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Pragmatics (2)
 

Pragmatics (2)

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Pragmatics(part 2) PBGS 6304,General Linguistics for TESL 2011,University of Malaya

Pragmatics(part 2) PBGS 6304,General Linguistics for TESL 2011,University of Malaya

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    Pragmatics (2) Pragmatics (2) Presentation Transcript

    • PRAGMATICS: LANGUAGE IN SOCIAL CONTEXT O’Grady, W., Dobrovlsky, M. & Aronoff, M. (1997). Contemporary Linguistics. 3 rd Ed. New York: St. Martin’s Press The social situation is the most powerful determinant of verbal behaviour.. - William Labov
    • SEMANTICS VS. PRAGMATICS
      • Semantics and pragmatics are both the study of meaning.
      • But,
        • semantics meaning is fixed with no context
        • Pragmatics meaning is in context
      • Ray: Hi mum
      • Mum: Hi. You’re late.
      • Ray: Yeah, that bastard Sootbucket kept us in again.
      • Mum: Nana’s here.
      • Ray: Oh sorry. Where is she?
      • Ray: Good afternoon, sir.
      • Principal: What are you doing here at this time?
      • Ray: Mr. Sutton kept us in, sir.
      • Why do we say the same thing in different ways?
    • PRAGMATICS AND SOCIOLINGUISTICS
      • Relevance:
        • as pragmatics is the study of meaning in context, sociolinguistics is another dimension where the meaning derives from the social context of the speaker.
      • Rationale:
        • To create awareness that the reality of language in social contexts is not one of proper speech versus all other speech but of a set of complementary speech varieties that are used by members of the speech community
    • FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT
      • The locus of all sociolinguistics investigation is the speech community .
      • A speech community can be as small as a town, village, or even a club or as large as a nation or a group of nations.
      • Its members share a particular language (or variety of a language) as well as the norms (or rules) for the appropriate use of their language in social context.
    • FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT
      • Speech variety is the label given to that language used by any group of speakers.
      • It is an ambiguous term, which can refer to the basic lexicon , phonology , syntax and morphology shared by members of the group in particular situations.
      • Four types of speech varieties: the standard language, sociolects, regional dialects and registers.
    • HOW CONTEXT IS GROUNDED IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS
      • Social stratification
        • People of different SES practice different speech varieties.
      • Language and gender
        • View 1: gender differences in language are simply a reflection of the way society works (verb forms in Arabic language).
        • View 2: language serves as a primary means of constructing and maintaining that society ( stereotyping men in occupations and sports).
        • How context is grounded?
    • HOW CONTEXT IS GROUNDED IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS
      • Euphemism
        • The avoidance of words that may be seen as offensive, obscene, or somehow disturbing the listeners or readers i.e.: pass away – die
      • Slang
        • Denote certain informal or faddish usages of nearly anyone in the speech community
      • Jargon
        • Used interchangeably to refer to ‘obscure or secret language’ or ‘language of a particular occupational group’.
        • How context is grounded?
    • HOW CONTEXT IS GROUNDED IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS
      • Regional differentiation of language (dialect)
        • Pitih / duit
        • Riyal / ringgit
      • Mixed languages (pidgins and creoles)
      • Context is grounded through the understanding of the background of the speaker thus, meaning might differ if one is not familiar with the speaker’s background.
    • HOW CONTEXT IS GROUNDED IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS
      • Components of Speech Situations (Hymes, 1962) that would influence speech production
        • S etting (where the interaction takes place)
        • P articipants (those involved in the interaction)
        • E nd (the purpose of the interaction)
        • A ct Sequence (message form and content)
        • K ey (tone, mood and manner – sarcastic, dramatic etc.)
        • I nstrumentalities (channel – verbal, non-verbal, face-to-face; code – the language/variety used)
        • N orms (basic rules underlie the interaction)
        • G enre, any one of a class of a named speech acts (greeting, leave-taking, lecture, joke and so on).
    • IMPLICATIONS TO ESL TEACHING AND LEARNING
      • Enhance cultural knowledge.
      • Build and strengthen background knowledge or schemata.
      • Engage and improve critical and creative thinking skills.