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# Prologue pp1 2012

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### Prologue pp1 2012

1. 1. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of ScienceWhen it comes to lookingat life, I always tend toround up, but in Science I know to simply followthe rounding procedure! P.S. My name is Elle
2. 2. Do Now: Free Write-Looking back at the murder mystery case that you cleverly solved… how was your approach as a detective similar to being a scientist?
3. 3. 1.An Observation is:• is the use of the 5 senses to learn something about the environment.
4. 4. a. When you observe, you use your Senses ____________ to take in everythingthat is happening around you, paying close attention to detailb. Examples:• The rock is round and smooth.
5. 5. Let’s make some observations about our classroom…• We have only one blackboard in our room.• What other observations can you make?
6. 6. 2.INFERENCE: -Are interpretations of your observations.-In other words, when you infer you form a conclusion based on something you observed.
7. 7. b. An example of an inference is:i. The round and smooth rocks must have been carried here by running water.
8. 8. b. Examples ii. Since the dog is wagging his tail he must be happy.iii. Make an inference about something your observe in the classroom.
9. 9. 3. Prediction• Lets looks at this picture again, what will eventually happen to the circled rock?How is a prediction different than an inference?
10. 10. • An educated guess as to what will happen in the near future based usually on your observations and inferences.• An example of a prediction:i. An angular rock will eventually become rounded if it stays in the stream.ii. Ms. Gill will wear something stylish tomorrow.
11. 11. 4. CLASSIFICATION:• To put things into groups.• We can organize or classify objects according to some pattern or trend or common characteristics.
12. 12. 5. Measurements
13. 13. Do Now: What are some measurable properties?Think on a daily basis, what might be some of the things you measure? Make a list… how do you measure these variables?-Mass -Area-Temperature-Volume-Density -Pressure
14. 14. b. How do we make measurements?• Our senses are limited by how sensitive or by how accurate they are. To get more detailed information, we use instruments, such as rulers, thermometers, x-rays and telescopes
15. 15. c. Metric System & Unit Conversion• The fundamental units of the metric system are: For Mass ______________________ Grams (g)• For Length ______________________ Meters (m)• For Liquid Volume ________________ milliliters (mL)
16. 16. Prefix Fun! • By changing the prefix used with each unit you can change the size of the unit. We will use the following prefixes. (There are others for both larger and smaller units.)Kilo- Hecto- Deca- Basic Unit Deci- Centi- Milli-(103) (102) (101) (100) (10-1) (10 ) -2 (10-3)
17. 17. Prefix Fun!• You can remember Kilo- (103) this using the Hecto- (102) following sentence: Deca- (101)• King Henry Basic Unit (100) died, drinking Deci- (10-1) chocolate milk Centi- (10-2) Milli- (10-3)
18. 18. • To convert from any unit to any other unit count how many spaces are between them and move the decimal point that far in the same direction.Let’s look at the meter stick! How many 1 meters (m) are in a meter (m) stick?___How many centimeters (cm) are in a meter(m)? 100 ___________
19. 19. • How many millimeters(mm) are in a 10 centimeter (cm) ?__________ Now if there are 100cm in a meter and 10mm in a cm how many mm are in a m? 1000 __________
20. 20. • Decimals are used because they are easier to convert than fractions! In the metric system we use abbreviations! Let’s fill them in below! Length ___ Mass Liquid Volume meter__________ gram_______ m g liter________ L mm mg millimeter_______ milligram______ milliliter______ mL centimeter_______ ------------ cm ------------meter __________gram_________ m g L liter_________ kilometer_______ km kg kL kilogram______ kiloliter______ Please complete the practice questions 1-15
21. 21. 6. Rounding: • The first step in rounding is figuring out what place to round to and where that place is located. You must remember these place values: • 2 , 6 4 3 , 9 7 5 , 8 6 4 . 9 3 1 n M ons llio ons s sa hs s ds th ed s ns illi Th ands t es illi nd an Hu ths s nd Th red dr ns te dm on on sa us n n us li nd ou hu ho teBil re ou Te ho mi dT nd nt Hu re Te nd Hu
22. 22. Rounding Procedure:• Step 1: Find the location of place that you are asked to round to. Lets call it: Sparky.• Step 2: Look at the number to the right of this place lets call it the Boss.• Step 3: If the boss is a 4 or lower, leave Sparky alone. If the Boss is 5 or higher, round the Sparky up one value.
23. 23. Rounding Procedure:• Here is a rhyme to help you remember:• “Four and below, let it go. Five and above give it a shove”• For Example: Round 7.289 to the nearest tenth: Answer: 7.3• Now complete practice problems 1-9!
24. 24. Do Now:• Take out HW, add 2pts on point chart if complete
25. 25. Do Now: In class notes Section, Round the following to the nearest TENTH!• Also, take out HW, add 2pts on point chart if complete1) 8.678 = 8.72) 99.012 = 99.03) 784.555 =784.64) 10.99 = 11.05 )0.3567 = 0.4
26. 26. Check your answers1. 88 mm = 8.8 cm2. 5.7 km = 5700 m3. 18,500 ml = 18.5 L4. 15,300 g = 15.3 kg5. 0.023 kg = 23,000 mg6. 0.3 cm = 3.0 mm7. 5,287,945 mm= 5.287945 km8. 12,300 ml = 12.3 L9. 0.007 km = 7,000 mm10. 0.008 km = 800 cm
27. 27. Check your answers11) 6.78: 6.812) 8.210:8.213) 3.0682: 3.114) 82.921: 82.915) 15.23: 15.216) 75.023: 75.0217) 46.9: 46.9018) 32.97045: 32.9719) 99.9999: 100.0020) 1.65656565: 1.65721) 100.967: 100.967 (already there)22) 0.011223: 0.011
28. 28. Check your answers20) 1.65656565: 1.65721) 100.967: 100.967 (already there)22) 0.011223: 0.01123) List two numbers that would round to 8.7: 8.745 & 8.68924) Explain why 7.93 rounds down to 7.9:The number to the right of the tenth’s place is less than 525) Explain why 2.85 rounds up to 2.9:The number to right of the tenth’s place is greater or equal to 5
29. 29. 7. Scientific Notation  Scientific notation is simply a method for expressing, andworking with, very large or very small numbers.  It is a short hand method for writing numbers, and an easy method for calculations.
30. 30. Numbers in scientific notation are made up of three parts: the coefficient, the base and the exponent.  Observe the example below: 5.67 x 10 5
31. 31.   This is the scientific notation for the standard number, 567 000. Now look at the number again, with the three parts labeled. 5.67 x 10 5coefficient    base   exponent
32. 32. In order for a number to be in correct scientific notation, the following conditions must be true:• 1. The coefficient must be greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10. 2. The base must be 10. 3. The exponent must show the number of decimal places that the decimal needs to be moved to change the number to standard notation.  A negative exponent means that the decimal is moved to the left when changing to standard notation
33. 33. 8. MASS:• Is the amount of matter in an object.• It is how much “stuff” the object is made of, the number of molecules in it.
34. 34. How do we measure Mass• Can we count the atoms? One by one? Lol Nope! Instead we use a triple beam balance which gives us a value usually in grams. Let’s click here for an interactive triple beam balance!
35. 35. Is Weight the same as Mass?Weight is NOT the same as mass, butweight is used to measure the mass of anobject on the Earth.Think about whatwould happen if you weighed your self onthe moon. You would weight less becausethere is less gravity pulling you down ontothe scale, even though your mass did notchange. Let’s check our our weight on the MOON!!!
36. 36. 9. Temperature:• It is the amount of heat energy an object has.• Typically the faster the molecules vibrate with in a sample of matter the hotter it is.
37. 37. English Units: Fahrenheit Degrees (F°) • Water Freezes : 32°F. • Water Boils: 212°F. Metric Units: Celsius Degrees (°C)• Water freezes: 0°C.• Water boils: 100° C. So can you memorize this by tomorrow?!?
38. 38. No Worries!!!You have your handydandy ESRT!Look at page 13,what is the freezingand boilingtemperature forwater in Kelvin?
39. 39. Kelvin Units (K)• Absolute zero: 0 Kelvin’s• Water freezes: 273 Kelvin’s• Water boils: 373 Kelvin’s ABSOLUTE ZERO:• The lowest possible temperature and occurs when ALL heat is removed.• It is equal to -272°C.
40. 40. 10. States of matter:What variable determines the different phases? Temperature What are three states, or phases of matter?• Solid (ice) Liquid (water) Gas (water
41. 41. 11. Area:• The amount of space a 2-dimensional object takes up• For squares and rectangles area is equal to:L xW• L: Length, the longer dimension of an 2 D object usually measured in meters, centimeters or millimeters.• W: Width, the shorter dimension of a 2D object.• Note that the units will always end up squared! Example: 4mm x 2mm = 8mm2
42. 42. 11. Area:Let’s practice using the following steps:• Step 1: Write the formulaExample: Area = L x W• Step 2: List all the variables including the unknown, WITH UNITS. Example: L = 4mm W= 2mm A= ?
43. 43. 11. Area:Let’s practice using the following steps:• Step 3: Plug in the numbers,WITHUNITS. Example: A=4mm x 2mm• Step 4: Calculate WITH UNITS.Example: A= 8mm2• Practice the two examples on your own!
44. 44. Activity!• Take a ruler and ONE object from the front desk Try to measure the volume
45. 45. Do Now- HW on desk (2pts)- Measurement “Do Now” Worksheet
46. 46. 12. Volume:• The amount of space an object takes up• For solid cubes and boxes, Volume is equal to: L x W x H Depending on the size of the object the units may be either cm3 or m3.
47. 47. 12. Volume:• But for liquids, volume is measured in liters using a beaker or graduated cylinder. There two rules: 1. Always read it at eye level This is a beaker!
48. 48. 12. Volume:• 2. You must read the meniscus to obtain an accurate result. Due to cohesion (sticky) properties of fluids, the edges of the fluid touching the glass will slightly rise. Meniscus = 73 mL
49. 49. Fluid Displacement:It is easier to measure irregular shaped objects using fluid displacement. In order to measure this irregularly shaped rock you would drop it in a beaker filled with water and measure the change in volume.
50. 50. What factors affect Volume?• 1)Temperature• Heating a material will cause it to expand and take up more space because the molecules need more room to move around. Therefore increasing temperature will increase volume. T V• _________________• Cooling a material will result in the opposite. So decreasing temperature will decrease volume. ____________________ T V• Think about how your rings fit in the winter… they seem to be bigger!
51. 51. What factors affect Volume?• 2) Pressure:• Increasing pressure will force molecules closer together there by decreasing volume. ______________________ P V• Decreasing pressure will allow molecules to spread out and take up more space thereby increasing volume. _________________ P V• Let’s model this with a sponge.
52. 52. This week’s HWMonday: Density HW page 1Tuesday: Density HW pages 2-3Wednesday: Density HW pages 4-5Thursday: Density HW pages 6-7Friday: No HWExtra Help: Today after school and tomorrow morning
53. 53. 13. DENSITY• The amount of matter (mass) in a given amount of space (volume).• It tells us how tightly packed the molecules are, or how close to each other they are.• If they are packed tightly, the density is high.
54. 54. DENSITY UNITS• The unit for measuring density isgrams per cubic centimeter, or g/cm³• Density = Mass Volume M D V
55. 55. Step 1• Write the formula• Example: Density = Mass/Volume or D=M/V
56. 56. Step 2• List all the variables including the unknown, WITH UNITS.• Example: D=? M = 38.0g V = 12.0cm3
57. 57. Step 3• Plug in the numbers, WITH UNITS.• Example: D=38.0g/12.0cm3
58. 58. Step 4• Calculate WITH UNITS.• Example:D=3.2g/cm3
59. 59. Example If an object has a mass of 13.4 grams and a volume 5.7 cm3 what is the density?Solution:
60. 60. Let’s Practice !!!• Please complete the worksheet
61. 61. Do Now:• Take out homework• Take a review book (in box, on floor, under do now desk)• Take a marker• Write your name really big along the length of the book• Also write your name on the inside cover
62. 62. 14. More on Density• Each pure substance has its own particular density and it can be used to help identify that material at room temperature.• For example, liquid water has a density of 1g/cm³ because 1cm³ of water weighs 1 gram. One cm³ of water also occupies 1ml.• solid quartz has a density of 2.7 g/cm³ Mixtures do not have a precise density.
63. 63. -Fluids tend to layer based on their density, with less dense fluid on top of more dense fluid. Can you think of any examples?Let’s check out this video! • http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/components/docmgr/default.php?sectiondetailid=17500&fileitem=4738&catfilter=445
64. 64. Factors that affect Densitya. Temperature• Cooling a material causes its molecules to move closer together, making its volume decrease and causing its density to increase. T VD• Heating a material causes its molecules to move apart making its volume increase and causing the density to decrease TVD• Note that Mass is staying the same!!!
65. 65. Factors that affect Density: b. Pressure• Increasing the pressure (squeeze) on a material causes its molecules to get pushed closer together, decreasing the volume, making the density increase. P VD• Decreasing the pressure causes the opposite effect, since molecules move further apart, it becomes less dense.• Again, note mass remains the same! P VD
66. 66. So why does density matter? If a warm gust of wind meets cold air, will the warm air go above or below the cold air?• Since hot air is less dense it will rise!• And Cold air sinks because it is denser than warm air• This happens when you boil water 
67. 67. This rising and sinking of fluidsdue to density and temperature differences is called…A CONVECTION CURRENT!!!We will touch upon this concept many times through out the year
68. 68. 15. Density at Different Phases• As a material is heated, it changes from solid to liquid.• More heat changes the liquid to gas. The molecules move farther apart, so the volume increases, causing the density to decrease.• Solids are most dense, gases are least dense
69. 69. The exception to this rule is water• As water cools, its volume decreases until it reaches 4° C.• As it cools from 4° C to 0° C, its volume actually increases, so it becomes less dense again.• Water is most dense at 4°C, but is still a liquid.• This is due to my buddy Mr. Hydrogen Bond, you will meet him in Chemistry
70. 70. • Water at 0°C is solid ice, but is less dense than water, so ice floats!!• Water is the only material whose solid form will float in its liquid form.• This is why the top of a puddle, or a lake freezes first.
71. 71. Do NowFocused free write: Why does ice float? Is the Dad’s explanation correct?
72. 72. Do Now: Take a look at my awesome Lava Lamp• Focused Free Write (goes in class-work section) Why arethe colors separated? Why do the blobs move rather than settle? What processes in earth science can we relate this phenomenon to?
73. 73. 16. Does size affect density of an object?• You can NEVER change the density of a material by cutting it into pieces.• Since change both volume and mass, the ratio will remain the same, therefore each small piece will have the same density as the original large one.
74. 74. 17. Let review some crucial relationships!!!• Temp. Volume Density• Temp. Volume Density You must understand and know these by heart!!!
75. 75. Let review some crucial relationships!!!• Pressure Vol. Density• Pressure Vol. Density You must understand and know these by heart!!!
76. 76. Do Now• Take out both labs! Put “Murder Mystery lab” on top of the “Density, Sweet Density Lab”• Pass up procedure• The rest of the density packet is due tomorrow
77. 77. 18. Graphing• Direct Relationship: both variables “move in the same direction” They both increase or both decrease.
78. 78. Inverse Relationship• Variables “move in opposite directions”. One variable goes up and the other goes down.
79. 79. • One variable changes, but the other remains the same.
80. 80. • As one variable increases, the other increases and then decreases.
81. 81. 19. More on Charts and Graphs: Equal values Equal Value
82. 82. Circle Graph (Pie Graph)• A=50% B=25% C=12.5% D= ______ C B D A
83. 83. 21. Change:• When something observed is different from when it was last observed
84. 84. Frames of reference to study change.• What has caused the change?• Time and Space.• An example is: The Earth’s moon changes because we observe it in different locations in the sky and in different phases at different times during a month.
85. 85. Rate of change• How fast didthe change happen?• How much a measurable aspect of the environment, called a field, is altered over a given amount of time – years, hours, or seconds.
86. 86. The steeper the slope the faster the rate of change!
87. 87. If the slope is constant, the rate of change is also constant
88. 88. If the slope is exponential orcurved, then the rate of change is not constant!
89. 89. A flat horizontal line, means the that the value is constant over time and not changing at all
90. 90. Formula:• Change in field value(Difference in• Change in timewhatever you• are measuring)• Formula is on p. 1 in ESRT
91. 91. Cyclic Change:• Changes that repeat over and over in a known period of time.• Examples are: seasons, sun motions, moon and tides
92. 92. Cyclic: repeats at known intervals.
93. 93. • Most changes are cyclic and they are very good to use when we are trying to make predictions
94. 94. Non-cyclic Changes:• Changes that do not repeat at all or do not repeat in a known period of time.• Some examples of these are:• Earthquakes and Hurricanes.
95. 95. Do Now• Take out Density packet• Take our Density of Gum Lab! Pass up procedure!• Do now is on the “Do Now Desk”
96. 96. Do Now: Copy HW for the Week-Take an Answer Key and practice problems from the “Do Now” Desk-Check your answers to the LAB
97. 97. Do Now: Draw this in your class work sectionBeaker filled with water: Density = 1.0 g/cm3 D= 1.0 D= 3.0 g/cm3 g/cm3 D= 1.5 D= 0.5 g/cm3 g/cm3 D= 0.8 D= 0.2 g/cm3 g/cm3
98. 98. 21. Interfaces• Changes cannot take place unless there is a flow of energy from one location, which loses its energy, to another location, which gains the energy.• The energy flows across a boundary where the two materials or systems meet.• This boundary is known as the INTERFACE
99. 99. Sharp Interfaces• These interfaces are very easy to locate.• An example of an sharp interface is the line where a wall meets the floor.
100. 100. DIFFUSE INTERFACE• Some interfaces are not easy to see.• An example is the boundary between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
101. 101. 22. Dynamic Equilibrium• Sometimes many changes take place, but often they “even” out. It is like your science test grades: some high, some low, but they even out.• This is called DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
102. 102. • Our natural environment is normally in a state of dynamic equilibrium, but this balance can be upset. It is easy to temporarily upset this balance, especially on a small, local scale as can happen just in the town of Long Beach.• Unfortunately, human activities tend to cause permanent disruptions, especially when we pollute.
103. 103. POLLUTION:• When the amount of ANY substance, found ANYWHERE, becomes high enough to affect people, their properties, or plant or animal life. population pollution
104. 104. How to make a graph!Its probably better to do a graph in pencil first, then in pen.
105. 105. How to make a graph!• 1. Collect your data. After you have it all in one place, you should have one independent variable (like time) and one dependent variable (like something you measure as a function of time).
106. 106. Making a Graph• Here are some points we will use as an example; weve measured position of a ball as a function of time:time (s) position (cm) 1 3.0 2 3.4 3 4.8 4 5.0 5 5.3
107. 107. Making a Graph2. Determine the range of your data. In order to determine how big a graph to make, we need to determine how much the numbers vary. In this case, time varies from 1 to 5 seconds, and position varies from 3.0 to 5.3 cm. We have to make sure that there is enough space on the graph to fit all the data
108. 108. Making a Graph3. The independent variable (time, in this case) will go on the x-axis (the one parallel to the bottom of the page), and the dependent variable (position, in this case) will go on the y-axis (parallel to the left hand side of the page). So, draw axes that are big enough for all the data.
109. 109. Making a Graph4. Give your graph a Title. Titles of graphs are usually "Y versus X"; so in this case, our title is "Position versus Time." (NOT position divided by time, or position minus time.)
110. 110. Making a Graph5. Label your graph and your axes. THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT! When presented with your graph, other people should be able to figure out what is plotted without asking you.
111. 111. Making a Graph6. Labels on the axes must have units! So, in this case, the label on the x axis (the one on the bottom) should be "Time (seconds)" and the label on the y axis (the one on the left) should be "Position (centimeters)."
112. 112. Making a Graph7.Remember to write the numbers on the graph, too. The numbers should be evenly and logically spaced - what I mean by this is the following: for our position data here, the y-axis should be marked off in increments like (1,2,3,4,5,6) or (2,4,6,8), NOT (1.3, 2.6, 4.8,...) or anything else weird.
113. 113. Making a Graph8. Plot your data. Now, go ahead and place your data points on the graph. Make them big enough to be seen, but not big enough to look like you were eating pizza while making your graph.
114. 114. Making a Graph9. Draw a "line of best fit." THIS DOES NOT MEAN CONNECT THE DOTS! Only rarely will a graph need to have the data points connected by a jagged line. Usually, it is best to guess at a (straight) line that goes as near as possible to as many points as possible. (See example.) THE ORIGIN IS NOT ALWAYS INCLUDED AS A POINT! And, sometimes there will be a LOT of scatter and it might not be clear where a line should go. Now youre done with your graph, but youre not finished yet.
115. 115. Making a Graph10. Think about what your graph means. What type of relationship do the variables have?
116. 116. 20. PERCENT DEVIATION• This tells us how much error is in some measurements when it is compared to the true measurement. We find the amount of error using the formula:
117. 117. Difference between accepted and measured value_________________________ X 100 Accepted valueThis formula is on the front page of the ESRT.
118. 118. Example:• A student determines a room to be 17 ft long, but the blue print for the room is 15 ft long. Find the % Deviation.• 17-15ft /15 ft X 100% =
119. 119. Example:• A student weighs himself on his bathroom scales at home where he is 125 lbs. At the Dr.’s office he actually weighs 135 lbs. What is the % D. of the bathroom scales?• 135-125lbs / 135 lbs X 100 =
120. 120. Example:• •A student calculates that the density of galena is 7.0 g/cm3. Use the back of your reference table to calculate the % deviation.7.6-7.0 g/cm3 / 7.6 g/cm3 X 100 =