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# Unit 1: Energy Outline

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### Unit 1: Energy Outline

1. 1. UNIT 1: ENERGY  HONORS EARTH SCIENCE Stop Monkey-N-ing around and Go Green already! P.S. I’m Mookie the Monkey NOTE PACKET #2 MS. GILL
2. 2. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 Vocabulary: Absorption Mechanical Conduction Medium Convection Melting Condensation Non-Renewable Electricity Resources Electromagnetic Spectrum Nuclear Energy Phase Change Energy Transformations Potential Environment Radiation Equilibrium Reflection Forms of Energy Refraction Freezing Renewable Resources Frequency Scattering Gas Solid Geothermal Solar Global Warming Sound Green House Affect Specific Heat Green House Gases Stored Mechanical Heat Temperature Joules Thermal Kinetic Transmission Law of Conservation of Mass & Energy Vaporization Light Wavelength Liquid Work Matter Did you know… A piece of buttered toast contains about 315 kilojoules (315,000 joules) of energy. With that energy you could: -jog for 6 minutes -Bicycle for 10 minutes -Walk briskly for 15 minutes -Sleep for 1.5 hours -Run a car for 7 seconds at 50 miles per hour -Light a 60 watt light bulb for 1.5 hours. Page:____
3. 3. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 Name:________________________________ Period:_________ Date:____________________ A. WHAT IS ENERGY? Energy is the ability to do ________________ Work occurs when a _____________ causes an object to ___________ in the same direction as the force. B. THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT FORMS OF ENERGY THERMAL: The total ________ energy of STORED MECHANICAL ENERGY: the particles in matter. (Molecular motion) Stored energy due to a change in the shape of an object. Ex: _______________ SOUND: A type of mechanical energy. It is LIGHT: A form of _______ the energy produced when objects energy that moves in a ________. Ex: tuning fork, bell __________ Ex: lamp, stars MECHNICAL: Energy SOLAR: All forms of with which ______ energy that come objects perform work. from the ______ Ex: Wind, flowing water, using a hammer ELECTRICITY: A form NUCLEAR: Energy STORED of energy produced by in the ________ (center) the _____________ of an atom. of ______________ Ex: nuclear bombs CHEMICAL: Energy STORED GEOTHERMAL: Heat energy STORED in chemical ____ that can be within the ___________. released. Ex: food, fossil fuels, Ex: Volcanic eruptions, battery acid geysers Page:____
4. 4. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 C. All forms of energy can be classified as Kinetic or potential. The two basic states of energy. So, what’s the difference? POTENTIAL ENERGY: KINETIC ENERGY: 1) Potential energy is stored energy due to 1)Kinetic is energy of _________________ and object’s __________________ 2) Kinetic depends on the 2) An object that is lifted from its position __________________ and the on Earth has gravitational potential Energy _____________________ of an object. which depends on ______________ and mass 3) Faster objects have ____________________ kinetic energy than 3) Massive objects have slower objects. _________________ potential energy than less massive objects 4) An object at a higher elevation will have _______________ potential energy than an object at a lower elevation Page:____
5. 5. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 D. Energy Transformations: The law of conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed it simply changes form. Energy has always existed in one form or another! This law is also true of mass! Law of conservation of Mass and Energy: Mass/ NRG ____________ Mass/ NRG ______________ Mass/ Energy can only __________ During energy changes, if one body is losing energy, the other is __________________ energy. During energy changes, the total energy __________________________________. Energy always flows from _______________ to _______________ (source to sink) Figure 1: Figure 2: Energy is flowing Energy is flowing from _________ from _________ to ____________ to ____________ The exchange of energy will stop when EQUILIBRIUM IS REACHED, and both source and sink are the same temperature. Unusable Energy: very often during the energy transformation process, some __________ energy is produced due to friction. This is wasted energy and is lost to the environment. Examples of Energy Changes: -Energy in a flashlight’s batteries becomes light energy when the flashlight is turned on. -Food is stored energy, when your body uses that energy to do work it becomes kinetic energy. - A television changes electrical energy into light and sound energy Page:____
6. 6. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 E. Methods Of Energy transfer Energy moves from regions of _________ concentration to ________ concentrations of energy, from ______________ to ____________. There are 3 methods of Energy Transfer : ____________________, ____________________ & _____________________. Method Explanation of transfer Best medium for Examples of transfer energy transfer Direct contact (touch) Conduction occurs *Touching a hot Molecule To Molecule fastest in _______ surface Conduction *Electricity Conduction is a form of energy __________ are the transfer by direct _________ best conductors of he of molecules heat energy. Energy transfer due to density Occurs ONLY in *Hot air or water differences _____ which are rising Convection liquids and gases! *Volcanoes Convection is a form of heat *Lava lamp transfer that occurs by up and down motions of a _______ differences in ______ Radiation Radiation is the transfer of *Gamma heat in _____. *X-rays No medium needed *UV Electromagnetic (EM) *Visible waves that move through a *Infrared vacuum (empty space) *Microwave *Radio Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of ______. Page:____
7. 7. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 F. Specific Heat Notes 1. HEAT: the energy of moving __________ 2. HOT OBJECTS contain __________ heat than cold ones 3. All objects above __________ contain heat 4. Heat always flows from hot objects to cold objects until the both reach the _____ temperature. 5. The greater the difference in temperature between them, the _________ heat is transferred. HOW IS HEAT TRANSFERRED BETWEEN OBJECTS? Name that type of heat transfer! The University of the State of New York • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • Albany, New York 12234 • www.nysed.gov Reference Tables for cm 1 Physical Setting/EARTH SCIENCE Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: 2 ________________ ________________ _______________ 3 Radioactive Decay Data Specific Heats of Common Materials Specific Heat 4 RADIOACTIVE of heat neededHALF-LIFE Quantity DISINTEGRATION to MATERIAL SPECIFIC HEAT ISOTOPE (years) (Joules/gram • °C) raise One gram14of any Liquid water 4.18 5 14 3 Carbon-14 C N 5.7 × 10 Substance by 1 degree Celsius 40 Solid water (ice) 2.11 40 Ar 9 Water vapor 2.00 6 Potassium-40 K 40 1.3 × 10 Ca Dry air 1.01 The higher the U 206Pb heat… 109 238 Specific 4.5 × 7 Uranium-238 Basalt 0.84 the more energy is needed to Granite 0.79 87 87 10 raise the temperature. 4.9 × 10 Rubidium-87 Rb Sr 8 Iron 0.45 See the cover of the ESRT.     Copper 0.38 Equations Lead 0.13 9 10 distance between foci Eccentricity = Properties of Water Measuring Energy: Energy canaxis measures in many different ways. Typical units include: length of major be ________________________, _________________, & ___________________. 334 J/g 11 change in field value Heat energy gained during melting . . . . . . . . . Gradient = distance Heat energy released during freezing . . . . . . . . 334 J/g 12 change in“Joule” is named afterenergy gained during vaporization . . . . . 2260 J/g The term value Heat Rate of change = time English Scientist James Prescott Joulereleased during condensation . . . 2260 J/g Heat energy 13 mass Density = who lived from 1818 to 1889. He at 3.98°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 g/mL volume Density discovered that Heat is a type of 14 Energy! 1,000 joules =1 kilojoule= 1 Btu Average Chemical Composition 15 of Earth’s Crust, Hydrosphere, and Troposphere Page:____ 16 ELEMENT CRUST HYDROSPHERE TROPOSPHERE (symbol) Percent by mass Percent by volume Percent by volume Percent by volume 17 Oxygen (O) 46.10 94.04 33.0 21.0
8. 8. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 Specific Heat Worksheet Did you know… Jumping into a pool on a hot summer day is refreshing because the water is cooler than the air around you and the ground under your feet. You may wonder why the water is cooler since the water, air, and ground are being heated by the same source- the Sun. One reason is that it takes more heat energy to raise the temperature of some substances than others. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius is called the specific heat of that substance. Water has a specific heat of 4.18 meaning it take 4.18 Joules of energy to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. This value is high compared to the specific heats for other materials, such as various rocks or metals. Note the scientific unit for energy is the Joule. See the front of your ESRT for a complete list of specific heats for common materials. Now complete these practice questions! 1. What substance has the highest specific heat? ____________________________ 2. Why do metals have low specific heats? __________________________ 3. Why are pans made of metals with low specific heats? _____________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 4. Which takes more energy to raise its temperature, water or land? ___________________ 5. Which would heat up and cool off faster, land or water? __________________________ 6. Which of these substances would heat up fastest, water, iron or copper: ____________ 7. Which material would require the greatest amount of heat energy to raise its temperature from 50 °C to 100 °C ? A. 10 grams of granite B. 10 grams of ice C. 10 grams of lead D. 10 grams of iron 8. Which pan would you use if you wanted to cook your food quickly? Copper pan or Iron pan? 9. Which material would require the greatest amount of heat energy to raise its temperature from 50 C to 100 C? A. granite B. ice C. lead D. iron 10. Calculate how many joules would be required to raise 3 grams of water from 50 °C to 65 °C. Page:____
9. 9. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 G. Phases of Matter: Matter is ___________________________________________________________ On Earth, matter exists in three states _________, ____________& ____________ Particle Motion How is it Does it have a Volume? Arrangement (Kinetic Energy) bonded? define shape? Solid Liquid Gas Phase Changes: Changes in states of matter result from changes in energy, specifically “heat energy.” Consider the weightlifter, to push up the weights & lift them up requires energy… So to push molecules apart also requires energy. Look at the molecules in the boxes above and then complete the statements below. If you have to separate molecules write “put in energy,” if molecules are coming together then write “give off energy.” 1. As you go from solid to liquid, you must ____________________________________. 2. As you go from liquid to solid, you must ____________________________________. 3. As you go from liquid to gas, you must _____________________________________. 4. As you go from gas to liquid, you must _____________________________________. What are the phase changes called? Solid Liquid Gas Page:____
10. 10. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 H. Phase Change Diagram of Water STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • Albany, New York 12234 • www.nysed.gov -Remember, as you change states of ence Tables for cm matter, its all about energy! 1 ting/EARTH is neither Energy SCIENCE -The law of conservation of 2 states that energy created of destroyed it simply changes form. 3 ta Specific Heats of Common Materials HALF-LIFE-Therefore, going formSPECIFIC HEAT solid to liquid 4 MATERIAL (years) (Joules/gram • °C) you put energy in (ENERGY IS Liquid water 4.18 5 3 5.7 × 10 ABSORBED) and then when you Solid water (ice) 2.11 9 reverse the process and go from Water vapor 2.00 6 1.3 × 10 liquid Dry air to solid, you get the back 1.01 9 4.5 × 10 energy back! (ENERGY IS RELEASED) Basalt 0.84 7 10 Granite 0.79 4.9 × 10 8 Iron 0.45 Copper 0.38 9 Lead 0.13 10 Properties of Water 11 Heat energy gained during melting . . . . . . . . . . 334 J/g Heat energy released during freezing . . . . . . . . 334 J/g 12 Heat energy gained during vaporization . . . . . 2260 J/g Heat energy released during condensation . . . 2260 J/g 13 Density at 3.98°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 g/mL 14 age Chemical Composition 15 ust, Hydrosphere, and Troposphere 16 CRUST HYDROSPHERE TROPOSPHERE ss The energy volume Percent by volume Percent by stored in theby volume Percent phase 17 94.04 change process is called: 33.0 21.0 0.88 ________________________ 18 0.48 0.49 There is NO temperature change 19 1.18 1.11 during a phase change. 20 0.33 1.42 21 78.0 66.0 22 0.07 1.0 1.0 Page:____ 23 Eurypterus remipes 24
11. 11. Tropopause Planetary Wind and Moisture Polar front jet stream Belts in the Troposphere DRY Unit 1:drawing on the right shows the Earth Science-Ms. Gill N.E. The Energy WET 60° N Notefront Polar Packet #2 locations of the belts near the time of an S.W. equinox. The locations shift somewhat Electromagnetic Energy Notes I. Winds DRY 30° N with the changing latitude of the Sun’s vertical ray. In the Northern Hemisphere, N.E. Thethe beltsis always trying to achieve ____________________________. Earth shift northward in the summer Therefore, energy is Winds Subtropical and southward in the winter. WET 0° jet streams constantly being re-distributed flowing from ________________ to ______________. (Not drawn to scale) S.E. Winds The Earth receives energy from two sources: ________________ & ___________________ DRY 30° S N.W. Winds 60° S All matter radiates some __________________________________________________ WET S.E. DRY Polar front jet stream The sun emits energy in ______ wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. (ESRT pg. 14) Electromagnetic Spectrum X rays Microwaves Gamma rays Ultraviolet Infrared Radio waves Decreasing wavelength Increasing wavelength Visible light Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red (Not drawn to scale) 14 Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition Each type of energy differs in its _________________________. A wavelength is the distance between two crests of the wave. Frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. Page:____
12. 12. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 Electromagnetic Spectrum Notes The Sun gives off light and heat in the form of _________________ and __________________ Sun electromagnetic energy. However, the short wavelengths (dangerous UV radiation, gamma rays & x- rays) are mostly absorbed by the ozone so they don’t reach earth’s surface. The ozone layer is found in the ____________________ layer of the atmosphere. Visible light passes through earth’s atmosphere with the greatest intensity. Less than half of the incoming solar radiation is received by the earth’s surface. The energy that does get through our atmosphere is absorbed by earths surface. The earth’s surface in turn reradiates the energy in the form of heat called Earth ________________ radiation. J. Interactions between Electromagnetic Energy & the Environment: 1. _______________________UV absorbed by the ozone, infrared absorbed by carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide. Good absorbers are good re-radiators! 2. _______________________ by clouds, ice, snow and water 3. ____________________ by aerosols, water droplets, ice crystals, pollutants, dust, pollen 4. _______________________ light is bent as it moves through varied densities 5. _______________________ when energy passes straight through a medium Less than __________________ of the incoming solar radiation is received by the Earth. Surface properties of the Earth & Absorption of Energy: 1. Color: Light (white) reflects & dark (black) absorbs Example: Pavement warms before grassy lawns. 2. Texture: Rough surface absorbs & smooth surface reflects Example: Snow and Ice reflect Insolation and remain cold. Page:____
13. 13. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 K. The Green House Affect What is Global Warming? An ___________ in the Earth’s Average surface air temperature. You might often hear about the green house affect and its association with Global Warming. In the atmosphere, CO2, Methane and H2O, (the greenhouse gases) act like the glass in the greenhouse by trapping heat. These gases very similar manner as the glass sides and roof of a greenhouse keep in heat. Let’s see how this works… Short wave radiation like ___________ passes through the glass of a greenhouse and is _______________ by the objects inside the greenhouse. These objects __________________ the energy as ____________________, which get reflected back into the greenhouse and warms the air. In Earth’s atmosphere, there are many gases that act like the glass of a greenhouse and ________ long-wave radiation, keeping it in the Earth’s Atmosphere. Therefore, holding that heat in the atmosphere and raising the global temperature. These are known as ______________________. Earth They include water vapor, CFCs, Ozone, Methane Gas and Carbon dioxide. Without some greenhouse gases, the Earth would be too _____________ for us to survive. But an overload of greenhouse gases creates a problem as well! How does too much CO2 contribute to Global warming? _______________________________ What human activities contribute to CO2 production and an increase in the greenhouse effect? _________________________________________________________________________ If present trends continue possible effects may include: -Rising sea levels due to melting polar ice caps; -Increasing frequency and severity of storms and hurricanes; -More frequent heat waves and droughts; and -Relocation of major crop growing areas. Page:____
14. 14. Unit 1: Energy Earth Science-Ms. Gill Note Packet #2 L. Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources. What is an Non-Renewable Resource? An What is a Renewable Resource? An energy energy resource that is resource that is __________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ Examples: Examples: __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ ________________ ________________ _______________ To make our non-renewable resources last ________________ longer we can __________________ A renewable resource produces less __________________ _________ (substance that can harm living __________________ things and/or the environment Only 7% of our energy consumption is from renewable resources!!! Try to make little changes in your life to reduce your dependence on Non-Renewable Resources! What do you plan to do? _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Page:____