An Incentive Approach to Natural Resource Management;
  Reconciling beliefs and values with incentives for natural resourc...
The author hereby grants to the School for International Training permission to reproduce
either electronically or in prin...
DEDICATION



       For my dedicated father, Victor Mario Gaviria,
for making us; his family and his number one priority....
“Ku la abal i tànk, nga dem fa ko neex.”
If someone lends you their legs, you will go where they please.
 ________________...
TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CERP- Centre d’Expansion Rurale Polyvalent
CLGB- Comité Local pour la Gestion de la Biodiversité
FA...
ABSTRACT

       I seek to explore, using the National Park of the Langue de Barbarie in Senegal as a

case study, whether...
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Words cannot express the appreciation I have for Assane Ndoye and Mamadou Sidibé, the
National Park Lang...
Chapter 1

Introduction


       The use of incentive packages has become an increasingly popular solution to the

environ...
The current Senegalese administration has set ambitious goals for the area studied

in this paper such as the preservation...
In a short time I learned that in Senegal, national parks implemented these goals

at a local level using annual action pl...
riverbanks became seasonally flooded, recharging aquifers and enriching the plains with

nutrient-rich silt. Wolof male an...
State conservation efforts

       The 1970’s were characterized by an increase in national and international nature

cons...
population was relocated 2 miles or more inland, compromising their economic

opportunities to live off of the river and u...
low income poverty trap. Meanwhile, the plentiful river, ocean and land within the park

remained untouched for the pleasu...
the river have been abandoned because the present level of salinity in the soil and water

make it impossible to cultivate...
Physical Area of Research

       The area of research will cover the perimeter of the park and the surrounding rural

com...
Village          Population in 2000

                               Mourel                   22

                         ...
environment. Two decades ago, the World Commission on Environment and

Development pointed out:


       Conservation of l...
The Langue de Barbarie case study presents one of the most popular community

approaches to conservation available in the ...
access restriction to certain areas (Mountford, 143). While indirect incentives consist of

professional development, capa...
Social Needs that are linked to belonging and relationships which move up into Esteem

Needs that consist of self-respect,...
motivationally distinct priority value types that corresponded to the higher order values of

Openness to change, Self-enh...
in harmony or conflict with other values. For example, the pursuit of personal success

(achievement) is likely to interfe...
interest and values as opposed to concerns for the welfare of others and nature.

According to Schwartz, individualistic v...
including (i) Power Distance, (ii) Uncertainty Avoidance, (iii) Individualism, (iv)

Masculinity, and (v) Long Term Orient...
societies that are suppose to have post-modern values that prioritize quality of life. Rice

(2006) demonstrated that trad...
Based on these studies about personal values and beliefs, more complex studies

have recently been elaborated on the cultu...
concluded that Public Sphere Behavior was the most prevalent and closely correlated

with the values of tradition and reli...
monetary compensation does not address values linked to tradition that have helped

societies persevere during times of ec...
My observations and experience established that ecotourism alone (an economic

incentive) was insufficient in this area to...
with conservation and natural resource management activities. Informal interviews took

place early in the research proces...
questions asked the engagement and frequency of this behavior in the national park, in

their community and in homes. Fina...
(Miles and Huberman, 1984). A summary of all questionnaire responses are included in

the Appendix. Beliefs and values are...
participated in the activity. The activity became a success primarily for three reasons.

Environmental education on the b...
wealthier counterparts in developed countries. Economically speaking less affluent

countries have a surplus of time in co...
environment and in turn result in lasting pro-environmental behavior. Informal

interviews with members of the community a...
56.5                                               43.5


                                                   18.5
        ...
The Security value type within the Conservation higher order value received the

highest possible rating at 36. All respon...
According to Maslow’s theory on hierarchy of needs, a substantially satisfied

need no longer needs motivation and therefo...
Table 2: Incentives and Value Dimensions

Incentive/Activity           Value           Kind of           Desired Result/Be...
Property rights    Improved Community Natural
Restricted Area for           Conservation
                                 ...
Incentives that promote achievement, power and to some extent, hedonism while,

encouraging values that maintain tradition...
•   Environmental education for school groups

   •       Free monthly exploratory boat trips for youth

   •   Environmen...
•   Tradition.

Incentives that address these motivational types include measures such as:

   •   First Aid and Medical S...
ecotourism small business development actually contributed to accelerated nature

degradation in some areas. The results o...
Research has also concluded that responsibility or knowledge alone about the

environment is not incentive enough to lead ...
More precisely, this case study helps these agencies understand the different kinds

of value types and dimensions that ma...
BIBLIOGRAPHY


Ajzen, Icek. From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. In J. Kuhl &
       J. Beckman (Eds....
Inglehart, Ronald; Baker. W. Modernization Cultural Change and Persistence of
       Traditional Values American Sociologi...
World Resource Institute. Still and Silent Ecosystems: Declining Grassland Biodiversity,
      On-line. Available from Int...
APPENDIX

                             Environmental Questionnaire
                                      PART 1

1.   What...
b. Somewhat effective 2

       c. Indifferent 1

       d. Not effective 2

       e. Don’t know 4



10. Fill in the bla...
c. What pro-environmental activities do you take part in your home?

   •   2 maintenance, 3 cleaning, 7 no answer

15. Ho...
PART 2

A value of 3 to -1 was given to each answer as follows; not important -1, indifferent 0,

important 1, somewhat im...
ACHIEVEMENT


  6. Building my skills is _____________ to my future success. I like to be one of the
     best I can.

  4...
Indifferent      not important


UNIVERSALISM


  11. Protecting the environment is ___________ to me. I appreciate the be...
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  1. 1. An Incentive Approach to Natural Resource Management; Reconciling beliefs and values with incentives for natural resource management An Instrumental Case Study from Senegal Angela Adrar PIM 62 Capstone Seminar May 24, 2008 Advisor: James Breeden A Capstone Paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Science in Organizational Management at the School for International Training in Brattleboro, Vermont, USA.
  2. 2. The author hereby grants to the School for International Training permission to reproduce either electronically or in print format this document in whole or in part for library archival purposes only. The author hereby does grant to the School for International Training permission to electronically reproduce and transmit this document to students, alumni, staff, and faculty of the World Learning Community. Author’s Signature © Angela Adrar, 2008. All rights reserved. i
  3. 3. DEDICATION For my dedicated father, Victor Mario Gaviria, for making us; his family and his number one priority. ii
  4. 4. “Ku la abal i tànk, nga dem fa ko neex.” If someone lends you their legs, you will go where they please. _________________________________________________ Wolof Proverb iii
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................. v ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................ vii Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................. 1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1 Chapter 2 ........................................................................................................................... 10 Literature Review.............................................................................................................. 11 Pro-environmental Behavior ............................................................................................. 18 Case Study: Egypt ............................................................................................................. 20 Chapter 3 ........................................................................................................................... 22 Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 22 Chapter 4 ........................................................................................................................... 25 Presentation and Analysis of Data .................................................................................... 25 Beliefs ............................................................................................................................... 26 Values ............................................................................................................................... 29 Incentives .......................................................................................................................... 32 Chapter 5 ........................................................................................................................... 37 Conclusions and Recommendations ................................................................................. 37 Applicability ..................................................................................................................... 39 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 41 APPENDIX ....................................................................................................................... 44 iv
  6. 6. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CERP- Centre d’Expansion Rurale Polyvalent CLGB- Comité Local pour la Gestion de la Biodiversité FAO- United Nations-Food and Agriculture Organization GIE- Groupement d’Intérêts Economique IUCN- World Conservation Union NGO- Non Governmental Organization PNLB – Parc National Langue de Barbarie UCAD - Université Cheikh Anta Diop USAID- United States Agency for International Development WCED- World Commission on Environment and Development v
  7. 7. ABSTRACT I seek to explore, using the National Park of the Langue de Barbarie in Senegal as a case study, whether value types based on Schwartz’ Theory of Value Dimensions (1992) are more likely to promote pro-environmental behavior than others in developing countries and answer whether current incentives can not only motivate short term reactions but change long term behavior towards the environment. This instrumental case study is an extension of my work from 2003 to 2007 as an ecotourism volunteer with Peace Corps and later, an Independent Ecotourism Consultant for various national parks in Senegal. Supporting data was gathered from personal and participant observations, national park and eco-guard annual reports. Informal interviews with local community and association members, representatives of the national park, eco- guards and questionnaire responses are included to substantiate conclusions on values and pro-environmental behavior in the public and private sphere. Research findings suggest that long term pro-environmental behavior is influenced by internal factors rooted in beliefs and values that are independent to cost analysis calculations. The research is applicable for leaders or stakeholders and behaviorists interested in intercultural values for environmental conservation. The study suggests that beliefs and values regarding health, family, security, conformity and tradition, typically considered negative predicators of pro-environmental behavior in advanced developed societies, promote pro-environmental behavior in rural societies. I recommend that any incentive package that is to lead to long term pro-environmental behavior in developing countries compliment economic incentives with indirect incentives which embrace the above mentioned values targeting them appropriately and consistently with the culture. vi
  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Words cannot express the appreciation I have for Assane Ndoye and Mamadou Sidibé, the National Park Langue de Barbarie Conservationists for their positive energy and inspiring concern for the development of the community and the conservation of the environment and to the Ecoguards of Gandiol, who first showed me Gandiol and whose hard work and vision, characterize the bright future of Senegal. Jerejef Wai, to Alise Faye, the best sister that I could ever have for helping me express myself in the local language and embrace the rich culture of Senegal. And immense thanks to Gandiol, the village Chief; Adama Diop, and the Gandiolese themselves, who adopted me into their lives and taught me that the richest natural resources that humans have are their hearts and the faith to follow it. vii
  9. 9. Chapter 1 Introduction The use of incentive packages has become an increasingly popular solution to the environmental conservation - community development equation. They have gained popularity with both international NGOs and governments for their role in participatory natural resource management and have been equally praised for their ability to directly address market forces. The underlying factor at the core of incentive packages is collective motivation; the driving force to change a group’s behavior to effectively manage natural resources. But in the interest of modifying collective behavior, incentive packages have often times failed to address the beliefs and values that influence individual and traditional motivation, a crucial factor for long term natural resource management in both public and at home. Background Senegal reserves 11% of its land for the conservation of biodiversity and the protection of its flora and fauna (Earthtrends.org). In 2003, the IUCN (World Conservation Union) considered it a leader in state protection of nature in comparison to the Sub-Saharan African average. Nonetheless, less than 1% of these protected areas are designated for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. The Minister of the Environment of Senegal defines natural ecosystems for sustainable use as a predominantly unmodified natural system, managed to ensure long-term protection and maintenance of biological diversity, while also providing a sustainable flow of natural products and services for tourist and community needs. 1
  10. 10. The current Senegalese administration has set ambitious goals for the area studied in this paper such as the preservation of marine and coastal habitats, poverty alleviation, and the enhancement in the quality of life of its population. It is implementing policies at the local level by instructing park managers to use incentive packages to increase the percentage of land reserved for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. Nation-wide, conventional state-imposed conservation strategies are being replaced by participatory conservation strategies that include rural populations. In the field, park managers are struggling to revamp outdated conservation with strategies that favor communicating with the same rural communities that were separated from their land and resources when national parks and reserves were created. The incentive package developed at the National Park Langue de Barbarie will be used as an example to illustrate challenges faced by park managers in implementing incentives. It will furthermore, demonstrate that beliefs and values must be considered in planning natural resource management by demonstrating the results of the incentive package used from 2003 to 2006. December of 2003, I joined the National Park of the Langue de Barbarie on a two year contract as an Ecotourism and Business Peace Corps Volunteer to expand opportunities linking economic incentives to local development. More simply put, I was to empower community members by transferring eco-business and organizational development skills to them. Ideally, my work was to support the new role of the national park and facilitate the re-inclusion of the community in natural resource management strategy for the area. 2
  11. 11. In a short time I learned that in Senegal, national parks implemented these goals at a local level using annual action plans. These plans had impressive budgets that looked robust on paper to attract donors but fell 60% short of expectations in annual evaluations leaving broken promises and projects unfinished1. The Langue de Barbarie had budgetary, material and human resource constraints not only to carry out this new park strategy and implement an incentive package but to effectively conserve the fauna and flora that it was designated to protect. This was not a solitary case; most parks in Senegal and in the region were facing the same challenges. On the other hand, faced with these obstacles, motivating the local community to manage their resources seemed like the most feasible path to conserving the unique and now fragile biodiversity of Gandiol and the National Park of the Langue de Barbarie. A brief socio-economic and historical background of Gandiol and the Langue de Barbarie follows. Pre-conservation efforts The National Park of the Langue is located in Gandiol. It has sustained large populations of mixed ethnicities for over a thousand years in the rural area of Gandiol, despite being situated in the arid Sahelian region of Africa. It is located only 10 miles away from the island of St. Louis, the ancient trading capital of West Africa and not far from the Mauritanian border. Due in large part to the natural balance of the Atlantic Ocean, the Senegal River and the Sahelian desert, the Gandiolese have peacefully managed to survive threats to their culture, traditional well being, and future. In fact the flood plains and land marshes that characterize this coastal rural area provided conditions for an affluent traditional economy. In years of normal rainfall, the 1 This information is based on the 2004 -2006 action plans for three different parks; that of the park of Langue de Barbarie, L’ile de Madeline, and the Guembuel Reserve in Senegal. 3
  12. 12. riverbanks became seasonally flooded, recharging aquifers and enriching the plains with nutrient-rich silt. Wolof male and female farmers grew vegetables, millet and onions for local consumption and camels would bring out crops destined for trade north to St. Louis and Mauritania. After the harvest, herdsmen, mostly Pulaar or Maure men, moved their cattle and sheep into the plains to feed on the post harvest remains and fertilize the land, fish swam from the main channel of the river to the flood plains to spawn - which made it easy for men to fish without motor boat power. Lower Gandiol, closer to the junction between the ocean and the river, at the tip of the Langue de Barbarie, was a complex delta-like estuary where salinity varied according to two seasons; in the rainy season, when the rain-fed flood inundated the zone, it became almost fresh water, and during the dry season, the water level decreased allowing seawater to penetrated the Delta. This was essential for many marine fish and turtles which spent a part of their life cycle in the semi-salt Senegal River and also permitted the local inhabitants to rotate between farming and fishing according to season. Resistant trees and plants like the Acacia nilotica tree and the Barbarie cactus were abundant. Dry acacia branches were collected by young girls and served as excellent fire wood, while the Barbarie cactus helped stop land erosion. A chain of varied agricultural and river products were yielded throughout centuries in this low rainfall Sahelian region: millet, sorghum, onions, other crops, milk, meat, and fish. Furthermore, the sequential use of the same land allowed ethnically distinct people to contribute to each other’s well-being, promoting social cohesion and natural harmony in natural resource management (La Region du St. Louis, 2006). 4
  13. 13. State conservation efforts The 1970’s were characterized by an increase in national and international nature conservation efforts. These efforts were driven mainly by the US and European wide- held belief that nature needed protection from humanity (Dupuy, 1972). National parks and reserves were created to protect the biodiversity of the environment from the development of humanity. The goal was to ensure that future generations, tourists and researchers had a place to reflect on the beauty and uniqueness of nature far from the negative side-effects of economic development such as pollution, destruction and contamination. The Gandiol marine wetlands gained recognition during this time because of its unique landscape and marine-river habitat but mostly for its wildlife. Migrant birds, crossing hundreds of miles of Western Saharan Desert, used the Langue de Barbarie and small land marshes surrounding it as reproductive zones. Thousands of pelicans, flamingos, sea gulls, herons and at least 75 other species of birds would travel to the park each year, make nests, and reproduce before the summer months arrived, making the zone a popular nature tourist attraction. Sea turtles were also discovered to reproduce on the Langue de Barbarie and were considered by the government to be an important international species to conserve. The national park quickly capitalized on the tourism benefits of its unique biodiversity at the cost of the livelihood opportunities of the local population. The National Park of the Langue de Barbarie was created in 1976 encompassing a total of 7.7 square miles, (2000 hectares) and is composed of the riverbanks, the wetlands, islets, several bird islands and the Langue de Barbarie itself. The local 5
  14. 14. population was relocated 2 miles or more inland, compromising their economic opportunities to live off of the river and upsetting the ecological, social and cultural harmony of natural resource management sustained over generations. Around the same time in the 1970’s, Sub Saharan West Africa, including Senegal was suffering from droughts similar to the ones that are devastating Niger, Sudan and Kenya today. Freshwater fish production from the Senegal River was reduced by 14,000 tons in the twelve-years the drought lasted (FAO, 1986). The drought period of the 1970’s devastated rain-fed crops in Gandiol. It severely reduced zones for flood recession farming, and starved off much of the livestock (Kloft, 2002). The creation of the national park further marginalized the local population because it included most of the fertile banks of the Senegal River and limited fishing in the river, the most precious natural resource in the area. Tight park restrictions led to the withdrawal of many men from the fishing trade and initiated massive emigration by males to find work elsewhere. Women were left behind to search for supplemental sources of protein for the family diet and income for the family welfare. To compensate for both the relocation of households due to the creation of the park, and to encourage local flood recession and riverbank farmers to adopt irrigation farming practices during the drought, equipment was supplied free of charge. The government subsidized fuel, fertilizers, and seeds to be repaid after the harvest (Kloft, 2002). These subsidies were later withdrawn in the mid 1980’s due to Structural Adjustment policies that promoted private sector activity. Only the wealthier farmers could afford to cultivate the land. The majority of Gandiolese families were caught in a 6
  15. 15. low income poverty trap. Meanwhile, the plentiful river, ocean and land within the park remained untouched for the pleasure of tourists, researchers, and park visitors. The relationship between the local population and park agents grew distant and cold due in large part to a conflict of perceptions. The local population perceived their land as occupied by military men with guns inviting foreigners to influence their youth. Park agents perceived the local population as unsophisticated and unable to care for the land properly. The State had taken on a full protectionist role and the population had resigned itself to start anew elsewhere. In the late 1980’s, the government took part in a $600 million project to construct two dams that would soon modify the water access and electricity of the Delta for Senegal, Mauritania, and Mali and eventually alter the physical appearance of the Langue de Barbarie forever. In 2003, under political pressure, a canal only 3 miles from the national park was carved out in one night in order to minimize the possibility of violent opposition from the local population. The opening of the canal was meant to relieve flooding in St. Louis caused by the environmental repercussions of the celebrated dam projects of the 1980’s. The results have devastated the biodiversity that the National Park of the Langue de Barbarie was meant to protect from the harmful hands of humanity. Due to the natural flow and force of the river, a canal originally 8.5 yards in width continued to erode to 76.5 yards in width and widening. It has changed the ecological balance of the region and further compromised the quality of life for the local population. The canal has dramatically increased the level of salinity in the river and soil and has changed the physical geography of the national park. Since the carving out of the canal, there has been a scarcity of fish in the river and the agricultural fields at the base of 7
  16. 16. the river have been abandoned because the present level of salinity in the soil and water make it impossible to cultivate healthy crops. In a community that is economically structured around fishing and agriculture the opening of the canal has been another sharp blow to the livelihood of its inhabitants. The national parks, international partners, and local group leaders are trying to find economic livelihood alternatives to traditional employment and a balance between biodiversity conservation and social development. A new approach to conservation In 2003, the Lead Park Agent of the largest and oldest park in Senegal; Niokolo Koba, was promoted by the Director of National Parks and ordered to adapt his approach to national park management to the changing circumstances, more precisely, to the demands of the Ministry of the Environment. Now as the new Preservationist of the National Park Langue de Barbarie, he was to conserve and protect the flora and the fauna within the 7.7 square miles (2000 hectares) of the park, as did the 11 Conservationists who preceded him, but his job now required him to engage the local population surrounding the national park in sustainable natural resource management, train neighbors in nature awareness, and seek out opportunities for youth and women from local associations to benefit from nature conservation. In his new assignment the Preservationist was to tear away the philosophy of the national park in Senegal for the last 50 years and rapidly build a new strategy that included cooperative resource management in which incentives were to be used to bring local people back into the nature management equation. Before we discuss the tools and strategies that the Preservationist used to adopt a new natural resource management approach, a brief and current overview of the physical area of research follows. 8
  17. 17. Physical Area of Research The area of research will cover the perimeter of the park and the surrounding rural community broken down into 12 local villages at the periphery of the national park. According to the local administrative department located in Rao, there are approximately 8300 people registered in this area (CERP, 2000). Each village has a chief representative appointed by the Republic of Senegal. Nonetheless, all the citizens regardless of their village consider themselves and are regarded by outsiders as Gandiolese. The table below outlines the population of the area per village. While there are three additional village communities in Gandiol; Bandji, Gabar, Guéngué, they fall outside of the department of Rao, and are over 9.5 miles away from the national park. According to my investigation, they do not interact directly with the park in any way thus far. The following villages have historically been economically dependent on the area that is now the national park and therefore, have been identified as the section of the population that will be studied. Table 1 : Gandiol population per village Village Population in 2000 Ndiol 281 Ndiebéne 2213 Tassinére 1109 Tare 644 Nguédj 100 9
  18. 18. Village Population in 2000 Mourel 22 Mouit 1420 Mbaw 712 Darou Salam 343 Gouye Réné 311 Dégou Niaye 129 Darou Mboumbaye 1029 TOTAL 8313 Chapter 2 The events mentioned above and the changing course of the national park’s role in the community sparked my interest for further inquiry. Research Question Do incentive packages for natural resource management in developing countries really lead to long term pro-environmental behavior? Sub questions (3) 1) How do beliefs contribute to pro-environmental behavior? 2) Are certain value types more effective in promoting pro-environmental behavior than others? 3) Can incentives not only motivate but also change long term behavior? This research is significant and timely because, as mentioned earlier; governments, international agencies and non-governmental organizations are dedicating a huge amount of their effort and resources to linking development goals to the 10
  19. 19. environment. Two decades ago, the World Commission on Environment and Development pointed out: Conservation of living natural resources — plants, animals, and micro-organisms, and the non-living elements of the environment on which they depend —is crucial for development. The challenge facing nations today is no longer deciding whether conservation is a good idea, but rather how it can be implemented in the national interest and within the means available in each country (WCED, 1987). And this trend has continued to be of importance in light of the accelerated rate of globalization that reaches even the most rural societies. Literature Review A report released in 2005, on global attitudes and behaviors consolidated definitions of pro-sustainable values from the Earth Charter, The UN Millennium Declaration, the U.S. National Academy of Science and multinational groups to describe global value trends that both help and hinder sustainable development and environmental conservation. The report concluded there was a need for further research and collaboration on individual and cultural pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors (Leibowitz et al, 2005). It is apparent by the amount of research studies available, that the field of environmental organizational behavior is growing. While sociologists are developing journals and conferences for further research, the environmental community has yet to catch on and fully incorporate these social findings in environmental conservation and natural resource management strategies. 11
  20. 20. The Langue de Barbarie case study presents one of the most popular community approaches to conservation available in the majority world today; a natural resource management incentive package. Research demonstrates that incentive packages for natural resource management mainly focus on market driven and economic incentives while motivation literature and research demonstrates that behavior, beliefs, and values are often driven by variables that are independent from groups and from cost/benefit calculations. The research explores incentive packages from a human resource management perspective and asks whether incentive packages for natural resource management are really encouraging communities to be more willing and able to conserve the environment The study includes several key terms and concepts, such as “incentive package,” “community,” ” “motivation” and “values” that are key to understanding the research question. As these terms are ambiguous, they will be defined here and explored at greater length in the literature review prior to proceeding to details about the research methodology. Incentive package in this study refers to a plan of specific measures which can be either positive or negative and which results in a desired behavior directed towards the environment. These measures of motivation are included in packages that function both directly and indirectly with the community it has been prescribed for. The incentives address local needs, circumstances, economic activity, and broader market, policy and institutional failures which make communities unwilling or economically unable to conserve nature. Some direct incentives include subsidies, property rights, taxes or 12
  21. 21. access restriction to certain areas (Mountford, 143). While indirect incentives consist of professional development, capacity building and training among other measures. A community is made up of individuals and is a fluid term used widely in the field of development. However, it is important to understand the context with in which it will be used in this paper. A community can refer to a group of individuals intricately linked to one another through the many systems that connect them, including their bio-region or local economy. In many cases, local communities have a strong connection by either an ethnic, religious and/or cultural heritage. The local community examined in the paper is linked to the region of Gandiol as described earlier in the section on the physical area of research and is linked by the natural resources available in the Langue de Barbarie and its surrounding areas. It is also the targeted community included in the preliminary natural resource management incentive package for the Langue de Barbarie. Motivation refers to the result of the interaction of an individual or community with a situation. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some need. These needs may be a result of a norm, belief, attitude, or value and the behavioral outcome is dependant on both the quality and intensity of effort to reach a goal. (Robbins, 313) This paper will concentrate on the needs that relate to beliefs and values as these are the precursors to norms and attitudes and currently the most neglected when planning an incentive package. Maslow’s well-known hierarchy of needs theory includes five types of needs that ascend in the structure of a pyramid once a lower need has been substantially satisfied. Physiological Needs (bodily requirements) are at the foundation of the pyramid, followed by Safety Needs that include security and protection from bodily harm. The third level is 13
  22. 22. Social Needs that are linked to belonging and relationships which move up into Esteem Needs that consist of self-respect, status quo, autonomy and achievement. At the very top of the pyramid are Self-Actualization Needs that involve advancement and achievement one’s potential. According to Maslow’s theory, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates and therefore stimulus must address an individual’s fluid position in the pyramid in order to be effective. (Robbins, 315) Finally, values are the generalized internal standards that transcend specific situations. They are few in number in comparison to attitudes and are relatively stable. Most importantly for this study, values may guide behavior independently of cost/benefit calculations (Rokeach, 1973). Value studies that analyzed motivation for pro- environmental behavior in regards to recycling in the United States demonstrated that those people who recycled also pursued higher needs of Social and Self Actualization as opposed to non-recyclers. This indicates that in the United States, environmental conservation is an altruistic behavior carried out by those who do not see their physiological or safety needs threatened (Dunlap et al 1993). Different incentive strategies need to address the needs and values of rural societies where the environment is central to opportunities or threats to health and livelihood practices to achieve similar pro-environmental behavior. In order to conceptualize more complex motivating factors for behavior than those proposed by Maslow, Shalom Schwartz (1992) developed the theory of the universal structure of human value systems. Data was collected in 63 countries surveying more than 60,000 individuals on 56 specific values that have consistency across cultures. These individualist and collectivist values were broken down into a total of ten 14
  23. 23. motivationally distinct priority value types that corresponded to the higher order values of Openness to change, Self-enhancement, Conservation and Self-transcendence as organized below. For future reference, cconservation in this context does not refer to environmental conversation. Rather, Schwartz refers to ‘conservation’ in his study as the preservation of tradition, status quo, institution and relationships. Schwartz’ four Higher Order Values and ten Motivationally Distinct Values I. Openness to change Self-direction (SDI, individualistic) Stimulation (STI, individualistic) Hedonism (HED, individualistic) II. Self-enhancement Hedonism (HED, individualistic) Achievement (ACH, individualistic) Power (POW, individualistic) III. Conservation Security (SEC, individualistic and collectivist) Conformity (CON, collectivist) Tradition (TRA, collectivist) IV. Self-transcendence Benevolence (BEN, collectivist) Universalism (UNI, individualistic and collectivist) Schwartz’ dynamic theory on values assumes that behavior displayed to satisfy a particular value type has psychological, practical and social consequences that are either 15
  24. 24. in harmony or conflict with other values. For example, the pursuit of personal success (achievement) is likely to interfere with the adherence to the preservation and enhancement of the welfare of other people (benevolence), thus forcing individuals to make choices among competing value categories. To best depict this dynamic relation between and among values Schwartz developed the two dimensional dynamic circular value structure illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 1: Schwartz's Value Dimension Structure In the Value Dimension Structure, complimentary values are adjacent while conflicting values are opposite within the circle corresponding to their relationship with the dimensional value they support. The dimension of Self-enhancement versus Self- transcendence reflects the conflict between values oriented toward the pursuit of self- 16
  25. 25. interest and values as opposed to concerns for the welfare of others and nature. According to Schwartz, individualistic values in any culture fall along this dimension. I will further explore this dimension in detail for its effect on pro-environmental behavior. On the other hand, the dimensional value of Openness to Change versus Conservation contrasts the degree to which individuals are motivated by intellectual and emotional interests versus preserving traditions, status quo, institutions and relationships. The two dimensions of the higher order values of Openness to Change versus Conservation and Self-enhancement versus Self-transcendence are illustrated in the structure and are both basic and bi-polar. The circle is enclosed by four lines that extend in both directions and meet in what looks like bowties marking the limit at which each higher order value begins and ends. Finally, the higher order values of Openness to Change and Self-enhancement share the motivational distinct value of Hedonism; this is illustrated by the broken line encompassing Hedonism in the structure. These value dimensions are crucial to predicting attitudes and norms which predispose behavior that promote the collective good of environmental conservation, world peace, equality, and freedom. They are particularly relevant when developing incentive packages for natural resource management in both the public and private sphere. Schwartz’s theory of values is a fresh alternative to Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions and is gaining more popularity in the fields of sustainable development, intercultural management, environment and psychology. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Theory has been very influential in the private sector and helpful in understanding the inter-organizational culture of multi-national corporations. It includes five major dimensions for classifying cultures across the world 17
  26. 26. including (i) Power Distance, (ii) Uncertainty Avoidance, (iii) Individualism, (iv) Masculinity, and (v) Long Term Orientation (Hofstede, 2005). His theory is based on surveys collected by students and company employees that study work values. On the other hand, Schwartz’s theory on value dimensions (1992) has been the basis for studies that sample populations outside these institutions and relates better to the exploration of environmental conservation and rural populations. Pro-environmental Behavior The most recent World Survey on global values and beliefs conducted from 1999 to 2000 by Inglehart and Baker, address the current spread of globalization and individualism. In their study, values and beliefs show correlation in countries with similar economic development. Their research picks up where modernization theory left off. Their research classifies societies as modern or postmodern (materialist or post- materialist) based on the level of economic development of a country. They claim that all countries are in route to modernisation. Less developed nations that are beginning the path concentrate, above all, on values that contribute to economic growth and economic achievement. As these countries begin to progress past the threshold of development and move into the higher stages of economic development they begin to acquire post-modern values. These post-modern values give priority to the quality of life and values emphasizing environmental and socio-cultural issues, even when these goals conflict with maximizing economic growth (Inglehart and Baker, 2000). The trouble with Inglehart and Baker’s theory is that their research has not been able to explain how traditional values persist regardless of this relative global value change across nations or why there is a widening gap between the rich and poor in 18
  27. 27. societies that are suppose to have post-modern values that prioritize quality of life. Rice (2006) demonstrated that traditional values in Egypt for example are in line with environmental conservation but stem from a religious foundation of “man as steward of the land” rather than the western imposed standard of “nature as equal.” She also found positive results when testing whether pro-environmental behavior was founded on a different cultural model that uses “health and cleanliness” as a metaphor for the environment. Furthermore Inglehart’s theories have not holistically tested values in relation to sustainable development or the environment in developing countries which are of particular interest for this study. In addition to values and needs, pro-environmental behavior has also been significantly linked to beliefs. Human behavior towards the environment is based on what people think and feel about the environment and the control that they have to exert pro-environmental actions with success (Azjens 1985, 1991). Often times in Gandiol, people were summoned by their association to the national park to participate in a conservation activity that they did not know anything about. Other times, the community would be mobilized to do a massive beach clean-up project on the island for a day without being included in the planning or evaluation process. The level of energy that was put into the activity was directly linked to the amount of information and most of all control the person felt they had in the activity. Those organizing the event were high energy while those called at the last minute were less engaged in the nature conservation goals. Most participants viewed these events as nothing more than opportunities to socialize with neighbors. 19
  28. 28. Based on these studies about personal values and beliefs, more complex studies have recently been elaborated on the cultural values that predispose behavior specifically towards the environment within and across nations (Shaul and Tally 2006). Research conducted by Karp (1996) tested Schwartz’ value dimensions in regards to pro- environmental behavior in the US. He tested combinations of Self-transcendence/ Openness to Change versus Conservation and Self-enhancement/ Openness to Change versus Conservation. Karp’s research concluded that Self-transcendence/Openness to Change is a strong predicator for pro-environmental behavior while Self- enhancement/Conservation is a strong negative predictor for pro-environmental behavior. This was distinguished by behavioral categories that included Good Citizen, Activist and Healthy Consumer behavior in the USA. Case Study: Egypt The relationship between demographics variables, beliefs, values, and religiosity in Cairo, Egypt was studied by Gillian Rice and published in an article for the Journal for Business Ethics in 2006. Rice replaced Karp’s behavioral categories from those mentioned in the above paragraph to Public Sphere Behavior, Private Sphere Behavior, and Activist which were more appropriate for a developing country. Public Sphere represents pro-environmental behavior that is displayed in social or institutional settings and is closest to what natural resource management incentive packages currently try to target. Private Sphere Behavior represents behavior that individuals carry out outside the Public Sphere, in their homes, such as; consumption practices. Finally, Activist behavior represented behavior that advocates for environmental conservation. Rice’s study 20
  29. 29. concluded that Public Sphere Behavior was the most prevalent and closely correlated with the values of tradition and religiosity in developing Muslim societies. The study, conducted in a predominantly Muslim country, concluded that Islam advocates pro-environmental ethics by acknowledging humans as steward of their communities; human, plant or animal. The study confirmed Hopkins’ and colleagues findings (2001) that “health and cleanliness” values linked to Security and Conservation values are principal factors motivating individuals to care for the environment. The principles of health and cleanliness are both practical and closely related to the well- being of families which is very relevant to the emphasis people put on family health and survival in developing countries. On the other hand, developed countries emphasize factors that include the protection of a species or the conservation of a particular habitat. Furthermore, Rice’s study demonstrated that Schwartz’ Self-transcendent values such as Benevolence and Universalism are positively correlated with Public Sphere Behavior. Openness to Change values such as Stimulation are negatively correlated to Public Sphere and Activist Behavior while the Self-enhancement value, Achievement, is positively correlated with Activist Behavior and, as mentioned above, Tradition correlated positively with Public Sphere Behavior. These findings are of particular interest for my paper because they highlight the importance of selecting incentives for natural resource management that are targeted to address the values of communities in developing countries in ways that make environmental conservation achievable in the short and the long term. Using incentives that address real issues such as health care, education and the transfer of valuable skills are more likely to pave the path to balanced natural resource management. Simple 21
  30. 30. monetary compensation does not address values linked to tradition that have helped societies persevere during times of economic hardship and natural adversity. Chapter 3 Methodology A qualitative research framework stemming from a positivist philosophical viewpoint is most appropriate for this study. The research has drawn upon past theories on pro-environmental behavior focusing in particular on Schwartz’ theory of human value dimensions. The research seeks to better understand the phenomena in question and link values to incentives for natural resource management (Yin, 2002). An instrumental case study method is applied to provide multi-perspective analysis and triangulation is used to test consistency and plausibility. While the research is presented as a single case study, references to Rice’s case study on environmental behavior in Egypt (2006) have been included to show the utility and value of this research to the wider field of environmental conservation and study of values and beliefs. Data to support this instrumental case study were gathered from personal and participant observations, national park and eco-guard reports, archival documents and locally published material. Finally, informal interviews with local community members, association members and representatives of the national park were conducted and questionnaires completed to triangulate the information included in this paper. During my four years as an Ecotourism Consultant in the area of study, I looked at opportunities, constraints, and gaps to development and environmental conservation. I have selected incentives and their effect on pro-environmental behavior to be the main focus of this case study. 22
  31. 31. My observations and experience established that ecotourism alone (an economic incentive) was insufficient in this area to achieve long term efficient natural resource management. Therefore, I included the wider sphere of incentives both direct and indirect that can contribute to the goal of environmental conservation. Research for the literature review and informal interviews revealed that group (Public) and individual (Private) behavior can contradict and often stem from beliefs and values that are independent from cost/benefit calculations. In order to be effective, market driven incentives to natural resource management should be accompanied by incentives that positively link the area’s cultural beliefs and histo-demographic values to the environment. For the formal interviews, I conducted a two part questionnaire with twelve community representatives from the twelve villages that have been included in the physical area of the study. The interview questions were in French and a native Wolof translator was with me at every questionnaire interview to translate if necessary. To test the validity and consistency of the interview, the questionnaire was written in English, translated to French and then back to English. The choice to conduct interviews rather than simply hand out the questionnaire was reached because the majority of the rural population are illiterate or speak and understand French but do not write it. Participants in the research gave oral permission to partake in interviews and allowed for all answers to be used anonymously in the analysis. Five informal interviews were also held with community members from the local area, community associations including the eco-guards and park agents. All were from the villages within most proximity to the national park and thus most directly involved 23
  32. 32. with conservation and natural resource management activities. Informal interviews took place early in the research process and were held to get background information on the community’s livelihood practices, apparent nature degradation in the area and perspective on the effectiveness of nature conservation activities. The information received was later used to evaluate the results accounted for in annual park reports. Informal interviews were conducted one on one and were held in the home or workplace of the person being interviewed. I was accompanied by a fluent Wolof speaker during the interview to help clarify questions if needed. They were 10 minutes in duration and were recorded manually in a notebook for comparison to information documented in national park, eco- guard and donor reports. Interviewees were a separate group from those that participated in responding to the questionnaire. The primary instruments used for data gathering were the questionnaires on environmental behavior Part 1 and 2 (see Appendix). Five women and seven men took part 1 and 2 of the questionnaire of which 80% were Muslim and 20% were Christian. The average age of the respondents was 34 years old with the lowest age being 19 and the highest age 53. All respondents lived and worked in the area targeted by the national park for collaborative natural resource management. Questions discussed the respondents’ relationship to the environment. Three questions discussed their beliefs by noting the primary responsible actor in the conservation of the environment and how effective they felt their contributions to environmental conservation were. There were four questions addressing the results of the desired behavioral results of the national park’s incentive package combined with Rice’s categorizes of Public Sphere, Private Sphere, and Activist Behavior. The 24
  33. 33. questions asked the engagement and frequency of this behavior in the national park, in their community and in homes. Finally, a selection of individual values from Schwartz’ Value Survey were included in a questionnaire and rated on the basis of importance to the respondent. Questionnaire-interviews were conducted for the period of one week and were held in the national park, community, and homes. The second part of the data collection process involved researching information relevant to current natural resource management incentives in the area and triangulating that information with responses from the questionnaire and interviews to give recommendations for future incentives. Given that a comprehensive incentive strategy was not available, I compiled a table of incentives designed by the national park from the period of 2003 to 2006 using park meeting notes and annual reports. Sub-questions on beliefs and values were added to further explore, from a human resource management perspective; the link between these factors and the community’s willingness and ability to exhibit pro-environmental behavior. Chapter 4 Presentation and Analysis of Data The analytic process of the data presented in the study was first coded and sorted to develop themes. These themes were furthermore tabulated by frequency. Such was the case for hours a month worked on conservation and broken down into patterns for particular value dimensions that were matched to check for consistency with certain theories elaborated in the literature review. Relevant data from informal interviews are included in the Beliefs and Incentives sections of the study. The final results are presented by category and later displayed in a diagram (Figure 2) and a table (Table 2) 25
  34. 34. (Miles and Huberman, 1984). A summary of all questionnaire responses are included in the Appendix. Beliefs and values are then matched to the national park’s natural resource management incentives to check effectiveness and develop recommendations. Beliefs All respondents believed that negative changes to the natural environment could harm the health of their family and compromise the way they make a living, strongly linking health and security to the environment. Encouragingly, 75% of respondents considered themselves primarily responsible for conserving the natural environment which attributes not only responsibility but a sense of control to the respondent. They did not positively associate this control to the way they think and feel about their contributions to environmental conservation though. 50% of the respondents did not know how effective their contributions to conserving the environment were or thought they were not effective. This included only those respondents that participated in conservation activities. Expressing a sense of responsibility to the environment is an essential characteristic of Universalism and supports the belief held widely in Muslim cultures of human as “steward or caretaker of the environment.” Projects that fund environmental education and participatory monitoring and evaluation to share the results of effective nature conservation activities can be ideal in linking control to success. Informal interviews with local community members, association members and national park agents further revealed relevant information about the community’s beliefs in regards to nature conservation. In Gandiol, a reforestation conservation activity is organized annually by the national park. The first organized reforestation activity began in 2003 with only 50 agents and local residents participating by 2005 nearly 1000 people 26
  35. 35. participated in the activity. The activity became a success primarily for three reasons. Environmental education on the benefits of reforestation was taught at the local schools and in community associations influencing what people think about reforestation and complimenting the activity. Second reason the reforestation activity has become a success is because every year local residents see in a relatively short time, that the small plants that they have planted begin to take root and form into trees. This links their actions to an outcome. Most importantly though, success in the activity can be attributed to the additional local media attention and volunteer participation from neighboring regions in the event which contributes to a feeling of pride and propriety by the population of the area in the execution and outcome of this now popular nature conservation activity. This confirms that indeed, the more responsible a community feels and the more control they have in the process of nature conservation and its results, the more likely they are to exhibit pro- environmental behavior. Most revealing in the questionnaire results was the fact that only 25% of respondents were willing to compromise their living and working situation to conserve or protect the environment. This is a result of multiple factors, such as already compromised living and working conditions in the area, a lack of knowledge in the results of pro-environmental behavior or as the values section notes below, a strong emphasis on security values. This finding supports analysis by Brechin and Kempton (1994) which revealed that although citizens in less affluent countries cannot pay much to improve the environment in other words, compromise much of their living and working situation, they are much more willing to volunteer time to improve it than are their 27
  36. 36. wealthier counterparts in developed countries. Economically speaking less affluent countries have a surplus of time in comparison to money or technology. A majority of respondents defined their relationship to the environment to be one of “steward or caretaker of the environment.” This can be attributed to the fact that respondents that engaged in conservation activities did so voluntarily and were not directly monetarily compensated for their services. While economic incentives can encourage more people to participate in nature conservation activities, the fact that most respondents volunteered to participate in these activities proves that pro-environmental behavior carried out by respondents was influenced more so by internal factors rooted in beliefs and values than cost-analysis calculations. According to questionnaire Part 1, only 50% of respondents participated in activities that conserve or protect the natural environment and all respondents believed that people did not spend enough time and energy worrying about the natural environment. The majority of activities were conducted in a community setting as opposed to the national park or at home. Activities included; reforestation, awareness building, and eco-monitoring and surveillance activities. At home, pro-environmental activities were limited to cleaning and outdoor maintenance which highlights a significant change or disconnect from public and activist behavior exhibited in the community to that which is exhibited in private at home and among families. More research needs to be conducted where strategies can be used to bring Public Sphere behavior home to become part of the daily home ritual. Participatory monitoring and evaluation as well as annual goals and targets can help people understand better the effects of their contributions to conserving the 28
  37. 37. environment and in turn result in lasting pro-environmental behavior. Informal interviews with members of the community also confirmed that often times, they were not aware that the National Park and environmental donors were funding projects in the community as incentives to natural resource management. This also hindered the beliefs and perceptions linking pro-environmental behavior to positive results in the community. Values To interpret the results of Part 2 of the questionnaire, a value of 3 to -1 was given to each answer as follows; not important -1, indifferent 0, important 1, somewhat important 2, and very important a value of 3. Using Schwartz’ dynamic theory on values as a guide, respondents rated highest in the Conservation (66) as opposed to the Openness to Change higher order value (56.5) and slightly higher in the Self Enhancement (57) as opposed to Self Transcendence higher order value (43.5). Figure 3 below includes the results of Part 2 of the questionnaire arrayed across the Schwartz Value Dimension Structure. Figure 2: Analysis results of Schwartz' Value Dimension 29
  38. 38. 56.5 43.5 18.5 27.5 5 25 15 15 28 36 20 23 66 57 While Karp (2006) and other researchers have found that the Conservation higher order value negatively predicts pro-environmental behavior in the USA, it is encouraging to learn that Rice (2006) found that value types within the Conservation dimension were beneficial to Public Sphere pro-environmental behavior in Egypt. Predominantly, Muslim societies such as Egypt, corresponds to more conservative and traditional values than those found in the USA and resemble values held in Senegal. The findings in this current study with respondents that were also predominantly Muslim revealed that the Conservation higher order value rated the highest (66) with Self-enhancement rating second highest at 57. Most of the pro-environmental behaviors were exhibited in the Public Sphere or social/community setting. It is also encouraging to see further in the incentive package for natural resource management that most of the incentives have been targeted to motivate Self-enhancement, Openness to change and Conservation value types. 30
  39. 39. The Security value type within the Conservation higher order value received the highest possible rating at 36. All respondents felt that “the peace and security of their family was very important and they would not risk their health for any opportunity.” This corresponds with such a low rating on the Stimulation value type (5) which asks respondents to value new and diverse experiences at the cost of some risk. While respondents are not willing to risk their health or that of their families for new opportunities, all respondents believed that negative changes to the environment could harm the health of their families. Given the fact that the Security value rated the highest possible points in value type, it can be utilized to confirm Hopkins et al (2001) theory of “health and cleanliness” as the principal factor motivating people to exhibit pro- environmental behavior in order to avoid health risks to themselves and their families. Natural resource management incentives that promote health or hinder health risks resulting in pro-environmental behavior may prove to be very effective in cases with such emphasis on security. The value questionnaire results revealed that opposing value types such as Hedonism (28) rated similarly to Benevolence (25) and that the Power value rated higher (23) than universalism (18.5). Karp’s research claims that the Self-enhancement dimension predicts lower pro-environmental behavior in the US than Self transcendence values. It is apparent from the findings that Hedonism, Power, and to a lesser degree Achievement rated higher than those values in the Self-transcendence higher order value. Given the proximity in rating for these higher order values some supposition based on past literature on the subject can be adapted to these findings. 31
  40. 40. According to Maslow’s theory on hierarchy of needs, a substantially satisfied need no longer needs motivation and therefore stimulus must address an individual’s fluid position in the pyramid in order to be effective. (Robbins, 315), Schwartz’ (1992) model was designed to demonstrate more fluidity in values across cultures. Ingelhart and Baker (2000), describe the dilemma that many developing countries are facing in which countries in transition from less to more affluent status are acquiring new values while persistent cultural values mainly linked to religion persist. The emphasis respondents placed on the higher order values of Self-enhancement and Conservation portray this attitude adequately and prove this combination to be positively associated with pro- environmental behavior. Overall, the natural resource management incentive package proposed by the National Park of the Langue de Barbarie provides a significant number of incentives that are designed to target Self enhancement values in particular, professional development and training for those individuals interested in career opportunities in environmental conservation. Incentives The incentives outlined in Table 2 below were derived from the National Park of the Langue de Barbarie annual reports from the period of December 2003 to December 2006. These incentives were furthermore categorized as property rights measures, livelihood measures, fiscal or financial measures based on the kind of tool used to encourage or discourage certain behavior towards the environment (Emerton, The World Conservation Union 2002). 32
  41. 41. Table 2: Incentives and Value Dimensions Incentive/Activity Value Kind of Desired Result/Behavior Dimension Incentive Livelihood Influence the way people feel Creation of Self measure and think about the Environmental School Enhancement environment Groups Livelihood Influence the way people feel Free Monthly Self measure and think about the exploratory Boat trips for Enhancement environment youth Property rights Stimulate alternative Discounted Annual Openness to measure livelihood practices License to Transport Change Tourists Fiscal measure Stimulate alternative Funding for a Restaurant Openness to livelihood practices Change Fiscal measure Stimulate alternative Funding for a motor- Openness to livelihood practices powered boat Change Property rights Improve Community relations Free Work, Meeting and Self measure with the Park Conference Facilities Transcendence Livelihood Improve community relations Link Funders to Self measure community projects. Transcendence Livelihood Increase sense of power and Eco Business Training Self measure achievement in NRM Enhancement Property rights Stimulate alternative Free Use of Park land to Openness to measure livelihood practices Eco-Guards for tourist Change shop/restaurant Livelihood Increase sense of power and Environmental Self measure achievement in NRM Conservation/ Tour Enhancement Guide Training Livelihood Increase sense of power and Eco-Guard exchanges Self measure achievement in NRM between Parks Enhancement Market measure Increase sense of power and Park Agent training Self achievement in NRM Enhancement Property rights Conserve fragile bio-species Restricted Boat access to Self measure bird island Transcendence Livelihood Link Environment to First Aid and Medical Conservation measure Community Priorities Services to the community Livelihood Improve community relations Conservator serves as Conservation measure Conflict Moderation between villages Financial Exchange for bi-monthly Micro-lending Fund Openness to measure environmental conservation Change practices Property rights Improved Community Natural Collection of Dry Wood Conservation measure Resource Management in Restricted Areas 33
  42. 42. Property rights Improved Community Natural Restricted Area for Conservation measure Resource Management Animal Grazing Property rights Link Environment to Restricted Fresh Water Self measure Community Priorities Use Transcendence Property rights Conserve species diversity Restricted Fishing in the Conservation measure River Property rights Influence the way people feel Free entry to park for Self measure and think about the local population Enhancement environment These incentives have been further labeled by the higher order value they address in Schwartz’ Value Dimension structure. For example, an eco-business training incentive is designed to give the population power to manage their resources and businesses responsibly and is considered a livelihood measure. It is an indirect incentive that focuses on the development of skills and training to achieve sustainable long term natural resource management. The values of achievement, power and hedonism contribute to the Self-enhancement higher order value. The majority of incentives provided contributed to the Self enhancement higher order value with Conservation and Openness to Change addressed equally with five incentives each. The findings in this paper on values revealed that in fact, the Self enhancement/ Conservation higher order values were the most predominant and therefore well addressed in this incentive package. Based on Schwartz theory (2001), values found to have a positive influence on environmental behavior are Self transcendence/Openness to Change and Universal values. In fact, values found to have a negative influence were Self-enhancement and Conservation. I would argue the opposite in cases where populations are being reincorporated into national natural resource management strategies after decades of being expropriated from land and excluded from the environmental conservation process. 34
  43. 43. Incentives that promote achievement, power and to some extent, hedonism while, encouraging values that maintain traditional relationships and customs are the most beneficial to an incentive package during the initial phases of a collaborative community natural resource management strategy. These incentives restore the confidence people have in their traditional natural resource management practices that have been threatened for centuries while preparing them to be open to change some of these practices if necessary in the future. I would also argue that Self transcendent values of universalism and benevolence are relatively satisfied in small rural collective societies. Populations in collective societies would naturally react better to incentives that address values that have not yet been satisfied such as those in the Self-enhancement and Openness to Change higher order values. Historical evidence and the results from the value questionnaire support this argument. The incentive package above addresses the value by the community to hold onto traditional institutions/relationship, customs and status quo while equally introducing incentives that empower the population to have confidence in its achievements and try alternative methods of natural resource management. Motivational factors that contribute to the Self Enhancement higher order value (56.5 rating) include: • Power • Achievement • And to a lesser degree Hedonism Incentives that address these motivational types include measures such as: • Eco-Business Training 35
  44. 44. • Environmental education for school groups • Free monthly exploratory boat trips for youth • Environmental conservation and tour guide training • Eco-guard exchanges between parks • Construction of a restaurant • Park agent trainings Motivational factors that contribute to the Openness to Change higher order value (56.5 rating) include: • Stimulus • Self-direction • And to a lesser degree hedonism Incentives that address these motivational types include measures such as: • Discounted annual licenses to transport tourists • Funding for a restaurant • Funding for a motor-powered boat • Free use of national park land to eco-guards for tourist shop/restaurant • Micro-lending fund • Free entry to the park for the local population Motivational factors that contribute to the Conservation higher order value (66 rating) include: • Security • Conformity 36
  45. 45. • Tradition. Incentives that address these motivational types include measures such as: • First Aid and Medical Services to the community • Conservator serves as Conflict Moderation between villages • Restricted Area for the Collection of Dry Wood • Restricted Area for Animal Grazing • Restricted Fishing in the River. Most of the measures used to address natural resource management in this category include disincentives or the restriction of traditional livelihood practices by the use of penalties and the payment of fees. This brings into question the sustainability of this pro- environmental behavior once these restrictions are lifted or strategies to avoid penalties are developed. It seems that education and information about the effects of negative behavior on their livelihood outcomes or health will lead to more sustainable practices than punishment and penalties. Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations The noble objectives set out by the Ministry of the Environment to alleviate poverty and conserve the environment have proven difficult, if not impossible to implement simultaneously in the National Park of the Langue de Barbarie. This is especially so when natural resource management incentive packages are funded by various donors that value one objective over the other. In fact, from the period of December 2003 to December 2006 due largely to limited and sporadically timed financial resources and a compounded lack of local infrastructure, economic incentives related to 37
  46. 46. ecotourism small business development actually contributed to accelerated nature degradation in some areas. The results on the ground and those reported in park reports contradict because park agents are forced to exaggerate the positive benefits of projects in order for donors to continue funding future projects. The conservation of traditional customs and values linked to being “the steward/ caretaker of the environment” has demonstrated throughout history (see background section) to sustain natural resource management practices that continue today in Muslim societies. Satisfying achievement and power that contribute to the Self-enhancement higher value order can restore the community’s beliefs in the effectiveness of executing pro-environmental behavior with success now that they are again playing a greater role in the nature conservation process. To close, one can conclude that incentive packages for environmental conservation are tools that can lead to long term pro-environmental behavior primarily in the public sphere; in areas such as community spaces and national parks but that such a tool must be preceded by an analysis of the community’s values and beliefs. In order to do so values and beliefs in addition to economic needs must be appropriately targeted. Even in cases where values have been incorporated in incentive packages it has become evident that those dynamic values change based on a public or private setting. In addition, while certain value types have been demonstrated to negatively predict pro- environmental behavior, even value types characterizing Health, Security, Conformity, and Tradition, customarily considered disincentives to pro-environmental behavior can be targeted and utilized in an incentive package to lead to long-term pro-environmental behavior and positive natural resource management in developing countries. 38
  47. 47. Research has also concluded that responsibility or knowledge alone about the environment is not incentive enough to lead to long term pro-environmental behaviors. Beliefs such as the perceptions of the outcomes and control of our actions are far more influential in predicting behavior. Finally, participatory monitoring and evaluation can help inform stakeholders of their actions in a way that they can measure and see the outcome of their effort. Further research on incentive packages should explore environmental behavior changes created by shifting the emphasis of current incentive packages from market driven (external) incentives, which often result in short term behavior, to beliefs and values that appeal to internal and deep rooted motivation. Incentive packages that surpass cost/benefit calculations and extend into the private sphere of the family home are most likely to create more holistic pro-environmental behavior and better natural resource management. Applicability The data and information shared in this paper can be particularly relevant to behaviorists, park managers, non-governmental and international environmental agencies, activists and donors looking to invest time and resources into environmental projects in developing countries. This case study can be used by these actors when trying to develop a more inclusive natural resource management incentive package that goes beyond short –term and market driven incentives to one that can eventually lead to a long term change in the behavior of the population in question. It is also effective for agencies that are trying to change the direction of their current conservation policies and strategies to be more participatory and inclusive. 39
  48. 48. More precisely, this case study helps these agencies understand the different kinds of value types and dimensions that match up with a particular kind of incentive target and link the beliefs of the population at hand to the benefit of their environmental objectives. Finally, interested parties can use elements of this case study to be more informed of the various factors that lead to a community’s willingness to exhibit pro-environmental behaviors and identify gaps using a beliefs assessment where appropriate to include more activities where people are informed and positive about the outcome of their behavior toward the environment. 40
  49. 49. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ajzen, Icek. From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11- 39). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. 1985 Ajzen, Icek. The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211. 1991 Brechin S. R; Kempton W. Global environmentalism: a challenge to the post- materialism thesis? Princeton University, Sociology Department, Social Science Quarterly. NJ. 1994, vol. 75, no2, pp. 245-269 (3 p.) CERP-Centre d’Expansion Rurale Polyvalent du Rao, Rapport de Population, St. Louis 2000. Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa. Report of the thirds session of the sub- committee for the protection and development of the fisheries in the Sahelian zone. FAO, Rome 1987, FAO Fisheries Report No. 377 Dunlap, R. E.; Gallup, G.; Gallup A. Health of the Planet: Results of an International Environmental Opinion Survey of Citizens in 24 Nations. The George H. Gallup International Institute Princeton. NJ 1993. Dunlap, R. E.; Gallup, G.; Gallup A. “Of Global Concern: Results of the Health of the Planet Survey.” Environment, November 1993, 7-15, 33-39. Dupuy, R. André. Les Parcs Nationaux de la République du Sénégal. G.I.A. Dakar, 1972 pg 3-5. Emerton, Lucy. Community Based Economic Incentives for Nature Conservation. The World Conservation Union, Eastern African Regional Office and Economics Unit. 2001 Diop, Moussa. Adrar, A. Guide des Ecogardes, Gandiol; PNLB, Senegal 2004. Hofstede, G. J. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Hopkins, Nicholas; Mehanna, S. El Haggar S. People and Pollution: Cultural Constructions and Social Action in Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo. 2001 41
  50. 50. Inglehart, Ronald; Baker. W. Modernization Cultural Change and Persistence of Traditional Values American Sociological Review, University of Michigan. 2000. Vol. 65. February:19-51. Kandji, Ahmadou. Caracterisation des sites de reproduction des oiseaux d’eau dans la zone côtiére ouest africaine : Etude de cas dans le Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie. UNESCO/UCAD, 2003. Karp, David. Values and their Effect on Pro-Environmental Behavior Environment and Behavior, Sage Publications Vol. 28, No. 1, 111-133 (1996) Kloff, S.; Pietrese, A. A Resource Planning Review of the River Senegal. Royal Tropical Institute, Department of Rural Change. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000 La Region du St. Louis. Le Histoire de St. Louis Senegal. On-line. Available from Internet: http://www.saintlouisdusenegal.com/histoiredesaintlouis.php accessed 14 September 2005 Leiserowitz, A.; Kates. R. Parris. T. Do Global Attitudes and Behaviors Support Sustainable Development? Environment, Heldref Publications. Vol.47, No 9, 2005. Miles, M.; Huberman, M. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Source Book for New Methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. 1984. Mountford, H.; Keppler J.H.. Financing Incentives for the protection of biodiversity. The Science of the total environment, Amsterdam, Elsevier Publishing Company. Vol 240, No 1-3, pages 133-144> 19 October 1999. Rice, Gillian. Pro-environmental Behavior in Egypt. Journal for Business Ethics, Springer, The Netherlands. Volume 65, Number 4, June 2006, pp. 373-390(18) 2006 Robbins, S.; Decenzo, D. Motivating and Rewarding Employees. Fundamentals of Management. 3rd Edition.Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall. Pg 311-341. 2002 Rokeach, Milton. The Nature of Human Values. University of Michigan. New York: Free Press. 1973 Schwartz, S. H. Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 1-65. 1992 Shaul, O.; Tally K. Predicting Pro-environmental Behavior Cross-Nationally. Environment and Behavior, Sage Publications. Vol. 38, No. 4, 462-483, 2006. 42
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  52. 52. APPENDIX Environmental Questionnaire PART 1 1. What is your sex: male 7 …or female 5? 2. What is your religion? Islam 11 Christian 2 3. What is your marital status? Single 9, Married 3 4. What is your age? Youngest 19, median 34, oldest 53. 5. Do you consider your home a part of the natural environment? Yes 10, No 2 6. Do you consider your community a part of the natural environment? Yes 12 7. What statement defines best your relationship to the natural environment? a. The natural environment is at the service of man? b. Man is the steward/care taker of the natural environment? 11 c. Man and the natural environment are independent of each other? d. Man and the natural environment have equal rights? 1 8. Who is primarily responsible for conserving the natural environment? a. The government 2 b. The National Park 1 c. The community Associations d. I am 9 e. Donors f: Other Explain: _________________________________________ 9. Do you think your contributions to conserving the environment are: a. Very effective 3 44
  53. 53. b. Somewhat effective 2 c. Indifferent 1 d. Not effective 2 e. Don’t know 4 10. Fill in the blank: People spend _____________ worrying about the natural environment. Too much time and energy The appropriate time and energy Not enough time and energy 12 11. Negative changes to the natural environment can harm the health of me and my family. True _12__ False __________ 12. Negative changes to the natural environment can compromise the way I make a living. True __12_ False __________ 13. a; Do you participate in activities that conserve or protect the natural environment? Yes ___6____ No ____6_____ 14. a. What pro- environmental activities do you take part in the National Park? • 2 replanting, 1 surveillance, 1 ecological and bird monitoring, 8 no answer b. What pro-environmental activities do you take part in the community? • 3 activist, 4 reforestation, 5 no answer 45
  54. 54. c. What pro-environmental activities do you take part in your home? • 2 maintenance, 3 cleaning, 7 no answer 15. How much time a month do you dedicate to activities that conserve or protect the natural environment? ________ hours • 4 no answer, least hours 10, median 34 hours , most 88 hours b. Do you receive monetary compensation for these activities or do you volunteer your time? 7 volunteer, 5 no answer 16. If you receive monetary compensation to perform activities that conserve or protect the natural environment is this amount enough to sustain your livelihood? Why? Why not? No answer, 7 volunteer, 5 no activity 17. Would you compromise your living situation to conserve or protect the environment? Yes _3______ No ___9______ 18. Would you compromise your working situation to conserve or protect the environment? Yes __3_____ No ___9___ _________________________________________________________________ 46
  55. 55. PART 2 A value of 3 to -1 was given to each answer as follows; not important -1, indifferent 0, important 1, somewhat important 2, and very important a value of 3. Please mark an X in front of the option that best represents your values. SELF DIRECTION 1. Thinking up new ideas and being creative is___________ to me. I like to do things in my own original way. 7 Very important 2 somewhat important 1 important =25 2 Indifferent 1 not important 2. Having the freedom to think and act as I feel is _____________ to me. I want to choose my own path to the future. 7 Very important 4 somewhat important 1 important = 30 ____ Indifferent ____ not important POWER 3. “It is _____________ to me to be rich. I want to have a lot of money and expensive things. 5 Very important 4 somewhat important 1 important = 23 1 Indifferent 1 not important STIMULATION 4. Having new and diverse experiences are _________ to me. I like challenges even if they involve some risk. 1 Very important 2 somewhat important 1 important =5 5 Indifferent 3 not important HEDONISM 5. Finding pleasure in life is _____________ to me. I do work if I enjoy it. 8 Very important somewhat important 4 important = 28 Indifferent not important 47
  56. 56. ACHIEVEMENT 6. Building my skills is _____________ to my future success. I like to be one of the best I can. 4 Very important 2 somewhat important 5 important = 20 Indifferent 1 not important SECURITY 7. Knowing that my family and me are safe and at peace is ___________ to me. I would not risk my health for any opportunity. 12 Very important somewhat important important = 36 Indifferent not important CONFORMITY 8. The opinions and views of my Elders are ____________ to me. I respect them even though I don’t agree with their views. 2 Very important 3 somewhat important 4 important = 15 2 Indifferent 1 not important TRADITION 9. Religious ceremonies and customs are _______________to me. I accept the ideas about my life my religion provides. 2 Very important 3 somewhat important 4 important =15 2 Indifferent 1 not important BENEVOLENCE 10. Being responsible and loyal to my friends is ____________ to me. I enjoy feeling part of a group. 5 Very important 3 somewhat important 4 important = 25 48
  57. 57. Indifferent not important UNIVERSALISM 11. Protecting the environment is ___________ to me. I appreciate the beauty of nature. 4 Very important 1 somewhat important 6 important = 20 1 Indifferent not important 12. Having understanding and appreciation for all kinds of people is _____________ to me. Social Justice is something I believe in. 1 Very important 4 somewhat important 6 important = 17 1 Indifferent not important 49

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