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Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
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Trends Presentation V7
Trends Presentation V7
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Trends Presentation V7

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Educational Technology

Educational Technology

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  • 1. Ten Trends Currently Affecting the field of Instructional Design and Technology Robert Reiser Distinguished Teaching Professor and Robert M. Morgan Professor of Instructional Systems Florida State University
  • 2. Ten Trends Currently Affecting the field of Instructional Design and Technology
  • 3. Ten Trends Currently Affecting the field of Instructional Technology
  • 4. Ten Trends Currently Affecting the field of Educational Technology
  • 5. Ten Trends Currently Affecting the field of Instructional Design and Technology
  • 6. How Definitions of the Field Have Changed: Early Definitions (early 1900s - 1960s) Instructional Technology = Media “ audiovisual materials” (e.g., films, radio, broadcast television) “ the media born of the communications revolution” (e.g., video, computers, the Internet, digital video, etc)
  • 7. Inst. Technology = systematic approach to instructional design “ a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching” (Commission on Inst. Technology, 1970) “ a complex, integrated process .. for analyzing problems, and devising implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems...” (AECT, 1977) How Definitions of the Field Have Changed: Later Definitions (1970s - 1980s)
  • 8. How Definitions of the Field Have Changed: A Definition for Today The field of instructional design and technology encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace. Professionals in the field of instructional design and technology often use systematic instructional design procedures and employ a variety of instructional media to accomplish their goals.
  • 9. The field of instructional design and technology encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design , development , implementation , evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace. Professionals in the field of instructional design and technology often use systematic instructional design procedures and employ a variety of instructional media to accomplish their goals. How Definitions of the Field Have Changed: A Definition for Today Instructional Design and Technology = a systematic approach to instructional design
  • 10. The field of instructional design and technology encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace. Professionals in the field of instructional design and technology often use systematic instructional design procedures and employ a variety of instructional media to accomplish their goals. How Definitions of the Field Have Changed: A Definition for Today Instructional Design and Technology = a systematic approach to instructional design and the use of instructional media
  • 11. The field of instructional design and technology encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems , and the design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace. Professionals in the field of instructional design and technology often use systematic instructional design procedures and employ a variety of instructional media to accomplish their goals. How Definitions of the Field Have Changed: A Definition for Today Instructional Design and Technology = a systematic approach to instructional design and the use of instructional media and performance improvement techniques
  • 12. The field of instructional design and technology encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace. Professionals in the field of instructional design and technology often use systematic instructional design procedures and employ a variety of instructional media to accomplish their goals. How Definitions of the Field Have Changed: A Definition for Today Instructional Design and Technology = a systematic approach to instructional design and the use of instructional media and performance improvement techniques
  • 13.
        • Emphasis on improving performance (at individual and
        • organizational level), as well as improving learning
    Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Performance Improvement Movement
  • 14.
        • Emphasis on improving performance (at individual and
        • organizational level), as well as improving learning
        • Use of non-instructional methods (in addition to, or
        • instead of, instructional methods) to improve
        • performance:
    Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Performance Improvement Movement
            • coaching and mentoring
            • personnel selection
            • motivational techniques
            • job and workplace re-design
            • feedback systems
            • electronic performance support
            • knowledge management
            • informal learning
  • 15. Source: ASTD 2006 State of the Industry Report Extent of Use of Instructional and Non-Instructional Methods
  • 16. Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Knowledge Management What is Knowledge Management? The creation, archiving and sharing of valued information, expertise, and insight within and across communities of people and organizations with similar interests and needs. (Rosenberg, 2007) Getting the right knowledge from the right sources to the right people, right when they want it (adapted from Rossett, 2007)
  • 17. Vendors Marketing Product Development Information Technology Help Desks Public Relations Training HR Finance Manufacturing Knowledge Management Instead of knowledge chaos: used with permission of Marc Rosenberg, 2007
  • 18. Vendors Marketing Product Development Information Technology Help Desks Public Relations Training HR Finance Manufacturing Knowledge Management provides useful organization of knowledge: used with permission of Marc Rosenberg, 2007 KM
  • 19. Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Electronic Performance Support Systems What is an EPSS? A software application that provides just-in time assistance to individuals so as to help them perform tasks more effectively and efficiently (adapted from McKay & Wager, 2007)
  • 20. Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Electronic Performance Support Systems Functions an EPSS May Perform
    • serves as an Embedded Coach
    • - provides step-by-step guidance in performing a task
    • example:
    • - step-by-step process for writing a
    • three-part instructional objective
  • 21. Differences between EPSS and Knowledge Management based on Rossett (2002) & Rosenberg (2007) information is accessed via initiative of user information is fully integrated into work task less pre-filtered, allowing users to search and surf usually filters information for users goal is to provide strategies for completing the task goal is getting the task done user is given “heuristics” re how to proceed takes user through a precise series of steps Knowledge Management EPSS
  • 22. Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: e-Learning
    • Percentage of technology-based training (online, CBI, video,
    • etc.) has greatly increased in recent years:
  • 23. Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: e-Learning
      • In 2006, the percentage of training delivered online
      • greatly increased:
    2005 2006 Source: Training Magazine , December 2006
  • 24. source: Sloan Foundation, 2006 Percent of Colleges & Universities with Online Courses/Programs On average, more than 60% offer online courses or programs
  • 25. e-Learning More online courses = more opportunities for instructional designers Why?
  • 26. e-Learning: Expected Increase in the Need for ID Skills source: e-Learning Guild, 2006
  • 27. e-Learning: Related Activities with Largest Expected Growth source: e-Learning Guild, 2006
  • 28. Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Learning Objects “ any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning” IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee, 2007 Definitions “ any digital resource that can be reused to support learning … the main idea … is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments” Wiley, The Instructional Use of Learning Objects, 2000
  • 29. Reusable Content
  • 30. Trends Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Learning Objects Key Characteristics
    • Learning objects are:
      • (in most cases) relatively small “chunks” of content (smaller than a unit, course, or module)
      • re-usable in multiple contexts for multiple purposes
      • “ tagged” with metadata ( descriptive information
      • that allows objects to be easily found by a search)
      • can be grouped into larger collections of content
      • as per R.J. Beck, adapted from Wisconsin Online Resource Center
  • 31. SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) Learning Object
      • SCO = sharable content object
    Figure 1. Learning Object SCO #2 SCO #1 SCO #3 Objective Graphics Text Audio Graphics Text Audio Graphics Text Audio Q #2 Q #1 Assessment Performance Test Simulation Knowledge Test Motivation
  • 32. Learning Object Repositories: Example of K - 12 Repository
  • 33. Learning Object Repositories: Example of Higher Ed. Repository
  • 34. Definitions Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Informal Learning Informal learning is the unofficial, unscheduled, impromptu way people learn to do their jobs. Jay Cross, Informal Learning, 2006 Learning other than that which typically takes place in a classroom or other formal instructional settings (such as on-line instruction, webinars, simulations, computer-based instruction, etc.) adapted from Rossett & Hoffman, 2007
  • 35. How to Promote Informal Learning: Examples
    • Provide work spaces that will promote informal learning
    • (e.g., lounge area, conference room)
    • Arrange for informal staff get-togethers (e.g., brown bag
    • lunches)
    • Encourage creation of informal “learning communities”
    • Use blogs, chat rooms, instant messaging and discussion
    • boards to promote worker discussion, suggestions, etc.
    • Create online repositories of worker-supplied solutions
    • to various performance problems
  • 36. Characteristics of Formal and Informal Learning: A Comparison Formal Informal from Jay Cross, 2007 learner-driven instructor-driven Content defined by learner’s perception of need Content mandated by others’ perception of need Relationships, conversation Courses, workshops Web 2.0 culture: Pull School culture: Push
  • 37. Informal Learning: The Predominant Means of Learning in Workplaces from Jay Cross, 2007
  • 38. Trends Resulting from Criticism of “Traditional” ID Approaches
    • Constructivism
    • Learning Sciences
    • Holistic Design Models
  • 39. Criticism of “Traditional” ID Approaches Critics indicate: - traditional ID approaches reduce complex tasks into simple elements, making it difficult for learners to “put all the pieces together” - traditional ID approaches often provide insufficient “authentic” practice activities, thus inhibiting transfer of training
  • 40.
    • Design authentic , complex problems
    • Anchor skills to “real world” tasks
    • - helps learners see relevance
    • Encourage learner ownership of problem solving process
    • - teacher is “guide on the side”, not “sage on the stage”
    • Encourage learner collaboration/discussion
    • - learners test ideas against alternative views
    • - learners take into account multiple perspectives
    • Encourage learner reflection on learning processes
    Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Constructivism Key instructional principles
  • 41.
    • Focus on:
    • the design of technology-enriched learning environments
    • that engage and support learners in complex, authentic,
    • learning activities so as to promote meaningful learning
    Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Learning Sciences based on Jonassen et. al. Constructivism & ID: The Emergence of the Learning Sciences, in Reiser & Dempsey (2007)
  • 42. Trend Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Holistic Instructional Design Models Key Features - focus on whole task performance - scaffold learning of whole task (e.g., start with simple version of whole task) - employ mathegenic methods; those which “ give birth to” learning (e.g., random sequencing, variability of practice) from van Merrienboer Alternate Models of Instructional Design, 2007
  • 43. Trends Currently Affecting the IDT Field: Measurement and Evaluation “ All Benchmarking Forum and BEST organizations in 2006 reported having well-defined performance measures for their learning initiatives and used a variety of processes and systems to evaluate and report on learning activities” ASTD 2006 State of the Industry Report
  • 44. Percentage of BEST Organizations Using Particular Measurement Metrics
  • 45.
      • Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model (fifty years old!)
          • reaction
          • learning
          • behavior (on-the-job performance)
          • business results
      • Return on Investment (ROI) methodologies
      • Balanced Scorecard approach
          • financial perspective
          • customer perspective
          • internal business processes perspective
          • learning and growth perspective
      • Brinkerhoff’s Success Case method
    Popular Measurement and Evaluation Methods
  • 46. Ten Trends Currently Affecting the IDT Field: A Summary Listing
    • Performance Improvement
    • Knowledge Management
    • Electronic Performance Support
    • e-Learning
    • Learning Objects
    • Informal Learning
    • Constructivism
    • Learning Sciences
    • Holistic Design Models
    • Measurement and Evaluation
  • 47. Thank You! For further information, see: Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J.A. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Go to: vig.prenhall.com/search

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