Unit 1: ENERGY
         Stop Monkey-N-ing
              around and
          Go Green already!
         P.S. I’m Mookie th...
What is ENERGY?
         Energy is
        the ability
           to do
           Work!
        _______!
                ...
Work occurs when a
   force! causes an
  _____
 object to _____ in
            move!
the same direction as
      the force...
FORMS OF ENERGY
Both basic states of energy,
  Kinetic and potential, can
     exist in many forms!!
THERMAL (HEAT)
 The total Kinetic!
           ________
      energy of the
       particles in
         matter.
    (molec...
SOUND
A type of mechanical
   energy. It is the
 energy produced when
           vibrate!
  objects ________.
  Ex: tuning...
MECHANICAL
Energy with which
moving! objects
______
perform work.!
Ex: Wind, flowing water,
using a hammer!
               ...
ELECTRICITY

      A form of energy
           produced by
            movement!
        the ________
            electron...
CHEMICAL
Energy STORED
in chemical
bonds! that can
____
be released.
Ex: food, fossil
fuels, battery
acid!              10
STORED MECHANICAL
     ENERGY:
 Stored energy due to a
    change in the shape
      of an object. Ex: !
A stretched rubbe...
STORED MECHANICAL
     ENERGY:




               12
LIGHT
A form of radiant!
           _______
energy that moves in a
wave!
______.!
Ex: lamp, stars!

                      ...
SOLAR ENERGY
All forms of energy that
                  SUN!
  come from the ______.!



                     14
NUCLEAR
Energy
STORED in the
nucleus!
________
(center) of an
atom.!
Ex: nuclear bombs!   15
GEOTHERMAL (HEAT)
Heat energy STORED within
            Earth!
       the _____. Ex:!
Volcanic eruptions, geysers!



    ...
All forms of energy
 can be classified as
 Kinetic or potential.
The two basic states
of energy. So, what’s
   the differen...
POTENTIAL ENERGY
1) Potential energy is
stored energy due to
     and object’s
  _____________!
       Position!
         ...
POTENTIAL ENERGY
2)  An object that is lifted
 from its position on Earth
    gravitational!
has __________ potential
 Ene...
POTENTIAL ENERGY
3) Massive objects
   have _____
         more!
 potential energy
 than less massive
      objects!   23
POTENTIAL ENERGY
4) An object at a higher
    elevation will have
more!
_____ potential energy
   than an object at a
    ...
KINETIC ENERGY
1)  Kinetic is energy
            of !
       Motion!
   ___________!
                    25
KINETIC ENERGY
2) Kinetic depends on
 the _____ and the
       MASS!
   _______ of an
     SPEED!
        object.!
       ...
KINETIC ENERGY
  3) Faster objects
             More!
       have ____
     kinetic energy
      than slower
        objec...
REVIEW QUESTONS:
WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST
 KINETIC ENERGY?
                         A

                     B
       ...
WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST
POTENTIAL ENERGY?
                       A


                   B
D
              C
ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS

 Do you remember the
         LAW OF
   CONSERVATION OF
   MASS AND ENERGY?!
                    30
Law of Conservation of
ENERGY: (same for mass)
             Can’t be made 
Mass/ NRG ____________ 
 Mass/ NRG ____________...
DURING ENERGY CHANGES,
IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY,
             Gaining
THE OTHER IS _______ ENERGY:
 THE WAVE LOSES
 ENE...
DURING ENERGY CHANGES,
IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY
THE OTHER IS GAINING ENERGY:
THE WAVE LOSES
ENERGY:
          THE SAND
...
DURING ENERGY CHANGES
THE TOTAL ENERGY
REMAINS THE SAME

ENERGY ALWAYS FLOWS
FROM
HIGH TO LOW (source to sink)
THE ENERGY WILL FLOW FROM:




 THE FLAME TO THE
 FINGER
ENERGY WILL FLOW FROM


     ICE



THE FINGER TO
THE ICE
THE LIQUID
LOSES ENERGY
 AS THE
ICE
 GAINS ENERGY
WHEN WILL THE EXCHANGE
OF ENERGY STOP?
 WHEN
 EQUILIBRIUM
 IS REACHED
 THE LIQUID AND
THE ICE REACH
THE SAME
TEMPERATURE
UNUSABLE ENERGY:
Very often during the energy
     transformation process,
             heat!
       some ____ energy is
 ...
ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS
Example: A !
television changes !
electrical NRG!
 into light and!
 sound NRG!            40
ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS




                    41
Do Now: Focused
Free Write
What is different about
 how each of the three
 popcorns? How were they
 made? Explain!
Methods of
Energy Transfer
Energy moves from
regions of
       high
_________
concentration to
       low
________
concentrations of
energy.         ...
Source
_______
To
 sink
_______
There are 3
methods of Energy
Transfer
 Radiation
 ConDuction
 ConVection
ConDuction
Explanation of Transfer

Direct contact
(touch)
Molecule
To Molecule
-Conduction is a form of
   heat transfer by
          contact!
   direct _______ of
   molecules!

                      ...
Best Medium for
     energy transfer

-Conduction occurs
               solids!
   fastest in _______!


                 ...
metals! are the best
-_______
   conductors of he heat
   energy.!


                      51
Examples
 Touching a hot
   surface
 Electricity
Conduction lab:
Con ection
Explanation of Transfer

Energy transfer
Due to
Density
differences
-Convection is a form of
   heat transfer that
   occurs by up and
   down motions of a
      fluid!
   _______ due to
   d...
Best Medium for
energy transfer
                 fluids!
-occurs ONLY in _____
   which are liquids and
   gases!!


      ...
Examples
 Hot air or water
 rising
 Volcanoes
 Lava lamp
convection
 Radiatio
Explanation of Transfer
Electromagnetic (EM)
waves
 that move
Through a vacuum
(empty space)
-radiation is the transfer
   of heat in waves!
               _____.!



                       62
-Electromagnetic
   radiation travels at
   the speed of ______.!
      light!

                     63
Best Medium for
energy transfer

No medium
 needed
Examples
Gamma
X-rays
UV
Visible
Infrared
Microwave
radio
HEAT NOTES




1. HEAT: the energy of
             particles!
    moving __________!
                     66
HEAT NOTES




2. HOT OBJECTS contain
       more!
   __________ heat
   than than cold ones!
                     67
HEAT NOTES




3. All objects above
    Absolute zero!
   __________ contain
   heat!           68
HEAT NOTES

4. Heat always flows
         hotter!
   from ______ objects
   to ______ objects
        cooler!
   until the ...
HEAT NOTES
5. The greater the
   difference in
   temperature between
   the two objects, the
       faster!
   _________ ...
HOW IS HEAT
TRANSFERRED BETWEEN
     OBJECTS?




                  71
Heat Transfer at
Work
Name that type of
heat transfer!

                             Conduction!

                Radiation!




  Convection!
 ...
Heat Transfer
across the globe
 http://www.classzone.com/
 books/earth_science/terc/
 content/visualizations/
 es1705/es1...
Specific Heat
Quantity of heat
 needed to raise
One gram of any
Substance by
1 degree Celsius
Specific Heat
The higher the
Specific heat…
The more energy
 is needed to
 raise the
 temperature
Measuring
Specific Heat
Energy can be measures in
  many different ways.
  Typical units include:
        Joules
_________...
The term “Joule” is
named after English
Scientist James
Prescott Joule who lived
from 1818 to 1889. He
discovered that Hea...
Do Now!
Read the did you know and
  complete practice questions
  1-10!
1.  What substance has
    the highest specific
    heat? Use your
  Reference Tables
Liquid water
4.18     Joules/gramºC
2. Why do metals
  have low specific
  heats?
 They are
solid
3. Why are pans made of
metals with low specific
heats?

 Because metals are good
 Conductors And have low
 specific heats...
4. Which would
Take more energy
to raise its
Temperature, water
Or land?
       water
5. Which would
Heat up and cool off
Faster, land or water?


   land
Water (liquid) = 4.18
Iron (Fe)    = 0.45
Copper (Cu) = 0.38
6. Which of these three
substances will heat up
fastest?
Copp...
7. Which material would
require the greatest amount
of heat energy to raise its
temperature from 50 C to 100 C?
A.   10   ...
8. Which pan would you use
if you wanted to cook your food
quickly?

  copper          iron


  Cp = 0.38      Cp = 0.45
9. Which material would
require the greatest amount
of heat energy to raise its
temperature from 50 C to 100 C?
A.   grani...
10. Calculate how many joules would
be required to raise 3 grams of
water from 50 C to 65 C.


3 x15x 4.18 =
 =188.1j
PHASES OF
 Matter:
Matter is anything
made of atoms and
molecules.
A) SOLID


B) LIQUID



C) GAS
Motion       How is it   Does it have Volume?
         (Kinetic      bonded?     A definite
          energy)             ...
What are the changes of phase called?

            FREEZING
  solid                liquid
            MELTING


          ...
2. ENERGY IS RELEASED (lost)
  DURING:

          FREEZING
SOLID                         LIQUID

      CONDENSATION
LIQUID...
3. ENERGY IS ABSORBED (gained)
  DURING:

         MELTING
 SOLID                     LIQUID
     VAPORIZATION
 LIQUID    ...
Energy stored during a phase
      change is called
    Latent heat
  __________________

     No change in
        temper...
TAKE OUT
 YOUR
EARTH
 SCIENCE
REFERENCE
TABLES      99
(Earth Science Reference Tables : front page)

            Properties of Water
Heating Curve of Water



                   VAPORIZATION
100                                 STEAM

temp               CO...
MELTING / FREEZING
 SEE EARTH SCIENCE REFERENCE TABLE:
        Energy is absorbed
         + 334 J/gram



00 C           ...
VAPORIZATION/
  CONDENSATION
         Energy is absorbed
           +2260 J/g



1000 C     -2260 J/g          1000 C
    ...
1. Which phase changes release
    energy?
            freezing & condensation
2. Which phase changes absorb
   energy?   ...
The Earth is always trying
to achieve Equilibrium
Energy is constantly being
re-distributed flowing
from source to sink
The Earth
 Receives
 Energy
 from
 two
 sources:
SUN
Radioactive
Energy
              CORE
All matter radiates
 some
_____________
 Electromagnetic
_____________
  Energy
The sun emits energy
 in _____
     ALL
 wavelengths
of the
 electromagnetic
spectrum
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
      REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14



       10-10    10-8     10-6    10-4       10-2    10     0   ...
Each type of energy differs
       in its              wavelength
                           __________
       10-10    10...
A wavelength is the distance
between two crests of the wave.
Frequency is defined as a
number of cycles per unit time.
The Sun gives off light
 and heat in the form of
      VISIBLE
 _________________
 and
         UV
 __________________
 el...
However, the short
wavelengths
(dangerous UV
radiation) are mostly GAMMA
absorbed by the
ozone so they don’t      OZONE
re...
The Ozone layer is found
 in the
      stratosphere
 _________________
 layer of the
 atmosphere.
10-10    10-8     10-6    10-4       10-2    10     0   10   2   10   4



   gamma        X ray                       Mic...
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
      REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14



       10-10    10-8     10-6    10-4       10-2    10     0   ...
SHORT
WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY
ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN
THE STRATOSPHERE
   gamma, X-RAYS


                           OZONE
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
      REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14



       10-10    10-8     10-6    10-4       10-2    10     0   ...
SHORT
WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY
ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN
THE STRATOSPHERE
 gamma, x-rays,   UV


                           ...
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
      REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14



       10-10    10-8     10-6    10-4       10-2    10     0   ...
This energy is absorbed
 by Earth’s surface, which
 in turn reradiates the
 energy in the form of
 heat called
       infr...
OZONE


VISIBLE LIGHT :
PASSES THROUGH
THE ATMOSPHERE
WITH THE
GREATEST
INTENSITY
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
      REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14



       10-10    10-8     10-6    10-4       10-2    10     0   ...
10-10    10-8     10-6    10-4       10-2    10     0   10   2   10   4



   gamma        X ray                       Mic...
Sun emits all
 Infrared:          wavelengths
Heat energy that
Earth re-radiates
How does too
Much CO2 contribute to
Global warming?
                   CO2
       H2 0   VAPOR
                INFRARED

 ...
Interactions
 between
 Electromagnetic
 Energy & The
 Environment:
1. ABSORBTION - UV ABSORBED by
    OZONE IN STRATOSPHERE
   INFRARED ABSORBED BY CO2&H2O vaporoxide
                      ...
1. ABSORPTION
2. REFLECTION
3.SCATTERING

4. REFRACTION

5. TRANSMISSION
Less than
 half
______of the
incoming solar
 radiation
is received
by the Earth’s
 surface
Surface properties of
 the Earth and
 Absorption of Energy:
Reflection vs. Absorption & Radiation

Color:
  Light (white) reflects
  dark (black) absorbs


Texture:
  Rough surface a...
Absorption
  Good absorbers are also good re-radiators.

  What type of surface is the best absorber?
      – Dark      ...
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
             LAB

    10-10    10-8       10-6   10-4       10-2      10   0   10   2      10   ...
Spectroscope
    Lab
Greenhouse Effect




Short wavelength visible light enters the greenhouse, is
absorbed, then re-radiated as longer wavele...
What is Global Warming?

         increase
  An ___________ in
   the Earth’s
   Average surface
   air temperature
THE GREENHOUSE
EFFECT




                 145
THE GREENHOUSE
 EFFECT


                   HEAT IS
                 TRAPPED BY
                THE GLASS OF
             ...
 Short wave radiation
       Visible light
  like ___________
  passes through the
  glass of a greenhouse
  and is
     ...
 These objects
       reradiate
  __________________
  the energy as
infrared Long Wave Radiation
 ___________________
 _...
 In Earth’s atmosphere,
   there are many gases
   that act like the glass
   of a greenhouse and
 trap
   ________ long-...
Greenhouse
   Gases!
             150
Greenhouse Effect
 CO2 and H2O absorb
   infrared that is re
 -radiated from the surface
   of the Earth. Therefore,
   h...
What are the Greenhouse gases?


          H2 0   VAPOR
                         CO2

  METHANE GAS
                INFRAR...
Without some greenhouse
 gases, the Earth would
             cold
 be too _____________
 for us to survive. But an
 overlo...
How does too
Much CO2 contribute to
Global warming?
                   CO2
       H2 0   VAPOR
                INFRARED

 ...
Greenhouse Effect
 What human activities
  contribute to CO2
  production and an increase
  in the greenhouse effect?
   ...
If present trends continue
 possible effects may include

 Rising sea levels due to melting
   polar ice caps;
 Increasi...
Which of the following best represents
    the type of energy
    received by the Earth
    and the re-emitted by the Eart...
Which of the following best represents
    the type of energy
    received by the Earth
    and the re-emitted by the Eart...
WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS
 REPRESENTED
BY THE RADIATION AT B?

A)  INSOLATION

C) VISIBLE LIGHT

B) ULTRAVIOLET       B
    ...
WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS
 REPRESENTED
BY THE RADIATION AT B?

A)  INSOLATION

C) VISIBLE LIGHT

B) ULTRAVIOLET       B
    ...
What is a NON-RENEWABLE
        RESOURCE?
  An energy resource !
        that is
    Being used faster
  ________________
...
What is a NON-RENEWABLE
        RESOURCE?




        Examples:!
  Fossil Fuels, minerals!
__________________!   162
What is a NON-RENEWABLE
        RESOURCE?
   To make our non-
   renewable resources
    last longer we can
          Redu...
What is a RENEWABLE
    RESOURCE?
An energy resource !
      that is
Earth supplies faster
________________
   than we use...
What is a RENEWABLE
      RESOURCE?




Examples:
   Solar, wind, biomass
   ________________
       (trees etc..)!
   ___...
What is a RENEWABLE
    RESOURCE?
A renewable resource
       produces less
 _________ (substance
   pollution!
  that can...
Look at the pie
     graph!!!
 Only 7% of our energy consumption
   is from renewable resources!!! Try
   to make little ...
Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides
Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides
Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides
Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides
Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides
Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides
Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides
Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides
Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides
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Unit 1: Energy Power Point Slides

  1. 1. Unit 1: ENERGY Stop Monkey-N-ing around and Go Green already! P.S. I’m Mookie the Monkey 1
  2. 2. What is ENERGY? Energy is the ability to do Work! _______! 2
  3. 3. Work occurs when a force! causes an _____ object to _____ in move! the same direction as the force.! 3
  4. 4. FORMS OF ENERGY Both basic states of energy, Kinetic and potential, can exist in many forms!!
  5. 5. THERMAL (HEAT) The total Kinetic! ________ energy of the particles in matter. (molecular motion)! 6
  6. 6. SOUND A type of mechanical energy. It is the energy produced when vibrate! objects ________. Ex: tuning fork, bell! 7
  7. 7. MECHANICAL Energy with which moving! objects ______ perform work.! Ex: Wind, flowing water, using a hammer! 8
  8. 8. ELECTRICITY A form of energy produced by movement! the ________ electrons! of ________! 9
  9. 9. CHEMICAL Energy STORED in chemical bonds! that can ____ be released. Ex: food, fossil fuels, battery acid! 10
  10. 10. STORED MECHANICAL ENERGY: Stored energy due to a change in the shape of an object. Ex: ! A stretched rubber band! _______________! 11
  11. 11. STORED MECHANICAL ENERGY: 12
  12. 12. LIGHT A form of radiant! _______ energy that moves in a wave! ______.! Ex: lamp, stars! 13
  13. 13. SOLAR ENERGY All forms of energy that SUN! come from the ______.! 14
  14. 14. NUCLEAR Energy STORED in the nucleus! ________ (center) of an atom.! Ex: nuclear bombs! 15
  15. 15. GEOTHERMAL (HEAT) Heat energy STORED within Earth! the _____. Ex:! Volcanic eruptions, geysers! 16
  16. 16. All forms of energy can be classified as Kinetic or potential. The two basic states of energy. So, what’s the difference?!17
  17. 17. POTENTIAL ENERGY 1) Potential energy is stored energy due to and object’s _____________! Position! 21
  18. 18. POTENTIAL ENERGY 2) An object that is lifted from its position on Earth gravitational! has __________ potential Energy which depends on height! ______ and mass! 22
  19. 19. POTENTIAL ENERGY 3) Massive objects have _____ more! potential energy than less massive objects! 23
  20. 20. POTENTIAL ENERGY 4) An object at a higher elevation will have more! _____ potential energy than an object at a lower elevation! 24
  21. 21. KINETIC ENERGY 1)  Kinetic is energy of ! Motion! ___________! 25
  22. 22. KINETIC ENERGY 2) Kinetic depends on the _____ and the MASS! _______ of an SPEED! object.! 26
  23. 23. KINETIC ENERGY 3) Faster objects More! have ____ kinetic energy than slower objects.! 27
  24. 24. REVIEW QUESTONS: WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST KINETIC ENERGY? A B D C
  25. 25. WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST POTENTIAL ENERGY? A B D C
  26. 26. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS Do you remember the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS AND ENERGY?! 30
  27. 27. Law of Conservation of ENERGY: (same for mass) Can’t be made  Mass/ NRG ____________  Mass/ NRG ______________  Can’t be destroyed  Mass/ Energy can only  __________  Change form!!! 
  28. 28. DURING ENERGY CHANGES, IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY, Gaining THE OTHER IS _______ ENERGY: THE WAVE LOSES ENERGY: THE SAND GAINS ENERGY
  29. 29. DURING ENERGY CHANGES, IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY THE OTHER IS GAINING ENERGY: THE WAVE LOSES ENERGY: THE SAND GAINS ENERGY
  30. 30. DURING ENERGY CHANGES THE TOTAL ENERGY REMAINS THE SAME ENERGY ALWAYS FLOWS FROM HIGH TO LOW (source to sink)
  31. 31. THE ENERGY WILL FLOW FROM: THE FLAME TO THE FINGER
  32. 32. ENERGY WILL FLOW FROM ICE THE FINGER TO THE ICE
  33. 33. THE LIQUID LOSES ENERGY AS THE ICE GAINS ENERGY
  34. 34. WHEN WILL THE EXCHANGE OF ENERGY STOP? WHEN EQUILIBRIUM IS REACHED THE LIQUID AND THE ICE REACH THE SAME TEMPERATURE
  35. 35. UNUSABLE ENERGY: Very often during the energy transformation process, heat! some ____ energy is produced due to friction. This is wasted energy and is lost to the environment.! 39
  36. 36. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS Example: A ! television changes ! electrical NRG! into light and! sound NRG! 40
  37. 37. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS 41
  38. 38. Do Now: Focused Free Write What is different about how each of the three popcorns? How were they made? Explain!
  39. 39. Methods of Energy Transfer
  40. 40. Energy moves from regions of high _________ concentration to low ________ concentrations of energy. 44
  41. 41. Source _______ To sink _______
  42. 42. There are 3 methods of Energy Transfer  Radiation  ConDuction  ConVection
  43. 43. ConDuction
  44. 44. Explanation of Transfer Direct contact (touch) Molecule To Molecule
  45. 45. -Conduction is a form of heat transfer by contact! direct _______ of molecules! 49
  46. 46. Best Medium for energy transfer -Conduction occurs solids! fastest in _______! 50
  47. 47. metals! are the best -_______ conductors of he heat energy.! 51
  48. 48. Examples  Touching a hot surface  Electricity
  49. 49. Conduction lab:
  50. 50. Con ection
  51. 51. Explanation of Transfer Energy transfer Due to Density differences
  52. 52. -Convection is a form of heat transfer that occurs by up and down motions of a fluid! _______ due to differences in ______! density! 56
  53. 53. Best Medium for energy transfer fluids! -occurs ONLY in _____ which are liquids and gases!! 57
  54. 54. Examples  Hot air or water rising  Volcanoes  Lava lamp
  55. 55. convection
  56. 56.  Radiatio
  57. 57. Explanation of Transfer Electromagnetic (EM) waves that move Through a vacuum (empty space)
  58. 58. -radiation is the transfer of heat in waves! _____.! 62
  59. 59. -Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of ______.! light! 63
  60. 60. Best Medium for energy transfer No medium needed
  61. 61. Examples Gamma X-rays UV Visible Infrared Microwave radio
  62. 62. HEAT NOTES 1. HEAT: the energy of particles! moving __________! 66
  63. 63. HEAT NOTES 2. HOT OBJECTS contain more! __________ heat than than cold ones! 67
  64. 64. HEAT NOTES 3. All objects above Absolute zero! __________ contain heat! 68
  65. 65. HEAT NOTES 4. Heat always flows hotter! from ______ objects to ______ objects cooler! until the objects same! reach _____ temperature.! 69
  66. 66. HEAT NOTES 5. The greater the difference in temperature between the two objects, the faster! _________ heat is transferred.! 70
  67. 67. HOW IS HEAT TRANSFERRED BETWEEN OBJECTS? 71
  68. 68. Heat Transfer at Work
  69. 69. Name that type of heat transfer! Conduction! Radiation! Convection! 73
  70. 70. Heat Transfer across the globe  http://www.classzone.com/ books/earth_science/terc/ content/visualizations/ es1705/es1705page01.cfm
  71. 71. Specific Heat Quantity of heat needed to raise One gram of any Substance by 1 degree Celsius
  72. 72. Specific Heat The higher the Specific heat… The more energy is needed to raise the temperature
  73. 73. Measuring Specific Heat Energy can be measures in many different ways. Typical units include: Joules ____________________, _________________, & Watts calories ___________________
  74. 74. The term “Joule” is named after English Scientist James Prescott Joule who lived from 1818 to 1889. He discovered that Heat is a type of Energy! 1,000 joules =1 kilojoule = 1 Btu
  75. 75. Do Now! Read the did you know and complete practice questions 1-10!
  76. 76. 1.  What substance has the highest specific heat? Use your Reference Tables Liquid water 4.18 Joules/gramºC
  77. 77. 2. Why do metals have low specific heats?  They are solid
  78. 78. 3. Why are pans made of metals with low specific heats? Because metals are good Conductors And have low specific heats. Therefore they will heat up quickly and cook your food faster.
  79. 79. 4. Which would Take more energy to raise its Temperature, water Or land? water
  80. 80. 5. Which would Heat up and cool off Faster, land or water? land
  81. 81. Water (liquid) = 4.18 Iron (Fe) = 0.45 Copper (Cu) = 0.38 6. Which of these three substances will heat up fastest? Copper because it has the lowest specific heat
  82. 82. 7. Which material would require the greatest amount of heat energy to raise its temperature from 50 C to 100 C? A. 10 grams of granite B. 10 grams of ice C. 10 grams of lead D. 10 grams of iron
  83. 83. 8. Which pan would you use if you wanted to cook your food quickly? copper iron Cp = 0.38 Cp = 0.45
  84. 84. 9. Which material would require the greatest amount of heat energy to raise its temperature from 50 C to 100 C? A. granite B. ice C. lead D. iron
  85. 85. 10. Calculate how many joules would be required to raise 3 grams of water from 50 C to 65 C. 3 x15x 4.18 = =188.1j
  86. 86. PHASES OF Matter:
  87. 87. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules.
  88. 88. A) SOLID B) LIQUID C) GAS
  89. 89. Motion How is it Does it have Volume? (Kinetic bonded? A definite energy) shape? Solid Little K.E. Molecules Strong yes yes vibrate More Liquid K.E. Not Molecules bonded no yes move freely rigidly Most Gas K.E. Not no no Molecules move bonded fast
  90. 90. What are the changes of phase called? FREEZING solid liquid MELTING CONDENSATION liquid gas VAPORIZATION
  91. 91. 2. ENERGY IS RELEASED (lost) DURING: FREEZING SOLID LIQUID CONDENSATION LIQUID GAS from higher K.E. to lower K.E.
  92. 92. 3. ENERGY IS ABSORBED (gained) DURING: MELTING SOLID LIQUID VAPORIZATION LIQUID GAS from lower K.ETo higher K.E.
  93. 93. Energy stored during a phase change is called Latent heat __________________ No change in temperature 98
  94. 94. TAKE OUT YOUR EARTH SCIENCE REFERENCE TABLES 99
  95. 95. (Earth Science Reference Tables : front page) Properties of Water
  96. 96. Heating Curve of Water VAPORIZATION 100 STEAM temp CONDENSATION 0C WATER MELT 0 FREEZE ICE HEAT ENERGY ADDED (Joules)
  97. 97. MELTING / FREEZING SEE EARTH SCIENCE REFERENCE TABLE: Energy is absorbed + 334 J/gram 00 C 00 C - 334 J/gram Energy is released
  98. 98. VAPORIZATION/ CONDENSATION Energy is absorbed +2260 J/g 1000 C -2260 J/g 1000 C Energy is released
  99. 99. 1. Which phase changes release energy? freezing & condensation 2. Which phase changes absorb energy? Vaporization & melting 3. Which phase has the most K.E.? GAS (STEAM)
  100. 100. The Earth is always trying to achieve Equilibrium Energy is constantly being re-distributed flowing from source to sink
  101. 101. The Earth Receives Energy from two sources:
  102. 102. SUN
  103. 103. Radioactive Energy CORE
  104. 104. All matter radiates some _____________ Electromagnetic _____________ Energy
  105. 105. The sun emits energy in _____ ALL wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum
  106. 106. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  107. 107. Each type of energy differs in its wavelength __________ 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  108. 108. A wavelength is the distance between two crests of the wave.
  109. 109. Frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time.
  110. 110. The Sun gives off light and heat in the form of VISIBLE _________________ and UV __________________ electromagnetic energy.
  111. 111. However, the short wavelengths (dangerous UV radiation) are mostly GAMMA absorbed by the ozone so they don’t OZONE reach earth’s surface
  112. 112. The Ozone layer is found in the stratosphere _________________ layer of the atmosphere.
  113. 113. 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  114. 114. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  115. 115. SHORT WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN THE STRATOSPHERE gamma, X-RAYS OZONE
  116. 116. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  117. 117. SHORT WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN THE STRATOSPHERE gamma, x-rays, UV OZONE
  118. 118. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  119. 119. This energy is absorbed by Earth’s surface, which in turn reradiates the energy in the form of heat called infrared ________________ radiation
  120. 120. OZONE VISIBLE LIGHT : PASSES THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE WITH THE GREATEST INTENSITY
  121. 121. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  122. 122. 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  123. 123. Sun emits all Infrared: wavelengths Heat energy that Earth re-radiates
  124. 124. How does too Much CO2 contribute to Global warming? CO2 H2 0 VAPOR INFRARED METHANE GAS CO2 absorbs infrared
  125. 125. Interactions between Electromagnetic Energy & The Environment:
  126. 126. 1. ABSORBTION - UV ABSORBED by OZONE IN STRATOSPHERE INFRARED ABSORBED BY CO2&H2O vaporoxide methane, nitrous 2. REFLECTION - BY CLOUDS, ICE, SNOW & WATER 3. SCATTERING - BY AEROSOLS, WATER DROPLETS, ICE CRYSTALS, AIR POLLUTANTS, DUST, POLLEN 4. LIGHT IS BENT AS IT REFRACTION MOVES THROUGH VARIED DENSITIES 5. TRANSMISSION WHEN ENERGY PASSES THROUGH A MEDIUM
  127. 127. 1. ABSORPTION 2. REFLECTION 3.SCATTERING 4. REFRACTION 5. TRANSMISSION
  128. 128. Less than half ______of the incoming solar radiation is received by the Earth’s surface
  129. 129. Surface properties of the Earth and Absorption of Energy:
  130. 130. Reflection vs. Absorption & Radiation Color: Light (white) reflects dark (black) absorbs Texture: Rough surface absorbs smooth surface reflects
  131. 131. Absorption   Good absorbers are also good re-radiators.   What type of surface is the best absorber? – Dark Pavement warms before – Rough grassy lawns.   What type of surface is the best reflector of radiation? – Light Snow and Ice reflect – Shiny insolation and remain – Flat cold.
  132. 132. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: LAB 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Decreasing wavelength Increasing wavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  133. 133. Spectroscope Lab
  134. 134. Greenhouse Effect Short wavelength visible light enters the greenhouse, is absorbed, then re-radiated as longer wavelength infrared (heat). The glass traps the infrared.
  135. 135. What is Global Warming? increase An ___________ in the Earth’s Average surface air temperature
  136. 136. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT 145
  137. 137. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT HEAT IS TRAPPED BY THE GLASS OF THE GREENHOUSE Incoming is Short wave outgoing is Ex: Visible light Longer wave Infrared 146 Energy absorbed
  138. 138.  Short wave radiation Visible light like ___________ passes through the glass of a greenhouse and is absorbed _______________ by the objects inside the greenhouse. 147
  139. 139.  These objects reradiate __________________ the energy as infrared Long Wave Radiation ___________________ _, which get reflected back into the greenhouse and warms the air. 148
  140. 140.  In Earth’s atmosphere, there are many gases that act like the glass of a greenhouse and trap ________ long-wave radiation, keeping it in the Earth’s Atmosphere. These are known as… 149
  141. 141. Greenhouse Gases! 150
  142. 142. Greenhouse Effect  CO2 and H2O absorb infrared that is re -radiated from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, holding that heat in the atmosphere and raising the global temperature.
  143. 143. What are the Greenhouse gases? H2 0 VAPOR CO2 METHANE GAS INFRARED Ozone CFCs
  144. 144. Without some greenhouse gases, the Earth would cold be too _____________ for us to survive. But an overload of greenhouse gases creates a problem as well!
  145. 145. How does too Much CO2 contribute to Global warming? CO2 H2 0 VAPOR INFRARED METHANE GAS CO2 absorbs infrared
  146. 146. Greenhouse Effect  What human activities contribute to CO2 production and an increase in the greenhouse effect? – Burning of fossil fuels – Global deforestation
  147. 147. If present trends continue possible effects may include  Rising sea levels due to melting polar ice caps;  Increasing frequency and severity of storms and hurricanes;  More frequent heat waves and droughts; and  Relocation of major crop growing areas.
  148. 148. Which of the following best represents the type of energy received by the Earth and the re-emitted by the Earth? A B c
  149. 149. Which of the following best represents the type of energy received by the Earth and the re-emitted by the Earth? A B c
  150. 150. WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS REPRESENTED BY THE RADIATION AT B? A)  INSOLATION C) VISIBLE LIGHT B) ULTRAVIOLET B A D) INFRARED ENERGY
  151. 151. WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS REPRESENTED BY THE RADIATION AT B? A)  INSOLATION C) VISIBLE LIGHT B) ULTRAVIOLET B A D) INFRARED ENERGY
  152. 152. What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE? An energy resource ! that is Being used faster ________________ than Earth Produces ________________ it! _______.! 161
  153. 153. What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE? Examples:! Fossil Fuels, minerals! __________________! 162
  154. 154. What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE? To make our non- renewable resources last longer we can Reduce! ________________ Reuse! ________________ Recycle! _____________.! 163
  155. 155. What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE? An energy resource ! that is Earth supplies faster ________________ than we use it ________________ “unlimited”!.! _______ 164
  156. 156. What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE? Examples: Solar, wind, biomass ________________ (trees etc..)! _______________! 165
  157. 157. What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE? A renewable resource produces less _________ (substance pollution! that can harm living things and/or the environment! 166
  158. 158. Look at the pie graph!!!  Only 7% of our energy consumption is from renewable resources!!! Try to make little changes in your life to reduce your dependence on Non-Renewable Resources!  What do you plan to do?

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