AB:I was sitting in Laura’s presentation at TESOL 2010 in Boston and could see our work together. It seemed like a puzzle waiting to be put together. I will mention the informal/formal continuum.LB: Discuss the limited/extensive continuum.
AB: We started our conversation about collaboration according to our combined research and wanted to know…LB: Survey with Likert-scale and open-ended responsesTESOL list-servs
AB: Discuss how teachers are still mostly using the pullout model. When asked about the preferred model, though, still majority wanted pull out; however, co-teaching was next. Push in was least favored.
LB: How we situated the current research on the continuum.AB: We need to move into a more extensive, more formal model. How?
Take turns. Start with LB.
Take turns. Start with LB. I can bring handout on the Contextual Conditions Model from Bell & Walker.
AB and LB.
Bell & Baecher's Continuum of Collaboration across ESL Program Models
A Continuum of Collaborationacross ESL Program ModelsAngela Bell, University of Colorado Colorado SpringsLaura Baecher, Hunter College, City University of New York
Our Collaboration Laura’s work Angela’s work How we came together What we’re working on now Future projects
Laura’s Work on CollaborationNone Minimal Partial Substantial FullNo response Finding out Planning a Regularly pushing Co-planningafter repeated the same day unit and in to the same a science-attempts to co- what the identifying classroom on the ESL unitplan or to classroom target same days each and co-simply be teacher vocabulary week and leading teaching itappraised of expects to do whole-class every day.teacher’s plans in class, then lessons brining in supplementary visuals.
Current Research What are ESL teachers’ beliefs regarding collaborative teaching models? Based on the ESL program delivery model, to what extent do ESL teachers engage in collaboration for their ELLs (extensive— infrequent), and what is the nature of their collaboration (formal—informal)?
Participants (n=72)Grade Levels Percent of ELL Number of Number of Teachers ELLs Served ELLs Served per Teacher per Teacher (Average) (Mode)Elementary 60% 42 35Secondary 27% 75 30BothElementary 13% 41 27and Secondary
Model used 50% + of the time ,0 Co- Teaching, 6% Push- In, 35% Pull- Out, 68%
Formality ofCollaboration in Models9080706050 Informal40 Formal3020100 Push-In Pull-Out Co-Teach
Frequency ofCollaboration in Models5045403530 Rarely25 Sometimes20 Usually15 Almost Always10 50 Push-In Pull-Out Co-Teach
Looking back at the CollaborationContinuum Model: Extensive Informal Formal Infrequent
Our Response: No matter the model, ESL teachers need time not only in the short-term, to plan for instruction with content teachers, but they also need time to set common long-term goals and objectives based on the needs of their students. They need more extensive collaboration to develop a shared vision and to plan goals for their ELLs.
Our Recommendations ESL teachers must be prepared to and initiate collaboration in any program model. Administrators must pay attention to the ESL teacher workload and seek input from teachers on scheduling and program models. ELLs should be carefully placed in order to be served appropriately, depending on the selected model. Teachers’ personalities must be considered to make sure collaborating teachers can get along and embrace the idea of collaborating. Teachers must not be forced into collaboration and should have opportunities for critical reflection in order to foster collaboration.
Resources Resources are available on implementing and sustaining PLCs (DuFour & Eaker, 1998), the contextual conditions necessary to support effective collaboration (Bell & Walker, 2011), and on how to implement effective collaboration and co-teaching for ELLs (Honigsfeld & Dove, 2010).
Contextual Factors (Bell & Walker, 2011) Administrative support Enabling teacher leaders Strategic planning (ELL placement, teacher workload, classroom location, time) Teacher buy-in & personalities ELL teacher is part of planning teams Common standards, routines, shared goals A culture of collaboration
Our Future Research In what ways are administrators supporting ESL and content teacher collaboration, and how do teachers respond? How does instructional time vary across program models? What can be introduced into teacher preparation to foster candidates’ readiness to collaborate?
References Baecher, L., & Bell, A. (2011). A “continuum” model of collaboration in ESL. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 15(1), 56-61. Bell, A., & Walker, A. (2011). Mainstream and ELL teacher partnerships: A model of collaboration. In A. Honigsfeld & M. Dove (Eds.), Co-teaching and other collaborative practices in the EFL/ESL classroom: Rationale, research, reflections, and recommendations. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing Inc. Honigsfeld, A., & Dove, M. G. (2010). Collaboration and co- teaching: Strategies for English learners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. DuFour, R., & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.