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Note Packet 1
Prologue

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  • 1. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science When it comes to looking at life, I always tend to round up, but in Science I know to simply flowdirections and the roundingprocedure! P.S. My name is Elle Regents Earth Science Ms. Gill Note Packet #1 Name:_______________________ Per:____ Date: ________
  • 2. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1Vocabulary:AreaBar GraphChangeCyclic ChangeClassificationConstant VariableConvection CurrentDensityDirect RelationshipDynamic EquilibriumFluid DisplacementInertiaInferenceInterfacesInverse RelationshipLengthMassMatterMeasurementMeniscusMetric SystemNon-cyclic ChangeObservationParabolaPhases of MatterPercent DeviationPie GraphPredictionPressureRate of ChangeRoundingTemperatureVolume Page #___
  • 3. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #11. An observation is:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________When you observe, you use your ____________ to take in everything that is happeningaround you, paying close attention to detail.Examples:i. The rock is smooth and round.ii. Our Classroom has only one blackboard.iii. Make an observation: ____________________________________________2. An inference is______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________In other words, when you infer, you form a conclusion based on something you____________________. Examples:i. The round and smooth rocks must have been carried here by running water.ii. Since the dog is wagging his tail, he must be happy.iii. Make an inference: ______________________________________________3. A prediction is:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Examples:i. An angular rock will eventually become rounded if it stays in the stream.ii. Ms. Gill will wear something stylish tomorrow.4. Classification: _________________________________________________We can organize or classify objects according to some pattern or trend or commoncharacteristics. Page #___
  • 4. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #15. Measurements: The purpose of this guide is to guide you through converting units in the metric system!a. What are some measurable properties?__________________ __________________ ____________________________________ __________________ __________________b. How do we make measurements?•Our senses are limited by how sensitive or by how accurate they are. To get moredetailed information, we use instruments, such as rulers, thermometers, x-rays andtelescopesc. The Metric System & Unit Conversion:The fundamental units of the metric system are: For Mass ______________________ For Length ______________________ For Liquid Volume __________________By changing the prefix used with each unit you can change the size of the unit. We willuse the following prefixes. (There are others for both larger and smaller units.)_________ _________ _________ basic unit ________ ________ _________You can remember this by the following sentence.__________ ________ _________ _______ ________ ________ _________To convert from any unit to any other unit count how many spaces are betweenthem and move the decimal point that far in the same direction.Let’s look at the meter stick! How many meters (m) are in a meter (m) stick?___How many centimeters (cm) are in a meter (m)? ___________How many millimeters (mm) are in a centimeter (cm) ?__________ Now if there are100 cm in a meter and 10 mm in a cm how many mm are in a m? __________ Page #___
  • 5. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Decimals are used because they are easier to convert than fractions! In the metric system we use abbreviations! Let’s fill them in below! Length Mass Liquid Volume meter__________ gram__________ liter__________ millimeter_______ milligram______ milliliter______ centimeter______ -------------- -------------kilometer_______ kilogram_______ kiloliter________ Let’s practice some unit conversions now! Convert the following! 1. 10 mm= ________________ cm 2. 1 km = ________________ m 3. 1000 ml = ________________ L 4. 12 g = ________________ kg 6. Rounding: The first step in rounding is figuring out what place to round to and where that place is located. You must remember these place values: 2 , 6 4 3 , 9 7 5 , 8 6 4 . 9 3 1 Rounding Procedure:Step 1: Find the location of place that you are asked to round to. Lets call it: Sparky.Step 2: Look at the number to the right of this place lets call it the Boss.Step 3: If the boss is a 4 or lower, leave Sparky alone. If the Boss is 5 or higher, roundthe Sparky up one value. Here is a rhyme to help you remember: “Four and below, let it go. Five and above give it a shove” For Example: Round 7.289 to the nearest tenth: Answer: 7.3 Page #___
  • 6. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Practice: Round to the nearest Round to the nearest Round to the nearest tenth: hundredth: ones:1) 29.45: _______ 4) 0.745: ________ 7) 30.19: __________2) 711.319: ________ 5) 1.67234: _______ 8) 8,799.99: ________3) 9.999: _________ 6) 10.4637: _______ 9) 2.94: __________ 7. Scientific Notation Scientific notation is simply a method for expressing, and working with, very large or very small numbers. It is a short hand method for writing numbers, and an easy method for calculations. Numbers in scientific notation are made up of three parts: the coefficient, the base and the exponent. Observe the example below: 5 5.67 x 10 This is the scientific notation for the standard number: 567,000 In order for a number to be in correct scientific notation, the following conditions must be true: 1. The coefficient must be greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10. 2. The base must be 10. 3. The exponent must show the number of decimal places that the decimal needs to be moved to change the number to standard notation. A negative exponent means that the decimal is moved to the left when changing to standard notation Practice: Convert into Scientific Notation Convert out of Scientific Notation 4,600,000,000.0: _______________ 3.01 x 107: _______________ 5,700: ________________ 23.782 x 104: ________________ 678,900,000: __________________ 1.0x 1015: __________________ Page #___
  • 7. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 8. Mass :__________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________•It is how much “stuff” the object is made of, the number of atoms in it.a. How do we measure mass? Can we count the atoms one by one? Nope!!! Instead we use a triple beam balance that gives us a value usually in grams.b. Is Weight the same as Mass?Weight is NOT the same as mass, but weight is used to measure the mass of anobject on the Earth. Think about what would happen if you weighed your self on themoon. You would weight less because there is less gravity pulling you down onto thescale, even though your mass did not change.To play with an interactive virtual triple beam balance like we did in class go to:http://www.touchspin.com/chem/DisplayTBB.htmlTo find out your weight on other planets and moons visit this site:http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/ 9. Temperature: Page #___
  • 8. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1__________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Typically the faster the molecules vibrate with in a sample of matter the hotter it is. Let’s model this with our hands!There are 3 different systems to measure temperature:1) English Units: Fahrenheit Degrees (F°)2) Metric Units: Celsius Degrees (°C)3) Kelvin Units (K) Fahrenheit Celsius KelvinWater FreezesWater BoilsAbsolute zero 10. States of matter What variable determines the 3 states of Matter? ________________________ The three phases of Matter are: ___________________ ___________________ ___________________See page 13 in your ESRT!!! 11. Area: Page #___
  • 9. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Formula for Area= L x W L: Length, the longer dimension of an 2 D object usually measured in meters, centimeters or millimeters. W: Width, the shorter dimension of a 2D object. Note that the units will always end up squared! Example: 4mm x 2mm = 8mm2 Lets practice finding the area! Always follow these Steps:Step 3: Plug inStepnumbers, the formula the 1: Write WITH UNITS.Example: Area = L x W Example: A=4mm x 2mm Step 2: List all the variablesStep 4: Calculate WITHthe unknown, WITH UNITS. includingUNITS. Example:Example: 2 = 4mm W= 2mm A= ? A= 8mmL 7 cm 4m 9m Step 1:__________________ Step cm 7 1:__________________ Step 2: _________________ Step 2: _________________ Step 3: _________________ Step 3: _________________ Step 4:__________________ Step 4:__________________ 12. Page #___
  • 10. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Volume: -The amount of _______ an object takes up! Meniscus: 73 mL -For solid cubes and boxes Volume is equal to: ____________. Depending on the size of the object the units may be either cm3 or m3. -But for liquids, volume is measured in _________ using a beaker or graduated cylinder. 1. Read it at eye level 2. Fluid Displacement Factors that affect Volume: You must read the meniscus to obtain an accurate1) Temperature result. Due to cohesionis easier to measure of fluids, the •It (sticky) properties irregular Heating a material will cause it to expand of the fluid touching the glass willfluid edges and shaped objects using slightly rise.take up more space because the molecules need displacement.more room to move around. Thereforeincreasing temperature will increase volume._________________  In order to measure Cooling a material will result in the opposite. this irregularly shaped rock youSo decreasing temperature will decrease would drop it in a beaker filledvolume. ____________________ with water and measure theThink about how your rings fit in the winter… change in volume.they seem to be bigger!2) Pressure:Increasing pressure will force molecules closertogether there by decreasing volume.______________________Decreasing pressure will allow molecules tospread out and take up more space therebyincreasing volume. _________________Let’s model this with a sponge. There are rules to reading beaker or graduated cylinder: Page #___
  • 11. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 13. Density:__________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ • It tells us how tightly packed the molecules are, or how close to each other they are. If they are packed tightly, the density is high. •The unit for measuring density is grams per cubic centimeter, or g/cm³ •Density = Mass Volume So how do you solve a math problem in science class using a formula? Step 1: Write the formula Example: Density = Mass/Volume or D=M/V Step 2: List all the variables including the unknown, WITH UNITS. Example: D=? M = 38.0g V = 12.0cm3 Step 3: Plug in the numbers, WITH UNITS. Example: D=38.0g/12.0cm3 Step 4: Calculate WITH UNITS. Page #___
  • 12. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Example: D=3.2g/cm3Example: If an object has a mass of 13.4 grams and a volume 5.7 cm3 what is thedensity? Write out each step next to the corresponding number1. 3.2. 4. 14. More on Density: •Each pure substance has its own particular density and it can be used to help identify that material at room temperature. •For example, liquid water has a density of 1g/cm³ because 1cm³ of water weighs 1 gram. One cm³ of water also occupies 1ml. •Solid quartz has a density of 2.7 g/cm³ Mixtures do not have a precise density. -Fluids tend to layer based on their density, Factors that affect Density with less dense fluid on top of more dense A. Temperature: fluid. Can you think of any examples? •Cooling a material causes its ____________________________ molecules to move closer together, making its volume decrease and Let’s check out this video: causing its density to increase. •http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/compo ___________________ nents/docmgr/default.php? •Heating a material causes its molecules to move apart making its volume increase and causing the density to decrease. ___________________ •Note that Mass is staying the same!!! B. Pressure: •Increasing the pressure (squeeze) on a material causes its molecules to get pushed closer together, decreasing the volume, making the density increase. __________________ •Decreasing the pressure causes the opposite effect, since molecules move Page #___ further apart, it becomes less dense. •Again, note mass remains the same! ______________________________________________
  • 13. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 sectiondetailid=17500&fileitem=4738&catfilter=445 15. Density at Different Phases Why does density matter? If a warm gust of wind meets cold air, •As a material is heated, it changes from will the warm air go above or below the solid to liquid. cold air? •Since hot air is less dense it will rise! • More heat changes the liquid to gas. •And Cold air sinks because it is denser The molecules move farther apart, so than warm air the volume increases, causing the •A similar process happens when density to decrease. you boil water  General Rule of Thumb: Solids are most dense, gases are least dense The ONLY exception to this rule is water!!! •As water cools, its volume decreases until it reaches 4° C. This rising and sinking of fluids due to • As it cools from 4° C to 0° C, its volume actually density and temperature differences is increases, so it becomes less dense again. called _________________________. We will touch upon this concept many •Water is most dense at 4°C, but is still a liquid. times through out the year. •This is due to my buddy Mr. Hydrogen Bond, you will meet him in Chemistry •Water at 0°C is solid ice, but is less dense than water, so ice floats!! •Water is the only material whose solid form will float in its liquid form. •This is why the top of a puddle, or a lake freezes first. Page #___
  • 14. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 16. Does size affect density of an object? •You can NEVER change the density of a material by cutting it into pieces. •Since change both volume and mass, the ratio will remain the same, therefore each small piece will have the same density as the original large one. 17. Let review some crucial relationships!!! •Temp. Volume Density •Temp. Volume Density •Pressure Volume Density •Pressure Volume Density You must understand and know these by heart!!! Page #___
  • 15. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 18. Graphing: •Direct Relationship: •Inverse Relationship: Variables both variables “move in the same “move in opposite directions”. One direction” They both increase or both variable goes up and the other goes decrease. down. •Constant Variable: •Parabola: One variable changes, but the other remains As one variable increases, the the same. other increases and then decreases. 19. More on charts and Graphs: Page #___
  • 16. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 20. Change: Page #___
  • 17. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1•When something observed is different from when it was last observed Frames of reference to study change: Rate of Change: •What has caused the change? •How fast did the change happen? •Time and Space. •An example is: The Earth’s moon How much a measurable aspect of the changes because we observe it in environment, called a field, is altered different locations in the sky and in over a given amount of time – years, different phases at different times hours, or seconds. during a month. Formula: Rate of = ________________ Change •Formula is on p. 1 in ESRT “Change in Field Value” is the difference in what you are measuring. Cyclic Change Non-cyclic Changes: •Changes that repeat over and over in a •Changes that do not repeat at all or do known period of time. not repeat in a known period of time. •Examples are: seasons, sun motions, moon and tides •Some examples are: Earthquakes and •Most changes are cyclic and they are Hurricanes. very good to use when we are trying to make predictions Cyclic: repeats at known intervals 21. Interfaces: Page #___
  • 18. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1•Changes cannot take place unless there is a flow of energy from one location, whichloses its energy, to another location, which gains the energy.•The energy flows across a boundary where the two materials or systems meet.•This boundary is known as the INTERFACE Sharp Interface: Diffuse Interface: •These interfaces are very easy to •Some interfaces are not easy to see. locate. •An example of an sharp interface •An example is the boundary between is the line where a wall meets the the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific floor. Ocean. 22. Dynamic Equilibrium:•Sometimes many changes take place, but often they “even” out. It is like your sciencetest grades: some high, some low, but they even out.•This is called DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM Pollution: •When the amount of ANY substance,•Our natural environment is normally in a found ANYWHERE, becomes highstate of dynamic equilibrium, but this enough to affect people, theirbalance can be upset. It is easy to properties, or plant or animal life.temporarily upset this balance, especiallyon a small, local scale as can happen just inthe town of Long Beach.Unfortunately, human activities tend tocause permanent disruptions, especiallywhen we pollute … 23. How to make a graph Page #___
  • 19. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1 Its probably better to do a graph in pencil first, then in pen. 1. 1. Collect your data. After you have it all in one place, you should have one independent variable (like time) and one dependent variable (like something you measure as a function of time). Here are some points we will use as an example; weve measured position of a ball as a function of time: 2. time (s) position (cm) 3. 1 3.0 4. 2 3.4 5. 3 4.8 6. 4 5.0 7. 5 5.3 8. 9. 2. Determine the range of your data. In order to determine how big a graph to make, we need to determine how much the numbers vary. In this case, time varies from 1 to 5 seconds, and position varies from 3.0 to 5.3 cm. We have to make sure that there is enough space on the graph to fit all the data.10. 3.The independent variable (time, in this case) will go on the x-axis (the one parallel to the bottom of the page), and the dependent variable (position, in this case) will go on the y-axis (parallel to the left hand side of the page). So, draw axes that are big enough for all the data.11. 4. Give your graph a Title. Titles of graphs are usually "Y versus X"; so in this case, our title is "Position versus Time." (NOT position divided by time, or position minus time.)12. 5. Label your graph and your axes. THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT! When presented with your graph, other people should be able to figure out what is plotted without asking you.13. 6. Labels on the axes must have units! So, in this case, the label on the x axis (the one on the bottom) should be "Time (seconds)" and the label on the y axis (the one on the left) should be "Position (centimeters)."14. 7.Remember to write the numbers on the graph, too. The numbers should be evenly and logically spaced - what I mean by this is the following: for our position data here, the y-axis should be marked off in increments like (1,2,3,4,5,6) or (2,4,6,8), NOT (1.3, 2.6, 4.8,...) or anything else weird. 8. Plot your data. Now, go ahead and place your data points on the graph. Make them big enough to be seen, but not big enough to look like you were eating pizza while making your graph. 9. Draw a "line of best fit." THIS DOES NOT MEAN CONNECT THE DOTS! Page #___
  • 20. Unit 1: Prologue The Nature of Science Note Packet #1Only rarely will a graph need to have the data points connected by a jagged line. Usually,it is best to guess at a (straight) line that goes as near as possible to as many points aspossible. (See example.) THE ORIGIN IS NOT ALWAYS INCLUDED AS A POINT! And,sometimes there will be a LOT of scatter and it might not be clear where a line shouldgo. Now youre done with your graph, but youre not finished yet. 10. Think about what your graph means. What type of relationship do thevariables have? Page #___