The Hydrological cycle LO:1. To learn key words and definitions relating to the hydrological cycle2. To be able to explain if something is an input, output, store or transfer.3. To be able to complete a hydrological cycle diagram
A SIMPLIFIED HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE Input PRECIPITATIONCONDENSATION o u t p u t LAND EVAPORATION What happens when water reaches the ground? SEA
Key WordsA. EVAPORATION 1. When water vapour changes to liquid (cooling)B. CONDENSATION 2. Water in any form that falls to earth e.g. rainC. PRECIPITATION 3. When the ground water moves through the landD. RUN-OFF 4. When liquid changes to water vapour (warming)E. PERCOLATION 5. The water that is stored within the groundF. GROUND WATER 6. Water that is stored e.g. ground,clouds,air etc.G. WATER STORES 7. Water that moves directly along the ground without penetrating. Match the letter with the corresponding number
Key WordsA. EVAPORATION 1. When water vapour changes to liquid (cooling) A = 4.B. CONDENSATION 2. Water in any form that falls to earth e.g. rain B = 1.C. PRECIPITATION 3. When the ground water moves through the land C = 2. 4. When liquid changes to water vapour (warming) D =7.D. RUN-OFF 5. The water that is stored within the ground E = 3.E. PERCOLATION F = 5.F. GROUND WATER 6. Water that is stored e.g. ground,clouds,air etc. G = 6.G. WATER STORES 7. Water that moves directly along the ground without penetrating. Match the letter with the corresponding number
Inputs•Inputs are ways in which water can get into the system•Precipitation is the general term used to describe all theways which moisture come out of the atmosphere. PRECIPITATION R a i N FROST
OUTPUTS•Outputs are ways in which water can leave a system.•Evaporation – water on the surface can easily be evaporated(turned to vapour) naturally by the suns heat energy – a breezewill also help evaporation.•Transpiration – evaporation from plant leaves of water whichhas been taken up from the roots and transported to the leaves•Evapotranspiration – general term for evaporation andtranspiration together•River discharge – when the river reaches the sea/ lake andends.
Transfer/ flows•Transfer/ flows are mechanisms which allow water to movefrom one place to another.•Surface runoff/ overland flow – water that flows over theland; common in areas where the water cannot be absorbedby the ground such as permeable surfaces e.g. concrete orsaturated areas.•Throughfall – water dripping from one leaf to another•Stemflow – water running down a plants stem/trunk•Throughflow – water moving slowly downhill through thesoil. “pipes” such as cracks, or burrows in the soil willincrease the rate of throughflow.
Transfer/ flows•Infiltration – Water soaking into the SOIL. Infiltration ratedepends on soil type, and how saturated the soil already is.•Percolation – water seeping through the ROCKS, under thesoil surface. Rate of percolation depends on rock type.•Groundwater flow – water flowing slowly below the watertable through permeable rocks.•Baseflow – groundwater that feeds into rivers•Interflow – water flowing downhill through the permeablerock above the water table•Channel flow/ river discharge - water flowing in the river/stream.
Keyword bingo1. Mark out a 3 x 3 grid2. Choose 9 words from the list below and write one word in each box on grid.3. Check the person next to you has done steps 1 and 2 and can’t cheat!4. Listen carefully to the definitions read out and score out the keyword that corresponds to it if you have it on your grid.5. When you get a line call out “BINGO!” Precipitation Surface runoff Throughfall Evaporation Stemflow Infiltration Input Output Percolation Transpiration River discharge Throughflow Groundwater flow Evapotranspiration baseflow
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