Glacial features

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Glacial features

  1. 1. * Peter Knights Photos of Landscapes and Glaciers (Keele University)
  2. 2. FORMS OF ICE• GLACIER – a moving mass of ice on a land surface• NICHE ICE – ice which has accumulated in a hollow high up on the mountain side• CIRQUE GLACIER – deepened hollow filled with ice• ICE CAP – large area of ice, which has spread outwards from a central area.• VALLEY GLACIER – large mass of ice from a cirque or ice field, which follows existing valleys• ICE SHEET – huge areas of ice which spread outwards from central domes
  3. 3. Niche glaciersThe smallest scale ofglaciation: Niche glaciersand ice aprons in the GrandTetons, Wyoming, USA.Small glaciers such as theseare often the most sensitiveto local climate change.
  4. 4. The summit ice cap of the volcano, Cotopaxi, EcuadorThe ice cap extends further on one side of the mountain. The sideof the mountain facing the moisture-bearing winds has highersnowfall and hence more extensive glaciation. The deep channelscarved by meltwater and by volcanic mudflows (lahars) caused bymelting of snow and ice during eruptions.
  5. 5. VALLEY GLACIERRUTH GLACIER, MOUNT MC KINLEY
  6. 6. ICE SHEETA B West Greenland
  7. 7. August 67N GreenlandApril 67NGreenland
  8. 8. Snout or Ice FrontRussell Glacier Ice Front
  9. 9. *CREVASSE ICE CAVE SUPRAGLACIAL STREAM
  10. 10. Subglacial streamIce cliff
  11. 11. 1954 Franz Josef Glacier, located in New Zealand 19581960 retreated dramatically in the twentieth century 1964
  12. 12. * Clean ice sliding on bedrockIce scouredtopography
  13. 13. GLACIAL DEPOSITION MOUNT MC KINLEY A B CAthabasca Glacier
  14. 14. StriationsErratics
  15. 15. As a glacier slides over its bed, it picks up rock fragments that act as abrasive and scouring agents. As a result bedrock surfaces, such as this limestone outcrop, commonly bearpolished and scratched (‘striated’) surfaces, as well as various gouge-marks.!!!!!
  16. 16. 1 2 1 3 41 1
  17. 17. Lateral and terminal moraines, Bylot Island, CanadaEnd moraine,Bylot Island, Canada
  18. 18. Moraines of different ages *Ice Front
  19. 19. ESKERS
  20. 20. KAMES BOULDER CLAY
  21. 21. DRUMLINDRUMLIN SWARM OR‘BASKET OF EGGS’TOPOGRAPHY
  22. 22. OUTWASH PLAINSBRAIDED CHANNEL
  23. 23. ICELANDCAIRNGORMS KETTLE HOLE
  24. 24. Proglacial zone Ice-dammed lake
  25. 25. RAISED BEACH, W. SCOTLAND

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