Mineral guide a--ian_kenyon

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Mineral guide a--ian_kenyon

  1. 1. WJEC AS Mineral Guide I.G.Kenyon
  2. 2. Quartz (silicate) Hardness 7, not scratched by steel No cleavage but shows conchoidal fracture Hexagonal crystals terminated by pyramids 5mm1cmQuartz (variety citrine) Rose quartz showing conchoidal fracture
  3. 3. Orthoclase Feldspar (silicate) Hardness 6, barely scratched by steel2 cleavages intersecting at90° results in blocky shapeCommonly flesh coloured Crystals show simple twinning 2cm
  4. 4. Plagioclase Feldspar (silicate) 1cm Hardness 6, barely scratched by steel 2 sets of cleavages intersecting at 90° resulting in blocky form Commonly creamy white or grey in colour Crystals show multiple or repeated twins
  5. 5. Biotite Mica (silicate)Hardness 2.5-3.0 scratched by a copper coin Shows perfect basal (parallel) cleavage Has a distinct pearly lustreBrown or black in colour 2cm
  6. 6. Muscovite Mica (silicate) Hardness 2.5-3.0 scratched by a copper coin Shows perfect basal (parallel) cleavage Has a distinct pearly lustre 2cm Whitish, straw or silvery in colour
  7. 7. Hornblende (amphibole/silicate)Hardness 5.0-6.0, just scratched by steel 1cm 2 sets of cleavagesintersecting at 60°/120°Greenish black in colour
  8. 8. Augite (pyroxene/silicate) Hardness 5.0-6.0, just scratched by steel 2 sets of cleavages intersecting at 90° Greenish black in colour
  9. 9. Olivine (silicate)Hardness 6.0-7.0,not scratched by steelOlive green in colour 2cm No cleavage Olivine, Canary Islands
  10. 10. Andalusite/Chiastolite (silicate) Hardness 6.5-7.5, not scratched by steel Occurs as needle-like crystals but square in cross-section Crystals have dark 1cm inclusions in the centre, like lead in a pencil
  11. 11. Garnet (silicate)Hardness 6.5-7.5, not scratched by steelRhombdodecahedralcrystal form, 12 faceseach one a rhombus No cleavage Red/brown or green in colour 2cm Almandine Garnet, Peru
  12. 12. Chlorite (silicate) Hardness 2.0, scratched by fingernail Perfect basal (parallel) cleavage Greenish colour Feels greasy when rubbed between the fingers Alteration product 1cm from amphiboles, pyroxenes and micasChlorite, Val Di Vizze, Italy
  13. 13. Calcite (carbonate)Hardness 3, just scratched by a copper coin Perfect rhombohedral 1cm cleavage, 3 planes intersect at 60°/120° to give cleavage rhombsEffervesces and gives off carbon dioxide when dilute hydrochloric acid is applied
  14. 14. Fluorite (halide) Hardness 4, scratched easily by steel but not by a copper coin Perfect octahedral cleavage, cubic crystals have the corners missing at a 45° angle Fluoresces in ultra violet light Commonly purple, green or yellow in colour1cm
  15. 15. Halite or Rock Salt (halide)Hardness 2.0-2.5, 2cm scratched by a fingernail Perfect cubiccleavage, 3 planesintersecting at 90°Tastes salty whenput on the tongue Halite, Neuhof, Germany
  16. 16. Gypsum (sulphate) Hardness 1.5 -2.0, easily scratched by a fingernail Perfect basal (parallel) cleavage2cm Often fibrous in appearance (satin spar) Arrow head/fish tail twinned crystals common
  17. 17. Barytes/Barite (sulphate) Hardness 3.0-3.5,barely scratched by a copper coin Dense for a non-metallic mineral (4.5) Often shows perfect basal (parallel)cleavage, occasionally displays 2 cleavages Commonly shows bladed crystal 2cm
  18. 18. Chalcopyrite (sulphide) Hardness 4, not scratched by a copper coin Black streak with gold strands within it Metallic lustre Greenish gold colour Tarnishes to1cm peacock colours
  19. 19. Iron Pyrite/Pyrite (sulphide)Greenish black streakHardness 6.0, barelyscratched with steel Metallic lustre Brassy gold colourCubic crystals show striated faces Strikes fire (sparks) with steel 1cm
  20. 20. Galena (sulphide)1cm Perfect cubic cleavage, 3 planes intersect at 90° Hardness 2.5, easily scratched by a copper coin Lead grey streak Very dense (7.5)
  21. 21. Haematite (oxide) Hardness 5.5-6.5, barely scratched by steel Cherry red streak Metallic lustre Often occurs askidney shaped masseswith a fibrous internal structure 1cm
  22. 22. Identify this mineral 1 90° 1cm Just scratched by steel
  23. 23. Identify this mineral 2 1cmGreenish black streak, barely scratched by steel
  24. 24. Identify this mineral 3 2cmNot scratched by steel, no cleavage
  25. 25. Identify this mineral 4 Cubic crystals with edges truncated at 45° 2cmScratched by steel but not by a copper coin
  26. 26. Identify this mineral 5 2cmNot scratched by steel, crystal has 12 faces
  27. 27. Identify this mineral 6 2cm Cleavage 90° tracesBarely scratched by steel, crystals often show simple twins
  28. 28. Identify this mineral 7 2cmFeels dense, barely scratched by a copper coin
  29. 29. Identify this mineral 8 Cleavage directions 1cm 1cmJust scratched by fingernail
  30. 30. Identify this mineral 9 60° 120° Cleavage traces 2cmJust scratched by steel
  31. 31. Identify this mineral 10 2cm Not scratched by steel
  32. 32. Identify this mineral 11 Cleavage traces 90° 2cmBarely scratched by steel, crystals often show multiple twins
  33. 33. Identify this mineral 12 Cleavage traces 2cmScratched by a copper coin
  34. 34. Identify this mineral 13 2cmBarely scratched by steel, cherry red streak
  35. 35. Identify this mineral 14 1cmCan be just scratched by a fingernail
  36. 36. Identify this mineral 15 5mmNot scratched by steel, needle-like crystals
  37. 37. Identify this mineral 16 1cmScratched by a fingernail, fibrous/flaky, feels greasy
  38. 38. Name this mineral 17 2cmScratched easily by steel but not by a copper coin, black streak with gold strands
  39. 39. Name this mineral 18 1cmVery dense, scratched by a copper coin, grey streak
  40. 40. Name this mineral 19 1cmReacts with acid, barely scratched by a copper coin, 3 cleavages
  41. 41. Name this mineral 20 Cleavage traces 1cmScratched easily by a fingernail, one plane of cleavage
  42. 42. Name this mineral - Answers1. Augite 11. Plagioclase2. Iron Pyrite 12. Biotite3. Olivine 13. Haematite4. Fluorite 14. Muscovite5. Garnet 15. Chiastolite6. Orthoclase 16. Chlorite7. Barytes 17. Chalcopyrite8. Halite 18. Galena9. Hornblende 19. Calcite10.Quartz 20. Gypsum

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