What did the Big Bang sound like? Forget the big bang, tune in to the big hum THE big bang sounded more like a deep hum than a bang, according to an analysis of the radiation left over from the cataclysm. Physicist John Cramer of the University of Washington in Seattle has created audio files of the event which can be played on a PC. "The sound is rather like a large jet plane flying 100 feet above your house in the middle of the night," he says. Giant sound waves propagated through the blazing hot matter that filled the universe shortly after the big bang. These squeezed and stretched matter, heating the compressed regions and cooling the rarefied ones. Even though the universe has been expanding and cooling ever since, the sound waves have left their imprint as temperature variations on the afterglow of the big bang fireball, the so-called cosmic microwave background. Cramer was prompted to recreate the din- last heard13.7 billion years ago- by an11-year-old boy who wanted to know what the big bang sounded like for a school project. To produce the sound, Cramer took data from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Launched in 2001, the probe has been measuring tiny differences in the temperature between different parts of the sky. From these variations, he could calculate the frequencies of the sound waves propagating through the universe during its first 760,000 years, when it was just 18 million light years across. At that time the sound waves were too low in frequency to be audible. To hear them, Cramer had to scale the frequencies 100,000 billion billion times. Nevertheless, the loudness and pitch of the sound waves reflect what happened in the early universe. During the 100-second recording ( http://www.npl.washington.edu/AV/BigBangSound_2.wav ), the frequencies fall because the sound waves get stretched as the universe expands. "It becomes more of a bass instrument," says Cramer. ### Author: Marcus Chown
What is the Big Bang Theory? The universe started as a single point. That point was extremely dense. It became unstable and exploded outward. Today the universe continues to expand.
Central force that has a high influence on planets orbits.
Without the sun’s energy and heat there would be no life on Earth.
It holds everything in place by its gravity .
It contains about 99% of the mass of the solar system.
Sun http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Sun920607.jpg Mythology The Sun God. Greeks Called it Hellos Mass 333 400 times the mass of the Earth Diameter 1 392 000 km (109 x Earth’s diameter) Gravity 28 times that on Earth Surface Temperature 6000°C (average). From 4500 to 2000000°C up to 15000000°C in the core. Period of rotation (day) Equator 26 Earth days, poles 37 Earth days Tilt of axis 122°
Inner Planets: Also called Terrestrial planets: first four planets. They are solid, rock like structures
Asteroid belt : band of rocks orbiting the sun
Outer Planets: Also called Jovian planets: The 4 planets farthest from the sun
4 are made up of mainly lighter element gases
Last two are frozen materials
Two Kinds of Planets Planets of our solar system can be divided into two very different kinds: Terrestrial (earthlike) planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars Jovian (Jupiter-like) planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune 0
Size of Terrestrial Planets Compared to Jovian Planets
Terrestrial Planets Four inner planets of the solar system Relatively small in size and mass (Earth is the largest and most massive) Rocky surface Surface of Venus can not be seen directly from Earth because of its dense cloud cover . 0
The Jovian Planets Much larger in mass and size than terrestrial planets Much lower average density All have rings (not only Saturn!) Mostly gas ; no solid surface 0
Asteroids The total mass of all the asteroids is less than that of the Moon. -rocky objects with round or irregular shapes lie in a belt between Mars and Jupiter
The Asteroid Belt Pluto Neptune Uranus Saturn Jupiter Mars (Distances and times reproduced to scale) 0 Most asteroids orbit the sun in a wide zone between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Meteoroids Small ( m – mm sized) dust grains throughout the solar system If they collide with Earth, they evaporate in the atmosphere . Visible as streaks of light (“shooting stars”): meteors . 0
Landscape: Many craters, a little ice. Cliffs and valleys present.
Temperatures: Super-heated by the sun in the day. At night temperatures reach hundreds of degrees below freezing. (Not as warm as you would think).
Year (Full rotation around the sun): 88 days.
Mercury http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Reprocessed_Mariner_10_image_of_Mercury.jpg Mythology God of travel, commerce and thieves Mass 0.056 times that of Earth Moons None Diameter 4878 km ( = 0.38 x Earth’s diameter) Surface Similar to Earth’s moon Gravity 0.38 times that on Earth Surface Temperature – 170°C to 430°C Period of rotation (day) 59 Earth days Tilt of axis 0° Distance from Sun 0.39 AU (58 million kilometres) Time to orbit Sun (year) 88 Earth days
Atmosphere: Thick enough to trap heat, hurricane winds, lightning, and acid clouds.
Landscape: Volcanoes and deformed mountains.
Temperatures: Intense heat.
Year (Full rotation around the sun): 225 Earth days.
Venus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Venus-real.jpg Mythology Goddess of love and beauty Mass 0.815 times that of Earth Moons None Diameter 12 103 km ( = 0.95 x Earth’s diameter) Surface Extensive cratering, volcanic activity. Gravity 0.9 times that on Earth Surface Temperature 460°C Period of rotation (day) 243 Earth days Tilt of axis 30° Distance from Sun 0.72 AU (108 million kilometres) Time to orbit Sun (year) 225 Earth days
Atmosphere: Suitable air pressure to have life. Air is made of oxygen.
Landscape: The only planet that has liquid on the surface, rocky, land formations.
Temperatures: Suitable for life. Ranges from locations on Earth.
Year (Full rotation around the sun): 365 Earth days.
Earth http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:The_Earth_seen_from_Apollo_17.jpg Mythology Gaia—mother Earth Mass 1.0 times that of Earth (5 980 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg) Moons One (‘the Moon’) Diameter 12 756 km Surface Two-thirds water, one-third land Gravity 1.0 times that on Earth Surface Temperature average 22°C Period of rotation (day) 1 Earth day Tilt of axis 23.5° Distance from Sun 1 AU (150 million kilometres) Time for light to reach Earth 8 minutes Time to orbit Sun (year) 365.25 Earth days
Landscape: Frozen water below the surface, rocky, dusty, and has craters.
Temperatures: Like Earth, but drier and colder
Year (Full rotation around the sun): 687 Earth days.
Midnight sun on Mars Mars
Mars http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:2005-1103mars-full.jpg Mythology God of war Mass 0.107 times that of Earth Moons 2 (Phobos—diameter 23 km, Deimos—diameter 10 km) Diameter 6794 km ( = 0.53 xEarth’s diameter) Surface Soft red soil containing iron oxide (rust). Cratered regions, large volcanoes, a large canyon and possible dried-up water channels. Gravity 0.376 times that on Earth Surface Temperature – 120°C to 25°C Period of rotation (day) 1.03 Earth days Tilt of axis 25.2° Distance from Sun 1.52 AU (228 million kilometres) Time to orbit Sun (year) 687 Earth days Time to reach Mars 9 months
Atmosphere: Colorful clouds, until it is squished unto liquid. Cold and windy, giant storms.
Landscape: Thick super hot soup.
Temperatures: Extremely cold at clouds. Extremely hot and cold radiation.
Jupiter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Jupiter.jpg Mythology Ruler of the Gods Mass 318 times that of Earth Moons At least 28 moons and four rings, including the four largest moons: Io, Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. These are known as the ‘Galilean’ moons. Diameter 142 984 km ( = 11.21 x Earth’s diameter) Surface Liquid hydrogen Gravity 2.525 times that on Earth Surface Temperature Cloud top –150°C Period of rotation (day) 9 hours 55 minutes Tilt of axis 3.1° Distance from Sun 5.2 AU (778 million kilometres) Time to orbit Sun (year) 11.8 Earth years
Atmosphere: Composed mostly of gas with no solid surface. Cloud strips.
Landscape: No solid surfaces, high pressures turn gas into liquids.
Temperatures: Rings made out of water ice, really cold.
Saturn http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Saturn_from_Cassini_Orbiter_%282007-01-19%29.jpg Mythology God of agriculture Mass 95.184 times that of Earth Moons At least 30 moons and rings in seven bands Diameter 120 536 km (= 9.45 x Earth’s diameter) Surface Liquid hydrogen Gravity 1.064 times that on Earth Surface Temperature – 180°C Period of rotation (day) 10 hours 39 minutes Tilt of axis 26.7° Distance from Sun 9.6 AU (1400 million kilometres) Time to orbit Sun (year) 29.5 Earth years
Atmosphere: Gets thicker and thicker, until it is squished unto liquid. Cold and windy.
Landscape: Layer of superheated water and gases that form bright clouds.
Temperatures: Extremely cold at cloud tops and superheated towards the center.
Uranus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Uranusandrings.jpg Mythology Father of Saturn Mass 14.54 times that of Earth Moons At least 21 moons and 11 rings Diameter 51 200 km (= 4.01 x Earth’s diameter) Surface Likely to be frozen hydrogen and helium Gravity 0.903 times that on Earth Surface Temperature – 220°C Period of rotation (day) 17 hours 14 minutes Tilt of axis 98° Distance from Sun 19.2 AU (2875 million kilometres) Time to orbit Sun (year) 84 Earth years
Position: Furthest from the sun (Cannot see without a Telescope). 8 th planet.
Atmosphere: Very Windy, cold clouds, a layer of methane gas (giving it a blue color), storms as large Earth.
Landscape: Scientist think it may have an ocean of super hot lava.
Neptune http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Neptune.jpg Mythology God of the sea Mass 17.15 times that of Earth Moons 8 moons and 5 rings Diameter 49 528 km ( = 3.88 x Earth’s diameter) Surface Frozen hydrogen and helium Gravity 1.135 times that on Earth Surface Temperature – 220°C Period of rotation (day) 16 hours 7 minutes Tilt of axis 29.3° Distance from Sun 30.1 AU (4500 million kilometres) Time to orbit Sun (year) 165 Earth years
The four innermost planets orbit the Sun in almost circular orbits
The larger outer planets move in more elliptical or oval orbits
All planets move in the same plane (a large imaginary flat surface)
Planetary Orbits Pluto Neptune Uranus Saturn Jupiter Mars Earth Venus Mercury All planets in almost circular (elliptical) orbits around the sun, in approx. the same plane (ecliptic). Sense of revolution: counter-clockwise Sense of rotation: counter-clockwise (with exception of Venus, Uranus, and Pluto) Orbits generally inclined by no more than 3.4 o Exceptions: Mercury (7 o ) Pluto (17.2 o ) (Distances and times reproduced to scale) 0
Sun Focus points Major axis Eccentricity = Distance between foci Length of major axis The smaller the number, the closer the orbit is to a perfect circle.
Kepler’s Second Law Area of orange section is equal. Distance along orbit is not the same. But the time covered is equal. Planets moves faster when closer to the Sun. Planet moves slower when farther away to the Sun. Caused by gravitational pull of the Sun. eccentricity website
Kepler's Third Law The greater the distance from the sun, the longer the period of revolution. Not drawn to scale. Earth – 150 mill. Km, 365 days Mars – 228 mill. km, 687 days
Star trails looking North Polaris Stars are so far away the appear stationary (not moving). Why do they have this pattern? Earth is rotating.
Constellations are groupings of stars that make an imaginary image in the night sky. They have been named after mythological characters, people, animals and objects. In different parts of the world, people have made up different shapes out of the same groups of bright stars. It is like a game of connecting the dots. In the past constellations have became useful for navigating at night and for keeping track of the seasons.
The Moon’s periods of rotation and revolution are both 27.33 days. The result is that the same side of the Moon always faces Earth (the near side).
However, it takes 29.5 days for the Moon to completely revolve around the Earth
Why Two More Days? Moon’s orbit Earth moving around Sun. Earth Moon Moon has to revolve for 2 more days to get back to the new moon phase. This occurs because the Earth is revolving around the Sun.
What phenomenon does this explain? We only ever see one side of the moon.
Why does the moon rise later each day? because as the Earth rotates, the moon revolves
What phase of the moon is this? New Gibbous New Crescent 3rd Quarter
How many hours is the moon visible each day? 12 hours Approximate Times of Moonrise and Moonset moonrise moonset new moon 06:00 AM 06:00 PM waxing crescent 09:00 AM 09:00 PM first quarter 12:00 PM 12:00 AM waxing gibbous 03:00 PM 03:00 AM full moon 06:00 PM 06:00 AM waning gibbous 09:00 PM 09:00 AM third quarter 12:00 AM 12:00 PM waning crescent 03:00 AM 03:00 PM new moon 06:00 AM 06:00 PM
What is "waxing"? more of the moon's surface can be seen
What is "waning"? less of the moon's surface can be seen
The phases of the moon are what type of event? Cyclic
The alignment of the Moon with the Sun affect tides.
At the full and new moon phase, both are in line, causing a higher high tide and a lower low tide. This is called the Spring Tide.
At the quarter phases, the Sun and Moon work against each other, resulting in weaker tides, called Neap Tides.
Spring and Neap Tides Sun Sun Neap Tide Spring Tide Quarter Phase – not a large change from high to low tide. New and Full Phase – big change from high to low tide. Water being pulled in two directions. Moon and Sun’s gravity pulling in one direction. Earth Earth
How many tides a day? 2 high tides 2 low tides
Why are there not exactly 12 hours between tides? because the moon revolves around the Earth while the Earth rotates