Landscape  Development
LANDSCAPE REFERS TO THE GENERAL  SHAPE  OF A REGION
THE SHAPE OF A LANDSCAPE IS  ALSO KNOWN AS IT’S TOPOGRAPHY
We describe landscape regions in terms of the:  <ul><li>Heights of hills </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes of hills </li></ul><ul><...
Landscape regions can be classified as one of the following: <ul><li>MOUNTAIN </li></ul><ul><li>PLATEAU </li></ul><ul><li>...
MOUNTAIN
folds tilts faults MOUNTAIN
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>1. HIGH PEAKS AND DEEP VALLEYS </li></ul><ul><li>2.  IGNEOUS  AND  METAMORPHIC  ROCK </li></ul><ul><li>3. STEEP ST...
PLATEAU
PLATEAU
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>1. FLAT OR ROLLING HILLS </li></ul><ul><li>2. DEEP CUT STREAM VALLEYS </li></ul><ul><li>3. HORIZONTAL LAYERS OF  <...
PLAIN
 
 
<ul><li>1. MOSTLY FLAT- FEW HILLS </li></ul><ul><li>2. HORIZONTAL SEDIMENTARY LAYERS </li></ul><ul><li>3. MEANDERING STREA...
Topography Depends on Several Factors : <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Moisture,temperature,latitud...
INTERFACES * <ul><li>THE BOUNDARIES </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN REGIONS  </li></ul><ul><li>ARE DISTINCT </li></ul>
Landscapes of New York State: <ul><li>New York State can be divided into several distinct landscape areas </li></ul><ul><l...
New Jersey Connecticut Massachusetts Vermont Canada Pennsylvania Lake Ontario Lake Erie Atlantic Ocean L.I.  Sound ERIE-ON...
 
 
Most of New York State soils are not  residual, they are <ul><li>TRANSPORTED  BY </li></ul><ul><li>GLACIERS </li></ul>
LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT: <ul><li>A LANDSCAPE RESULTS FROM THE OPPOSING FORCES OF </li></ul><ul><li>UPLIFT   AND </li></ul><u...
UPLIFT IS OFTEN  CAUSED BY: PLATE  TECTONICS
THE RESULTING GEOLOGIC EVENTS INCLUDE: <ul><li>EARTHQUAKES </li></ul><ul><li>VOLCANOES </li></ul><ul><li>FAULTING  & </li>...
MOUNTIANS
THE MOST IMPORTANT LEVELING AGENT TODAY IS <ul><li>EROSION BY  </li></ul><ul><li>RUNNING WATER </li></ul>
Notice how the rock types weather differently Which rock is least resistant? shale Differences in rock resistance creates ...
Folding is part of the  mountain building process
OTHER LEVELING AGENTS INCLUDE: <ul><li>WIND  & </li></ul><ul><li>GLACIERS  </li></ul><ul><li>driven by the force of </li><...
IF UPLIFTING FORCES HAVE BEEN DOMINANT THE LANDSCAPE WILL BE MOUNTAINOUS
IF LEVELING FORCES (EROSION) HAS BEEN DOMINANT THE LANDSCAPE WILL BE: PLAINS (FLAT) PLATEAU
IF UPLIFTING AND   LEVELING FORCES ARE IN BALANCE, THE LANDSCAPE IS IN: DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON LANDSCAPE: gentle Fertile Thick A layer Chemical due to Increased amount  Of moisture steep ro...
SOIL HORIZONS (LAYERS) <ul><li>A (TOP SOIL)  </li></ul><ul><li>rich in organic material </li></ul><ul><li>B  little organi...
Complete the landscape Activity worksheet
A CHANGE IN CLIMATE CAN ALSO CREATE AN   ICE AGE
WHICH LEADS TO GLACIERS AND GLACIAL LANDSCAPES
drumlins outwash plain
GLACIERS DEPOSIT _______________  SEDIMENTS. UNSORTED
BEDROCK ACTED UPON BY GLACIERS IS GENERALLY POLISHED AND <ul><li>SCRATCHED </li></ul><ul><li>(STRIATED) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Glacial valleys are generally  U- SHAPED
escarpment U-shaped valley
WHILE RIVER VALLEYS ARE: V- SHAPED
COASTAL LANDSCAPES: <ul><li>ARE PRIMARILY AFFECTED BY THE ACTION OF </li></ul><ul><li>WAVES  AND  </li></ul><ul><li>OCEAN ...
 
 
THE BEDROCK OF IN AN AREA WILL CAUSE STREAMS TO DRAIN IN A PATTERN
<ul><li>THAT CAN BE SEEN FROM </li></ul><ul><li>OVER-HEAD. </li></ul><ul><li>THESE ARE CALLED </li></ul>DRAINAGE PATTERNS
Mississippi River Delta
 
Match the geologic structures below To the drainage patterns they would create.
THIS   OCCURS   WHEN:   Rock resistance is all similar
THIS   OCCURS   WHEN:   WATER FLOWS IN THE PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE Rock resistances are different
WATER FLOWS DOWN HILL FOLLOWING THE PATH OF  LEAST RESISTANCE
FOLLOWING THE PATH OF  LEAST RESISTANCE
STAGES IN LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT: <ul><li>THE MATURITY OF A LANDSCAPE DEPENDS UPON THE PORTION OF THE LAND THAT HAS BEEN WO...
THE 3 STAGES OF LANDSCAPE MATURITY :
<ul><li>1.MUCH OF THE LAND AT HIGH ELEVATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>2. STEEP HILL SLOPES </li></ul><ul><li>3. FAST STREAMS </l...
<ul><li>1. ROUNDED HILL SLOPES  (IF MOIST CLIMATE) </li></ul><ul><li>2. STREAM VALLEYS ARE BROAD </li></ul><ul><li>3. STRE...
<ul><li>1. MOSTLY ERODED TO BASE LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>2. STREAMS HAVE LOW SLOPE  (GRADIENT) </li></ul><ul><li>3. STREAM...
CAN CAUSE OLD LANDSCAPES TO BE REJUVINATED  BACK TO YOUNG AGAIN UPLIFT
THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANS: <ul><li>THROUGH THE USE OF </li></ul><ul><li>HUMANS HAVE BEEN ABLE TO ALTER THE SHAPE OF THE LAND...
WE CAN MAKE CHANGES IN THE LANDSCAPE IN A  FEW MONTHS THAT WOULD TAKE NATURE  HUNDREDS OF YEARS  TO ACHIEVE
It could also take  hundreds of years  to remedy the  effects of  technology . negative
 
 
<ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND CONSERVATION CAN HELP TO PRESERVE OUR </li></ul><ul><li>SOIL, WATER, AND AIR </li></ul>
 
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Landscape Regions

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Transcript of "Landscape Regions"

  1. 1. Landscape Development
  2. 2. LANDSCAPE REFERS TO THE GENERAL SHAPE OF A REGION
  3. 3. THE SHAPE OF A LANDSCAPE IS ALSO KNOWN AS IT’S TOPOGRAPHY
  4. 4. We describe landscape regions in terms of the: <ul><li>Heights of hills </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes of hills </li></ul><ul><li>Stream patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Soil type (rock composition) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Landscape regions can be classified as one of the following: <ul><li>MOUNTAIN </li></ul><ul><li>PLATEAU </li></ul><ul><li>PLAIN </li></ul>
  6. 6. MOUNTAIN
  7. 7. folds tilts faults MOUNTAIN
  8. 13. <ul><li>1. HIGH PEAKS AND DEEP VALLEYS </li></ul><ul><li>2. IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCK </li></ul><ul><li>3. STEEP STREAM GRADIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>4. STEEP SLOPES </li></ul><ul><li>5. FOLDED, FAULTS, TILTED ROCK LAYERS </li></ul>MOUNTAIN
  9. 14. PLATEAU
  10. 15. PLATEAU
  11. 24. <ul><li>1. FLAT OR ROLLING HILLS </li></ul><ul><li>2. DEEP CUT STREAM VALLEYS </li></ul><ul><li>3. HORIZONTAL LAYERS OF </li></ul><ul><li>SEDIMENTARY ROCK </li></ul><ul><li>4. LOW ELEVATIONS ARE FLAT </li></ul>PLATEAU
  12. 25. PLAIN
  13. 28. <ul><li>1. MOSTLY FLAT- FEW HILLS </li></ul><ul><li>2. HORIZONTAL SEDIMENTARY LAYERS </li></ul><ul><li>3. MEANDERING STREAMS </li></ul>PLAIN
  14. 29. Topography Depends on Several Factors : <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Moisture,temperature,latitude Composition of rocks Mountains,Valleys roads,cities, dams,agriculture Mining <ul><li>Local bedrock </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human Activities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 30. INTERFACES * <ul><li>THE BOUNDARIES </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN REGIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ARE DISTINCT </li></ul>
  16. 31. Landscapes of New York State: <ul><li>New York State can be divided into several distinct landscape areas </li></ul><ul><li>See pages 2 and 3 in your ESRT!!! </li></ul>
  17. 32. New Jersey Connecticut Massachusetts Vermont Canada Pennsylvania Lake Ontario Lake Erie Atlantic Ocean L.I. Sound ERIE-ONTARIO LOWLANDS (plains) Allegheny Plateau Adirondack Mountains Tug Hill Plateau NEW ENGLAND PROVINCE HIGHLANDS TACONIC MOUNTAINS MANHATTAN PRONG NEWARK LOWLANDS ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN ST.LAWRENCE LOWLANDS CHAMPLAIN LOWLANDS INTERIOR LOWLANDS GRENVILLE PROVINCE (HIGHLANDS) THE CATSKILLS Hudson-Mohawk Lowlands HUDSON HIGHLANDS APPALACHIAN PLATEAU (UPLANDS) N
  18. 35. Most of New York State soils are not residual, they are <ul><li>TRANSPORTED BY </li></ul><ul><li>GLACIERS </li></ul>
  19. 36. LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT: <ul><li>A LANDSCAPE RESULTS FROM THE OPPOSING FORCES OF </li></ul><ul><li>UPLIFT AND </li></ul><ul><li>EROSION (LEVELING) </li></ul>
  20. 37. UPLIFT IS OFTEN CAUSED BY: PLATE TECTONICS
  21. 38. THE RESULTING GEOLOGIC EVENTS INCLUDE: <ul><li>EARTHQUAKES </li></ul><ul><li>VOLCANOES </li></ul><ul><li>FAULTING & </li></ul><ul><li>FOLDING which create… </li></ul>
  22. 39. MOUNTIANS
  23. 40. THE MOST IMPORTANT LEVELING AGENT TODAY IS <ul><li>EROSION BY </li></ul><ul><li>RUNNING WATER </li></ul>
  24. 41. Notice how the rock types weather differently Which rock is least resistant? shale Differences in rock resistance creates varied and interesting landscapes.
  25. 42. Folding is part of the mountain building process
  26. 43. OTHER LEVELING AGENTS INCLUDE: <ul><li>WIND & </li></ul><ul><li>GLACIERS </li></ul><ul><li>driven by the force of </li></ul><ul><li>GRAVITY </li></ul>
  27. 44. IF UPLIFTING FORCES HAVE BEEN DOMINANT THE LANDSCAPE WILL BE MOUNTAINOUS
  28. 45. IF LEVELING FORCES (EROSION) HAS BEEN DOMINANT THE LANDSCAPE WILL BE: PLAINS (FLAT) PLATEAU
  29. 46. IF UPLIFTING AND LEVELING FORCES ARE IN BALANCE, THE LANDSCAPE IS IN: DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
  30. 47. THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON LANDSCAPE: gentle Fertile Thick A layer Chemical due to Increased amount Of moisture steep rocky Physical due to abrasion Type of Weathering Soil Slope Arrid (dry) Humid (moist)
  31. 48. SOIL HORIZONS (LAYERS) <ul><li>A (TOP SOIL) </li></ul><ul><li>rich in organic material </li></ul><ul><li>B little organic material </li></ul><ul><li>rich in minerals </li></ul><ul><li>leeched from horizon A </li></ul><ul><li>C partly weathered </li></ul><ul><li>broken up bedrock </li></ul><ul><li>sits on top of </li></ul><ul><li>solid bedrock </li></ul>
  32. 49. Complete the landscape Activity worksheet
  33. 50. A CHANGE IN CLIMATE CAN ALSO CREATE AN ICE AGE
  34. 51. WHICH LEADS TO GLACIERS AND GLACIAL LANDSCAPES
  35. 52. drumlins outwash plain
  36. 53. GLACIERS DEPOSIT _______________ SEDIMENTS. UNSORTED
  37. 54. BEDROCK ACTED UPON BY GLACIERS IS GENERALLY POLISHED AND <ul><li>SCRATCHED </li></ul><ul><li>(STRIATED) </li></ul><ul><li>By sediment </li></ul><ul><li>in the ice </li></ul>
  38. 55. Glacial valleys are generally U- SHAPED
  39. 56. escarpment U-shaped valley
  40. 57. WHILE RIVER VALLEYS ARE: V- SHAPED
  41. 58. COASTAL LANDSCAPES: <ul><li>ARE PRIMARILY AFFECTED BY THE ACTION OF </li></ul><ul><li>WAVES AND </li></ul><ul><li>OCEAN CURRENTS </li></ul>
  42. 61. THE BEDROCK OF IN AN AREA WILL CAUSE STREAMS TO DRAIN IN A PATTERN
  43. 62. <ul><li>THAT CAN BE SEEN FROM </li></ul><ul><li>OVER-HEAD. </li></ul><ul><li>THESE ARE CALLED </li></ul>DRAINAGE PATTERNS
  44. 63. Mississippi River Delta
  45. 65. Match the geologic structures below To the drainage patterns they would create.
  46. 66. THIS OCCURS WHEN: Rock resistance is all similar
  47. 67. THIS OCCURS WHEN: WATER FLOWS IN THE PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE Rock resistances are different
  48. 68. WATER FLOWS DOWN HILL FOLLOWING THE PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE
  49. 69. FOLLOWING THE PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE
  50. 70. STAGES IN LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT: <ul><li>THE MATURITY OF A LANDSCAPE DEPENDS UPON THE PORTION OF THE LAND THAT HAS BEEN WORN DOWN TO OR NEAR </li></ul><ul><li>BASE LEVEL (NOT SEA LEVEL) </li></ul>
  51. 71. THE 3 STAGES OF LANDSCAPE MATURITY :
  52. 72. <ul><li>1.MUCH OF THE LAND AT HIGH ELEVATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>2. STEEP HILL SLOPES </li></ul><ul><li>3. FAST STREAMS </li></ul><ul><li>4. DEEP V-SHAPED VALLEYS </li></ul>YOUNG
  53. 73. <ul><li>1. ROUNDED HILL SLOPES (IF MOIST CLIMATE) </li></ul><ul><li>2. STREAM VALLEYS ARE BROAD </li></ul><ul><li>3. STREAMS BEGIN TO MEANDER </li></ul>MATURE
  54. 74. <ul><li>1. MOSTLY ERODED TO BASE LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>2. STREAMS HAVE LOW SLOPE (GRADIENT) </li></ul><ul><li>3. STREAMS MOVE SLOW & MEANDER </li></ul><ul><li>4. FERTILE AND THICK SOIL HORIZON A </li></ul>OLD
  55. 75. CAN CAUSE OLD LANDSCAPES TO BE REJUVINATED BACK TO YOUNG AGAIN UPLIFT
  56. 76. THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANS: <ul><li>THROUGH THE USE OF </li></ul><ul><li>HUMANS HAVE BEEN ABLE TO ALTER THE SHAPE OF THE LAND </li></ul>TECHNOLOGY
  57. 77. WE CAN MAKE CHANGES IN THE LANDSCAPE IN A FEW MONTHS THAT WOULD TAKE NATURE HUNDREDS OF YEARS TO ACHIEVE
  58. 78. It could also take hundreds of years to remedy the effects of technology . negative
  59. 81. <ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND CONSERVATION CAN HELP TO PRESERVE OUR </li></ul><ul><li>SOIL, WATER, AND AIR </li></ul>
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