Glacial landforms

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  • 1. Peter Knight's Photos of Landscapes and Glaciers (Keele University) *
  • 2. The smallest scale of glaciation: Niche glaciers and ice aprons in the Grand Tetons, Wyoming, USA. Small glaciers such as these are often the most sensitive to local climate change.  Niche glaciers
  • 3. The summit ice cap of  the volcano, Cotopaxi, Ecuador The ice cap extends further on one side of the mountain. The side of the mountain facing the moisture-bearing winds has higher snowfall and hence more extensive glaciation. The deep channels carved by meltwater and by volcanic mudflows (lahars) caused by melting of snow and ice during eruptions.
  • 4. RUTH GLACIER, MOUNT MC KINLEY VALLEY GLACIER
  • 5. Regal and Nizina Glaciers , Alaska
  • 6. West Greenland ICE SHEET B A
  • 7. April 67N August 67N Greenland Greenland
  • 8. Russell Glacier Ice Front Snout or Ice Front
  • 9. CREVASSE ICE CAVE SUPRAGLACIAL STREAM *
  • 10. Ice cliff Subglacial stream
  • 11. 1960 1964 1954 1958 retreated dramatically in the twentieth century Franz Josef Glacier, located in New Zealand
  • 12. Ice scoured topography Clean ice sliding on bedrock *
  • 13. MOUNT MC KINLEY Athabasca Glacier A B C
  • 14. Striations Erratics
  • 15. 1 1 1 1 2 3 4
  • 16. Lateral and terminal moraines, Bylot Island, Canada End moraine, Bylot Island, Canada
  • 17. Moraines of different ages Ice Front *
  • 18. PUSH MORAINE
  • 19. Proglacial zone Ice-dammed lake
  • 20. BRAIDED CHANNEL OUTWASH PLAINS
  • 21. RAISED BEACH, W. SCOTLAND
  • 22. Match the following features to the numbers on the diagram. Arête; Hanging Valley; Corrie (or Cirque); 'U' Shaped Valley; Alluvial Fan; Pyramidal Peak; Corrie Lochan (or Tarn); Misfit Stream; Ribbon Lake; Truncated Spur; Screes.
  • 23. 1 is a Pyramidal Peak because it has steep, triangular faces divided by sharp ridges or arêtes. 2 is an Arête , because it is a sharp ridge between corries. 3 is a Corrie or Cirque , because it is an armchair shaped hollow with steep back and sides. 4 is a Corrie Lochan or Tarn , because water has gathered in the hollow in the floor of the corrie. 5 is an Alluvial Fan , because it is a fan shaped pile of rock remains (alluvium) washed down by the stream and piled up where the steep valley side meets the valley floor. 6 is a Ribbon Lake , because it is a long narrow lake in a part of the valley cut deeper by the glacier. 7 is a Truncated Spur , because the ridge has been cut off sharply by the ice that flowed down the main valley. 8 is a Misfit Stream , because it is far too small to have cut the valley. 9 is a Hanging Valley , because the valley floor is much higher than the floor of the main valley. 10 is a 'U' Shaped Valley , because it has steep sides and a nearly flat floor. (The other side of the valley is missing in this cut-away
  • 24. Kame Terrace; Esker; Terminal Moraine; Till (or Ground Moraine / Boulder Clay); Outwash Plain; Drumlin:Kettle; Delta Kame; Sorted Sands and Gravels.
  • 25. 1 is a Terminal Moraine. A hummocky ridge of unsorted stones, boulders and clays dumped by the glacier at the furthest point it reached 2 is a Drumlin. A long, rounded mound of till, moulded under the flowing ice. Its narrower end points in the direction that the ice was moving. They usually occur in groups (swarms). 3 is a Kettle. A water filled hollow left when a block of ice in the till or outwash melted to leave a hollow. 4 is an Esker. A long, winding ridge of sands and gravels left by a stream which ran in an ice tunnel under the melting glacier. 5 is Till (Ground Moraine or Boulder Clay). A mixture of broken rocks and clay plastered over the bedrock under the base of the glacier. 6 is an Outwash Plain. A nearly flat expanse of sorted sands and gravels washed out of the glacier and carried beyond the terminal moraine. 7 is Sorted sands and gravels. The meltwaters washed these away from the glacier, rounding off angular stones and depositing them in layers. Largest first, smallest last (sorting).