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE V: Content Specific Knowledge </li></ul>
    • 104. PLAN FOR GETTING TO MEANING <ul><li>My purpose for reading this is to… </li></ul><ul><li>First I… </li></ul><ul><li>Then I… </li></ul><ul><li>Next I would… </li></ul><ul><li>I would also… </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, I will…. </li></ul>
    • 105. Planning Framework <ul><li>PHASE I: Fiction vs. Nonfiction </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE II: Physical Features </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE III: Organizational Structures </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE IV: Planned Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>PHASE V: Content Specific Knowledge </li></ul>
    • 106. PHASE FOUR: Reaching Understanding <ul><li>BEHAVIORS </li></ul><ul><li>STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>SKILLS </li></ul>
    • 107. Strategies Are Different!
    • 108. &nbsp;
    • 109. &nbsp;
    • 110. &nbsp;
    • 111. Effective vs. Ineffective Strategies Before Reading the Selection Don’t necessarily acknowledge the challenges of academic reading and often approach tasks with an unproductive mind set and study environment. Create a productive study environment and mind set to accomplish their task. Do not have a reading purpose other than trying to get through some pages. Understand their reading task and set a clear purpose for reading. Have not assessed the difficulty level or length of the assignment and simply begin reading, attempting to finish one session. Establish a realistic reading plan after examining the assignment length and difficulty through prereading. Start reading without thinking about the subject or looking over the selection. Activate background knowledge on the subject through reflection and prereading.
    • 112. Effective vs. Ineffective Strategies While Reading the Selection Rarely or never takes the initiative to seek clarification from the teacher. Make note of problematic material to later question the teacher and/or other sources. Seldom use and fix-up strategies when they are uncertain or confused. Monitor their reading comprehension and do it so often it becomes automatic. Do not monitor their comprehension. Keep a constant check on their understanding. Are not very “text-wise” and have no clear sense of text organization and therefore have difficulty identifying important information. Are familiar with text structure and know how to identify maid ideas, terms, concepts. Interrupt their reading process regularly with mental or environment distractions. Give their complete attention to the task.
    • 113. Effective vs. Ineffective Strategies After Reading the Selection Simply glance over or reread pages of the assigned reading before a test. Synthesize and organize the main ideas for review and study purposes. Do not identify and organize the main ideas for study purposed. Identify, highlight and annotate main ideas within the text. Do not follow with any form of comprehension self-check. Evaluate comprehension of what was read. Are not entirely certain what they have read. Decide if they have achieved their reading goal.
    • 114. Strategies I Use to Read Information <ul><li>In the space provided below, first list strategies you would use to prepare yourself to read a challenging and extremely important twenty-page article. Take into consideration the various ways in which you would prepare yourself, including psychologically, physically, and environmentally. Then, list the strategies you would use to identify and retain the most critical information from this article. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to get ready to read challenging informational text: </li></ul><ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>4. </li></ul><ul><li>5. </li></ul><ul><li>6. </li></ul><ul><li>7. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to identify and retain critical information from text: </li></ul><ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>4. </li></ul><ul><li>5. </li></ul><ul><li>6. </li></ul><ul><li>7. </li></ul>
    • 115. Lessons for Nonfiction <ul><li>Careful reading or skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the text through the index </li></ul><ul><li>Using heading ,captions, pictures,… </li></ul><ul><li>Determining what to read, order of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Noting organizational pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Deterring what to pay attention to </li></ul><ul><li>Determining what to ignore </li></ul><ul><li>What information fits with schema, what is new: how to sort it </li></ul>
    • 116. &nbsp;
    • 117. &nbsp;
    • 118. PHASE FIVE: AREAS OF EXPERTISE <ul><li>Things readers of science know… </li></ul><ul><li>Things readers of literature know… </li></ul><ul><li>Things writers know… </li></ul><ul><li>Things readers of history know… </li></ul><ul><li>Things readers of math know… </li></ul><ul><li>Things readers of internet know… </li></ul><ul><li>Things readers of_________ know… </li></ul>
    • 119. Things Readers of Math Know… <ul><li>Speed Matters-slow down! </li></ul><ul><li>Reread CONSTANTLY!!-Deal with mis- </li></ul><ul><li>understanding right away!! </li></ul><ul><li>Every Word Counts!!-Little repetitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Math is not linear-cross check, pause, reread,... </li></ul><ul><li>Understand before going on! </li></ul><ul><li>Do not skim diagrams! </li></ul><ul><li>Word/symbols have specific meanings! </li></ul><ul><li>Write/Draw as you read! </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Up and DO NOT FALL BEHIND!! </li></ul>
    • 120. Things Readers of Science Know… <ul><li>Use and activate prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Establish plans </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating and understanding concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Compare/Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Making inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and recognize patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Determining importance of information </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals are critical! </li></ul>
    • 121. Things Readers of History Know… <ul><li>History is about the human condition </li></ul><ul><li>Must relate to life today! </li></ul><ul><li>Reading visual information-critical </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on causes and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting prior understandings and using them for future problems </li></ul><ul><li>Inferring concepts/words in sentences and paragraphs… </li></ul><ul><li>Special knowledge of dates, symbols, and terminology needed to read, write, and discuss understandings of history in language of historians </li></ul>
    • 122. graph bibliography autograph paragraph photography graphic autobiography
    • 123. Text Survey What do you expect to be reading about? What words/vocabulary do you anticipate to learn? Questions/Predictions Text Support Visuals Heading/Subheading
    • 124. &nbsp;
    • 125. Roundtable Alphabet 1960’s Z Mao Zedong Y X W Woodstock V Vietnam U T S Sexual Revolution R Rock Music Q P Protests O N Nixon M Moon Walk L Long Hair K Kennedy J Jimi Hendrix I H Hippies G F Flag Burning E Easy Rider D Drugs C Civil Rights B Beatles A Apollo
    • 126. Science Reading Challenges <ul><li>Interpretation of scientific symbols and diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding organizational patterns and text layouts common in science </li></ul><ul><li>Content is broad and often superficial with emphasis on vocabulary vs. concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding scientific terms/specialized vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Understand some terms and phrases are unique to science </li></ul><ul><li>Infer implied ideas and sequences (Causes and effects) </li></ul><ul><li>Detecting bias-determining importance </li></ul><ul><li>Active inquisition-How and Why things work </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive and deductive reasoning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Pt of View-often written from scientist point of view vs. students </li></ul><ul><li>Questions posed are often fact oriented </li></ul>

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