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Arb2103 final projet4

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Final project for:

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ARB2103
August 3rd, 2010
Angela Dore

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Arb2103 final projet4 Arb2103 final projet4 Presentation Transcript

  • RAQS SHARQI رقصشرقي
    Art Form
    or
    Tool of the Temptress?
  • Rakkase
    Belly Dance
    CifteTelli
    Baladi
    Folkloric dance
    The dance which whose in the west know as "belly dance" has gone by many names. “The French who found the dance named it "dance du ventre", or dance of the stomach. It is known in Greece as the ciftetelli (also the name of a Turkish rhythm), in Turkey as rakkase and in Egypt as RaksSharki. Middle Easterners also call it "danseorientale" to distinguish it from the "balady", or country, dance”. (1)
    Oriental dance
    Dance du ventre
    رقصشرقي‎
    RaqsSharqi
    قصبلدي
  • Origins of Belly Dancing
    There are many theories concerning the origins of belly dancing, one of which is it’s origin being a dance for women, by women. It is believed to have originated in the Paleolithic era (2). It has been suggested it was an early custom for the the dance to be performed by women around a women during labour, supposedly rendering the birth less painful (2).
    Egyptian carving of the god Isis giving birth
    Andrew Hammond, in his book Pop Culture in the Arab World refers to “Research that cites “Pharaonic religious worship and fertility rites, as well as Bedouin traditions and the great mixing of cultures engendered by the Ottoman empires” as an explanation of the origins of what is now called RaqsSahrqi, or belly dancing (3).
  • Another theory is that it was simply danced for entertainment.
    Some claim that RaqsSharqi began as a dance for women by women (2). Some believe the dance itself was considered sacred, and not intended to be seen by men at all (1).
    Others claim that it was always meant for everyone to enjoy.
    Some belly dance historians believe that the movements of dancing girls depicted in carvings in Pharaonic times are typical of belly dancing (4).
  • Napoleon and the Western encounter with Belly dancing in the Arab World
    One of belly dancing’s first documented encounters with the west was with the Emperor Napoleon. In 1798 he met the Ghawazee tribe as his troops invaded Egypt, a people who made their living as professional entertainers and musicians (5).
    Orientalist art of Ghawazee dancers
    They soon discovered that the French soldiers were a new and bountiful source of revenue. They adapted their repertoire to entice more income (5)
    Belly dancers became an obsession for many Western travelers because of the supposed forbidden sensuality the dancers represented (5)
    Female Ghawazee were called Ghazeeye
  • Americans first saw belly dancing at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. The fair had a number of exhibits focused on Middle Eastern culture. Organizers billed it "as a cultural exhibit, as an amusement for the masses, and as a means to offset the gigantic costs of the exposition” (5).
    The Ghawazee dancers, particularly the dancer named Little Egypt, performed at the fair to titillated and scandalized audiences (5).
    Little Egypt, 1893
    Due to the dancer’s success at the world fair, in the following years ethnological exhibits of foreign customs and pastimes quickly gave way to peep shows inspired by the exotic East. Many dancers claiming to be Little Egypt performed at cabarets and burlesque shows. “They soon became a staple for the booming amusement industry and the dance's notoriety was secured with the unsavory reputation of the burlesque business” (5).
    Back in Egypt, the dance was transforming to satiate the colonial audience’s demand. “The Arab dancers adopted the new cabaret uniform of bra, low-slung gauzy skirt with side slits and bare midriff” (5).
  • Seeking to capitalize on this fascination with the Middle East, Hollywood began showcasing belly dancers in movies. And to sensationalize the subject even further, they featured belly dancers wearing sequined costumes that revealed the navel (6).
    In Egypt, the cabaret style clubs where dancers performed tended to be “sleazy dives until Syrian-born actress and dancer, BadiaMasabni opened her club, the Casino Opera” (7).
    Canadian actress Maud Allen plays a belly dancer in the 1903 movie The Vision Of Salome
    BadiaMasabni changed the way dancers performed, and it was in Badia's club where she trained two of the most influential dancers of the 1930s & 40s - SamiaGamal and Tahiya Carioca (8).
    BadiaMasabni’s troupe at the Casino Opera
  • Golden Age of Belly Dancing
    The Golden age began in the 1920’s, with the Casino Opera club. The dance was modernized from it’s original stationary form in small spaces by BadiaMasabni, who added arm movements, chest-shaking, and movements that made use of the entire stage, and added props such as veils (2 - p.238).
    Other great dancers of the golden age included Nai’imaAkef, Laila al-Gazairiyya, Nelly Mazoum and Kitty. (2 - p.238).
    Another major change at the time was costuming. Up until the golden age dancers wore a long dress with a scarf accentuating their hips. At this time the beaded two piece bedlah made its appearance, due to Hollywood’s influence (9).
  • TAHIA KARIOKA (1915-1999)
    Born AblaMuhammedKarim, she changed her name changed her name to Karioka after the brazilian samba dance she performed at the casino. (10)
    Tahiya was discouraged from performing as a dancer by her family. Due to family differences that could not be settled with her father and brothers, she moved to Cairo to begin her training at the age of 12. (10)
    Studied at the Ivanova Dancing School before working at the casino where she reputedly earned 20 LE a week at the age of 14. (9)
    Tahiya was married 14 times, including an American, actor RushdyAbaza and playwright Fayez Halawa. (10)
    Tahya Carioca's first movie "La
    Femme et le Pantin" launched
    her film career that begun in 1935 and did more than 120 films. (11)
    In 1936, she danced in King Farouk’s wedding procession, performing to music sung by the great Om Kalthoum, who was a great admirer of Tahia. (13)
    Egyptian Culture Minister, Farouk Hosni, led her funeral procession. (12)
  • SAMIA GAMAL
    (1924-1994)
    Born as Zaynab Ibrahim Mahfuz, SamiaGamal began her career under the training of BadiaMasabn. (14)
    Although SamiaGamal is considered second after TahieahKarryoka, she is said to have made Belly dance more expressive, and is credited with elevating it to a more respectable status. (15)
    She incorporated techniques from ballet and Latin dance into her solo performances. She was also the first to perform with high-heeled shoes on stage (she didn't
    want people to think she couldn't afford shoes). (7)
    In 1949, Egypt's King Farouk proclaimed SamiaGamal "The National Dancer of Egypt”. (14)
    She also attained star status in the US after a visit in the 1950’s (14).
    Stared in dozens of films
    Along side the famous Farid Al Attrach. The two had a romantic relationship but were never married (14).
  • NaimaAkef – 1929 - 1966
    Her parents were acrobats in the well known Akef Circus. Naima started performing in the circus at the age of four, and quickly became one of the most popular acts with her acrobatic skills. (16)
    Through her later work at Kit Kat club, she was introduced to film director AbbasKemal, and went on to star in his films. (16)
    After the circus disbanded, she formed an acrobatic and clown act that performed in many clubs throughout Cairo. (16)
    Two years after quitting acting to take care of her child, she died of cancer at the young age of 37. (16)
    Went on to become a star in BadeiaMasabny's famous nightclub, one of the few performers who could dance and sing. She was also favoured by Badeia, making the other girls jealous. The other performers ganged up on her to beat her up. She won the fight but was forced to perform elsewhere. (16)
  • FIFI ABDO - 1953
    Born Atiyat Abdul Fattah Ibrahim, FifiAbdo began her career dancing at weddings, working her way up to theatre and cinema. (17)
    In her twenties Fifi performed in big solo dance shows with large live orchestras. The shows attracted Saudi and Kuwaiti audiences, and were a massive success. (18)
    The Egyptian Television Network banned the screening of all dramas starring FifiAbdo
    Starred in several Ramadan television dramas broadcast through the Arab world. (17)
    At 12 Fifi ran away from home
    with a local folkloric troupe.
    She was gone from home for
    a few months until her family finally gave in and allowed her to dance. (18)
    “In Egypt, everyone dances,
    at weddings, parties and at
    home - it is such a shame that they cannot do this free from reprisal” – FifiAbdo
    Has been married 6 times, is currently married to the ambassador to Greenland, and has two daughters. (17)
  • Movements and Steps - Posture
    The actual dance of RaqSharqi is “a combination of smooth, flowing, complex, and sensual movements of the torso, interchanged with shaking and shimmy type moves. (19)
    The trick is to take each belly dancing move step by step to ease the confusion. Once the steps are mastered, the confusion is eliminated on its own. (19)
    The very first thing before beginning to dance is to master the proper posture. The following is belly dancer Shira’s recommendation (20) :
    • Feet - Stand flat-footed with feet a small distance apart.
    • Knees - Gently relax the knees, so there is some bounce to them.
    • Pelvis Angle - Rotate the pelvis so that the triangle formed by the two points on the front
    of the pelvis and pubic bone points directly down to the ground!
    • Chest - Pretend the breastbone (sternum) is attached to a puppet string, and the
    puppeteer is lifting directly up. This will open up the lower abdomen.
    • Shoulders – drawn back on each side so that a line passing through them is straight, not arced
  • Basic movements
    The first moves one would learn as a beginner belly dancer in the west
    • Hip slide – moving the hips back and forth while still facing forward (like a typewriter)
    • Hip Twist – moving each side of your hips forward alternately, twisting around a
    center axis, knees and toes stay face forward without moving.
    • Figure eight – combination of the two movements, can be done front to back or back
    to front, and up and down (called a Mayan, after a famous dancer)
    • Hip Lift – Lifting up hips from side to side, as if being pulled by a string above. When
    done very quickly, becomes a shimmy
    • Chest slide – similar to the hip slide, but with the chest, keeping the hips still
    • Pelvic wave – pushing pelvis forward and backwards
    • Chest lift – using the back muscles
    • Chest circle – combined chest slide and chest lift
    • Isolating the shoulders – shoulder roll, shoulder shimmy
  • Modern belly dancing in the Arab world
    The Arab world appears to be both proud but at the same time embarrassed of its dance. (19)
    It is both acceptable, revered and stigmatized at the same time.
    On the acceptableside is dance as a social pastime, performed in the home by women for women as a means of entertaining each other. (9)
    On the unacceptable side is professional dance, which was the province of gypsies and poorer members of society. They have a pride in the dance but no respectable family wants its daughter to pursue the profession. They don't want it to die out but they don't want to nurture it either. (9)
    A dancer remains a citizen of low social status unless ironically she becomes famous. Top oriental dancers become national icons, and often expand their careers into cinema or TV where they acquire further wealth and fame - there is a social stigma attached to dancers - when they become famous this turns into adulation on a massive scale such as FifiAbdo and Dina. (9)
    If dance is performed in a theatre in a folkloric manner then it is seen as valuable and beyond dispute. (9)
  • Conservativism – Belly dancing perpetuates the sex trade
    Belly Dancer Fears her art is Dying – Nadia abou el Magd [The National]
    In Oct 2006, Dina was widely blamed – by officials, the media and the public – after scores of young men chased women through downtown Cairo groping them and pulling off their clothes – even those wearing Islamic headscarves and face veils.
    She had been dancing with a popular singer in front of a downtown cinema to advertise a movie that was playing during Eid, and allegedly aroused the men, causing them to run riot.
    “This accusation made me laugh,” Dina said. “I couldn’t believe I could be responsible for unleashing a sexual uprising by hundreds of men. It’s just unbelievable.”
    Women who belly dance in the Arab world are often stigmatized, and almost always seen as “bad, seductive women engaged in dishonourable conduct” (22).
    In the East, the dance is caught in the maze of what may pass for acceptable behaviour under Muslim law. It is recognized as part of Arabic cultural heritage yet there is still condemnation for the dancer who performs publicly (2).
  • Belly dancing in today’s primarily Islamic countries of the Arab world
    Undoubtedly, there have been many individuals over the years who have used the dance in private as a tool for seduction. But that is not how Middle Eastern people think of Oriental dance, and that is not the role they see it having in their society. For them, the dance remains firmly in the realm of something that people of all ages do for fun when they get together with friends and family. (23)
    More conservative Muslim women still hesitate to dance in settings where men other than their husbands can see them, even at these social occasions. Such women may go to the mixed-company events, but do not take a turn at dancing. (23)
    In present-day Egypt, in fact, it's customary for a newlywed couple not only to hire a belly dancer for their wedding, but also to have their photo taken with their hands on the dancer's stomach -- another throwback to the dance's significance as a fertility rite. (23)
    Belly dancing pre-dates Islam, and despite constant and stringent criticism, belly dancing continues to have a presence in Islamic society; at weddings, birth announcements, in the home and in the reverence of the stars today such as FifiAbdo and Dina. (23)
  • Extremists in particular targeted public dance performances by women, because Islam states that women should cover their beauty and show it only to their husbands. They threatened to disrupt with violence any events that involved women performing Oriental dance in front of men. As a result, people have backed away from hiring female dancers for weddings and other happy events, because they don't want their special occasions ruined by violence. (24)
    Today, the famous Egyptian dancers such as FifiAbdo and Dina surround themselves with entourages of bodyguards to ensure their personal safety. Others such as NagwaFouad and SoheirZaki retired in the late 1980's or early 1990's because it just wasn't worth the hassle to continue. (24)
    Many dancers have retired from performing altogether. Increasingly, the dancers who continued to perform publicly were foreigners until law prohibited them from dancing too. (24)
  • Belly Dancing in Egypt today
    While belly dancing is legal in Egypt, dancers cannot perform on state-owned television in Egypt. And in an attempt to reduce the number of dancers, authorities are giving fewer licenses to foreigners and making it difficult for them to renew existing ones. (21)
    Police also monitor nightclubs to ensure that dancers’ costumes are sufficiently modest, with slitted skirts that must start below the knee. The navel is always supposed to be covered, if only by transparent material. According to Dina, the belly dancing outfits are the main cause of controversy in Egypt, rather than the dance itself. (21)
    Yet demand for belly dancing in Egypt is still high among those who approve of it, especially among the rich who can afford to pay the LE12,000 per hour rate that Dina and her band charge to perform at private functions. (21)
    “I still dance at many weddings, most of the brides are veiled but they don’t stop dancing with me and their groom all night long. For Egyptians who can afford it, a wedding means a belly dancer.” - Dina
  • Belly Dancing as an Art Form
    Many belly dancers in the West argue that Belly dancing is an art and a form of self expression, in addition to an effective means of exercise and a booster of self-confidence.
    Lebanese American belly dancer Margo Abdo describes her performance as “a celebration, for the audience and for me”. (25)
    American belly dancer Atéa seeks out the calmness and serenity of ancient Eastern philosophies and practices to help herself rise above the stress and tensions of life. (26)
    Western dancers have identified one thing that separates belly dancing from other types of dance is it’s open door policy. Anyone can learn at any time, no matter size, shape or age.
    In contrast, Kathleen Fraser, in her study of Canadian Egyptians, observed that "informants described the dance as having a legitimate place in the culture but not a serious place. Egyptian-Canadians truly love this dance but could not bring themselves to say they give it high esteem as an art” (27). It seems that in the West belly dancing can be considered an art, but in the Arab world it is simply a beloved past time to most.
  • Costume – Egyptian
    The typical Egyptian Belly dance costume is a gown or a bra and skirt with hip accentuations built directly onto it. Accessories can include a headband, arm cuffs or form fitting (unattached) sleeves, and a veil. In Egypt Oriental dancers are prohibited from exposing bare midriff. A body stocking, made from mesh with a loose or tight weave (colored or nude) is worn with two piece sets in obedience to this law. Shoes are a possibility. (28)
    The styling of the currently popular belt (low or high end) in Egyptian cosumes is distinct. The front part of the belt is rectangular in shape while the back is in a half circle, covering and slightly cupping the buttocks. The belt is often in one piece (unlike most Turkish belts that come in two parts) and the edges are clean and straight. (28)
    There is quite a large difference between high end custom-made costume and a mass produced one. The mass produced costumes typically do not fit most women very well, and has much less decoration and detail. The fabric is noticeably more luxurious on the custom made costumes.
    High end Beginner (lower)
  • Costume Variations – Turkish costume
    A lower end full costume will come with either a sheer pantaloon or skirt with no, or minimal, decoration and may also include a veil. Fabrics tend to be an industrial strength polyester/chiffon blend. (28)
    The Turkish Belly dance costume consists of bra, belt and skirt. Also prevalent among current designs are hip accentuations built directly onto the skirt in lieu of a separate belt. Accessories can include headband, necklace, wrist or arm cuffs or unattached sleeves (either form fitting or flowing), and veil. Gowns are not common. Neither are pants, Turkish dancers often show legs to full advantage. Shoes are a possibility. (28)
    Full designer costumes include decorative headband and necklace, some type of arm adornment, a veil, bra, belt, and skirt. Fabrics used are velvet, crushed velvet, stretch velvet, chiffons and some lycra. (28)
    Higher end mass produced Turkish belly dance costumes share similar characteristics as lower end sets but are of superior quality. For example, the design patterns on the bra and belt will be in equal proportion and perfectly centered. Fringe will be the exact same length, and strung to last. Stitch work is sturdier. There will be more detail work on the skirt and veil. The shape, form and fit of the bra and belt are better. (28)
    High end Beginner (lower)
  • Belly Dancing Props
    Sword
    Sword dances are performed in the sense of sword balancing. The sword used must be specific to belly dancing or a “balancing sword”, which is more likely to balance in a more central position. Most dancers blunt the sword so the dance still looks like an amazing feat, but the danger is lessened. Frequently a thin layer of wax is also rubbed onto the sword for the same purpose. It takes a significant amount of practice to be able to balance the sword balance a sword on one’s head, chin, wrist, shoulder, hip, stomach or thigh, but once the talent is mastered it is very impressive. (30)
    Veil
    Traditionally, veils were used by the women in the orient for discretion in public. True veil dancing in oriental dance
    occurred only within the last century and was strongly influenced by dancers of the West. They are made of any light fabric that easily catches the air, silk is the best. They are a rectangular shape, double the length of one’s arm, and are used during soft, flowing music or classical oriental dance routine (but not folkloric), and usually during the beginning of a performance. (29)
  • Cane
    Belly dancing with a cane can look simple, but it is actually quite challenging and takes a lot of practice to master. Cane dancing can be an authentic dance type, commonly known as Raks al Assaya or Saiidi, an exciting Egyptian folkloric dance performed with a cane. The dance has its roots on El Saiid or upper Egypt, in the south of the country. (31)
    Zills
    Finger cymbals are called "zils" or "zills" in Turkey and "sagat" or "zagat" in Arabic. They are small metal disks, worn on your hands and played while you are belly dancing. Most belly dancers wear four of them: one on each thumb, and one on the middle finger of each hand. Professional dancers often have several pairs of finger cymbals in gold and silver so they can choose the color that looks better with a particular costume and the sound volume that works best for a particular setting. (32)
  • Music
    Instruments
    Belly dancing music uses different wind, string and percussion instruments pertaining to a specific region of the Middle East. A reed flute called the nay produces a delicate and haunting sound used in a spiritual whirling of the arms and upper body. The oud is a wooden lute with a pear shape. Strumming this guitar-like instrument creates rhythms that cause belly dancers to respond with soft shimmies of their hips and torso. Drums like the Egyptian darbuka accent a dancer's rolling hip shimmies. (33)
    Oud
    Nay
    A dancer’s goal is to visually communicate to the audience the emotion and rhythm of the music. This is especially apparent during the drum solo portion of a performance. (34)
    Many belly dancers have used a band or a drummer who will regularily play for them. Some of the more famous dancers (SoheirZaki, NagwaFouad, Lucy, Nadia Hamdi, FifiAbdo) commissioned musicians to compose intricate songs played by 40-piece orchestras just for them. (24)
    Darbuka
  • Music - Tribal
    Percussion instruments have been used since the beginning, and were the original music belly dancer’s danced to. Drums were popular because they could be made using easily obtainable materials. (35)
    Traditionally, Oriental Dancing was spontaneous and so was its music. Live musicians (or even just a single drummer) would play while the dancer interpreted the music. The music or rhythm might change and lead the dancer in a new direction and vice versa. (35)
    Belly dancers would also share the stage with famous dancers in the golden age, such as TahiaKarioka with Um Kalthoum at King Farouk’s wedding. (13)
    Composers such as Mohamed Abdul Wahab, AssiRahbani and MansourRabbani composed music for belly dancers to use in their performances and in films.
  • Music – modern
    Many modern practitioners make use of the music of Egyptian Sha'abi singers, including Ahmed Adaweya, Hakim, and Saad
    el Soghayar in their routines, which combines
    the percussion of modern Egyptian music
    with a traditional feeling for music and dance
    in the RaksSha'abi style. (36)
    Today one can find thousands of mixes and
    compilations for belly dancers, put togethe
    r by other belly dancers and professionals.
    They can be bought for the most part online, and there is an extensive online community dedicated to the review of belly dancing music.
    Hakim - the lion of Egypt
  • Male belly dancers
    Today belly dancing is a very female dominated, and when one thinks of belly dancing, typically the male figure does not come to mind.
    Male belly dancing, a centuries-old Egyptian tradition, is making a comeback - against the odds, considering its periodic suppression by government and religious officials. The problem for is that his craft has long been associated with homosexuality - a taboo in Egypt. (39)
    Historically, when it was forbidden for females to dance in front of males, male impersonators would take their place. Today, most male belly dancers are not impersonators, but have a style of dance all their own. (37)
    After the decline of the male belly dance, modern times have seen a revival. Composer UlviCemalErkin, among others, has written music for them and performances are making a come back. The styles vary from sensual to folkloric and dancers even develop their own choreography and costumes. (38)
    In the Arab world, most choreographers
    and some of the most well known belly dance instructors are male.
  • Tito Seif, a well-known belly dancer (in the video above), dances only in the galabiyah, a slack caftan, never in anything revealing. "I don't believe that a male belly dancer should imitate a woman," says Seif, 35. "We should not forget we are men, and dance in a manly way.” (41)
    The male costume can consist of "harem pants", a tassel and/or coin belt, and some kind of vest - or a shirt. Some dance topless. Many males insist on wearing a shirt and eschew the traditional two piece costume. (40)
    Tito Seif
  • Conclusion
    There are many different factors that determine one’s opinion of belly dancing, the two major being one’s level of familiarity and level of conservativism.
    Those that practice and understand belly dancing see it as having many benefits, for body, mind and spirit. Those that focus on the supposed sensuality and revealing attire tend to criticize and degrade those who practice belly dancing.
    The dance with many different names varies in the extremes from East to West. In the West it is a past time for women, something for fun or exercise or occasionally a career. In the West it is a part of the culture, neither supported nor stamped out completely, and not to be practiced by a respectable woman.
    The dance can be transformed into whatever the performer wishes, by using different styles of dance, different music, costume variation, props, settings, in a group or solo.
    The ancient practice of belly dancing will continue to evolve and survive in the future, though it is possible support for the practice will be entirely stamped out in the Arab world, and will be forced to continue only in the West, something that would be devastating for the controversial yet valuable cultural practice of the Arab world
  • Bibliography
    http://www.bdancer.com/history/BDhist1.html
    Dils, A., & Cooper-Albright, A. (2001). Moving History/Dancing Cultures: A Dance History Reader (1st ed.). Middleton, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press.
    Hammond, A. (2007). Pop Culture Arab World. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
    http://www.gildedserpent.com/cms/2009/10/19/deagonnakedbdpart1/
    http://www.fcbd.com/about/history_rr.shtml
    http://www.brighthub.com/health/fitness/articles/20746.aspx
    http://www.venusbellydance.com/articles.htm#golden
    http://www.mahabellydance.com/mahabellydancev2/bdhistory1.html
    http://www.carolinebellydancer.co.uk/history_culture_bellydance.htm
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tahiya_Karioka
    http://www.belly-dance.org/tahia-carioca.html
    http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0137226/bio
    http://www.serpentine.org/yasmin/TahiaCarioka.htm
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samia_Gamal
    http://www.belly-dance.org/samia-gamal.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naima_Akef
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifi_Abdo
    http://www.zaraszouk.co.uk/fifi_abdou.htm
    http://www.buzzle.com/articles/belly-dancing-moves.html
    http://www.shira.net/avoid-injury.htm
  • http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080630/FOREIGN/309864832
    Nieuwkerk, Karin van. "A Trade like Any Other": Female Singers and Dancers in Egypt. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.
    http://www.shira.net/whole-family.htm
    http://www.shira.net/egyptianfuss.htm
    http://www.orientaldancer.net/guest-stories/dance-celebration.shtml
    http://www.bellydancingvideo.com/bellydance3.htm
    Shay, Anthony , and Barbara Sellers-Young. "Belly Dance: Orientalism, Exiticism, Self-Exoticism ." Dance Research Journal (2003)
    http://bellydanceatlanta.com/Overview/Costumes.html
    http://www.jasminjahal.com/articles/99_12.veil.html
    http://hubpages.com/hub/Belly-Dance-Balancing-Sword
    http://www.pinkgypsy.com/questions3.htm - Cane
    http://www.shira.net/zills.htm
    http://www.ehow.com/about_5488833_history-belly-dancing-music.html
    http://www.esto.es/bellydance/english/history.htm
    http://bellydancingmusic.blogspot.com/
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belly_dance
    Williams , Daniel. "Male Belly Dancing Makes Comeback in Egypt, Defying Suppression." Bloomberg [online ] 3 Jan. 2008
    http://worlddance.suite101.com/article.cfm/comeback_of_the_male_belly_dancers
    http://www.atlantabellydance.com/Overview/MaleBellyDancers.html
    http://www.buzzle.com/articles/male-belly-dancing.html
    http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/02/world/africa/02iht-letter.1.8984242.html
  • For fun!
    Q: How are belly dancers and plastic surgeons alike?
    A: They both tuck and lift!
    Q: Why did the belly dancer cross the road?
    A: She heard there were costumes on the other side.
    Q: What kind of crowds do belly dancers hang out in?
    A: Hip circles!
    Q: What is the difference between a belly dancer and an incompetent pastry chef?
    A: One shakes body parts, and the other bakes shoddy tarts!