Weathering
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Weathering

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Weathering Weathering Presentation Transcript

  • What do These 3 Things Have in Common?? statue Grand Canyon Sand Pile
  • They have all been subjected to the process of WEATHERING
  • WEATHERING: is THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESS THAT CHANGES ROCK
  • For weathering to occur the rocks must be exposed to: AIR (atmosphere) WATER (hydrosphere) ACTION OF HUMANS & OTHER LIVING ORGANISMS
  • Evidence of Weathering: the end product of the weathering of rock is SEDIMENT
  • Sediments are classified by size: use the reference tables page 6 to complete the chart Sediment Name Diameter range(cm) Boulder 25.6 or larger Cobble 6.4-25.5 Pebble 0.2-6.3 Sand 0.006-0.1 Silt (colloid-suspended) 0.0004-0.005 Clay (colloid-suspended) Less than 0.0004 Dissolved particles (ions) Not visible Examples:salt,calcite
  • PHYSICAL WEATHERING: ROCKS ARE BROKEN INTO SMALLER PIECES WITHOUT CHANGING THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE ROCK
  • Explain how water and wind can can cause physical weathering in the following ways:
  • The alternate freezing and thawing of water
  • WATER EXPANDS WHEN IT FREEZES This is called…….
  • Ice Wedging or Frost Action
  • a weathered sidewalk
  • Half Dome in Yosemite California
  • *ABRASION
  • RUNNING WATER AND WIND CAN RUB OR WEAR DOWN ROCKS
  • RUNNING WATER AND WIND CAN CAUSE ROCKS TO RUB AGAINST EACH OTHER AND WEAR THEM DOWN
  • * BIOLOGIC ACTIVITY
  • My sidewalk being lifted by the tree roots!!
  • PLANT ROOTS EXPOSES NEW SURFACES TO WEATHERING
  • *Humans can influence the rate of weathering by the use of powerful equipment
  • If you increase the surface area increase you will ___________ the rate of weathering
  • rate of weathering Surface area
  • CHEMICAL WEATHERING: Rocks are broken and the chemical composition is also CHANGED ___________
  • • OXIDATION OCCURS OXYGEN WHEN __________ FROM AIR COMBINES WITH MINERALS ___________ TO FORM OXIDES RUST
  • This was washed up on a beach!!
  • A rusty gate……
  • • CARBONATION WATER OCCURS WHEN __________ CONTAINING CARBONIC __________ ACID DISSOLVES MINERALS
  • EX. LIMESTONE CAVES
  • * POLLUTANTS can speed up the rate of chemical weathering OXIDES OF SULFER AND NITROGEN MAKE RAINWATER UNNATURALLY ACIDIC ACID RAIN
  • • HYDRATION OCCURS WHEN MINERALS SUCH AS _______ MICA AND WATER FELDSPAR ABSORB ________ AND CLAY WEAKEN AND FORM ________
  • Moderate If: temperature = 5 physical and precipitation = 100 chemical weathering
  • temperature = 20 Faster rate precipitation = 100 of chemical weathering
  • If: temperature = -10 Faster precipitation = 50 physical weathering
  • CLIMATIC EFFECTS ON WEATHERING: PHYSICAL WEATHERING DOMINATES IN COLD, MOIST CLIMATES
  • CLIMATIC EFFECTS ON WEATHERING: CHEMICAL WEATHERING DOMINATES IN WARM, MOIST CLIMATES
  • IN GENERAL WHEN THERE IS MORE MOISTURE THERE IS MORE WEATHERING
  • CLEOPATRA’S Central Park NEEDLE
  • RATE OF WEATHERING ALSO DEPENDS ON: MINERAL COMPOSITION ROCK RESISTANCE (HARDNESS)
  • WATER DOLOSTONE WHICH ROCK IS THE SHALE MOST LIMESTONE RESISTANT SANDSTONE TO WEATHERING? SHALE SANDSTONE SHALE
  • DOLOSTONE WHICH ROCK IS THE SHALE MOST LIMESTONE RESISTANT SANDSTONE TO WEATHERING? SHALE SANDSTONE SHALE
  • DOLOSTONE WHICH ROCK IS THE SHALE LEAST LIMESTONE RESISTANT SANDSTONE TO WEATHERING? SHALE SANDSTONE SHALE
  • DOLOSTONE WHICH ROCK IS THE SHALE LEAST LIMESTONE RESISTANT SANDSTONE TO WEATHERING? SHALE SANDSTONE SHALE
  • SOIL FORMATION: SOIL IS THE COMBINATION OF: ROCK PARTICLES MINERALS ORGANIC MATTER
  • THE END RESULT OF WEATHERING AND BIOLOGIC ACTIVITY IS:
  • Adding to a compost pile
  • SOIL FORMATION: Breakdown of rock Addition of organic material ( from decomposition ) (biological activity)
  • Soil Horizons A B C
  • SOIL HORIZONS (LAYERS) A (TOP SOIL) rich in organic material B little organic material rich in minerals leeched from horizon A C partly weathered broken up bedrock sits on top of solid bedrock
  • The two types of sediment (soil) are: Transported Residual
  • TRANSPORTED SOILS: CARRIED FROM LOCATION OF PARENT ROCK MOST OF NEW YORK SOIL IS TRANSPORTED
  • SOIL ASSOCIATIONS (CHARACTERISTICS 3 WAYS THAT SOIL CAN DIFFER IN VARIOUS LOCATIONS: 1. COMPOSITION (MINERALS) 2. MOISTURE 3. ORGANIC MATERIAL
  • HOW CAN WE IMPROVE THE SOIL’S ABILITY TO SUSTAIN LIFE?
  • Terrace planting
  • Wind breaks like trees Planted To Stop Wind erosion