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Landscape Regions
 

Landscape Regions

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    Landscape Regions Landscape Regions Presentation Transcript

    • Landscape Development
    • LANDSCAPE REFERS TO THE GENERAL SHAPE OF A REGION
    • THE SHAPE OF A LANDSCAPE IS ALSO KNOWN AS IT’S TOPOGRAPHY
    • We describe landscape regions in terms of the:
      • Heights of hills
      • Shapes of hills
      • Stream patterns
      • Soil type (rock composition)
    • Landscape regions can be classified as one of the following:
      • MOUNTAIN
      • PLATEAU
      • PLAIN
    • MOUNTAIN
    • folds tilts faults MOUNTAIN
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      • 1. HIGH PEAKS AND DEEP VALLEYS
      • 2. IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCK
      • 3. STEEP STREAM GRADIENTS
      • 4. STEEP SLOPES
      • 5. FOLDED, FAULTS, TILTED ROCK LAYERS
      MOUNTAIN
    • PLATEAU
    • PLATEAU
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      • 1. FLAT OR ROLLING HILLS
      • 2. DEEP CUT STREAM VALLEYS
      • 3. HORIZONTAL LAYERS OF
      • SEDIMENTARY ROCK
      • 4. LOW ELEVATIONS ARE FLAT
      PLATEAU
    • PLAIN
    •  
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      • 1. MOSTLY FLAT- FEW HILLS
      • 2. HORIZONTAL SEDIMENTARY LAYERS
      • 3. MEANDERING STREAMS
      PLAIN
    • Topography Depends on Several Factors :
            • Climate
      Moisture,temperature,latitude Composition of rocks Mountains,Valleys roads,cities, dams,agriculture Mining
      • Local bedrock
      • Geologic structures:
              • Human Activities
    • INTERFACES *
      • THE BOUNDARIES
      • BETWEEN REGIONS
      • ARE DISTINCT
    • Landscapes of New York State:
      • New York State can be divided into several distinct landscape areas
      • See pages 2 and 3 in your ESRT!!!
    • New Jersey Connecticut Massachusetts Vermont Canada Pennsylvania Lake Ontario Lake Erie Atlantic Ocean L.I. Sound ERIE-ONTARIO LOWLANDS (plains) Allegheny Plateau Adirondack Mountains Tug Hill Plateau NEW ENGLAND PROVINCE HIGHLANDS TACONIC MOUNTAINS MANHATTAN PRONG NEWARK LOWLANDS ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN ST.LAWRENCE LOWLANDS CHAMPLAIN LOWLANDS INTERIOR LOWLANDS GRENVILLE PROVINCE (HIGHLANDS) THE CATSKILLS Hudson-Mohawk Lowlands HUDSON HIGHLANDS APPALACHIAN PLATEAU (UPLANDS) N
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    • Most of New York State soils are not residual, they are
      • TRANSPORTED BY
      • GLACIERS
    • LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT:
      • A LANDSCAPE RESULTS FROM THE OPPOSING FORCES OF
      • UPLIFT AND
      • EROSION (LEVELING)
    • UPLIFT IS OFTEN CAUSED BY: PLATE TECTONICS
    • THE RESULTING GEOLOGIC EVENTS INCLUDE:
      • EARTHQUAKES
      • VOLCANOES
      • FAULTING &
      • FOLDING which create…
    • MOUNTIANS
    • THE MOST IMPORTANT LEVELING AGENT TODAY IS
      • EROSION BY
      • RUNNING WATER
    • Notice how the rock types weather differently Which rock is least resistant? shale Differences in rock resistance creates varied and interesting landscapes.
    • Folding is part of the mountain building process
    • OTHER LEVELING AGENTS INCLUDE:
      • WIND &
      • GLACIERS
      • driven by the force of
      • GRAVITY
    • IF UPLIFTING FORCES HAVE BEEN DOMINANT THE LANDSCAPE WILL BE MOUNTAINOUS
    • IF LEVELING FORCES (EROSION) HAS BEEN DOMINANT THE LANDSCAPE WILL BE: PLAINS (FLAT) PLATEAU
    • IF UPLIFTING AND LEVELING FORCES ARE IN BALANCE, THE LANDSCAPE IS IN: DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
    • THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON LANDSCAPE: gentle Fertile Thick A layer Chemical due to Increased amount Of moisture steep rocky Physical due to abrasion Type of Weathering Soil Slope Arrid (dry) Humid (moist)
    • SOIL HORIZONS (LAYERS)
      • A (TOP SOIL)
      • rich in organic material
      • B little organic material
      • rich in minerals
      • leeched from horizon A
      • C partly weathered
      • broken up bedrock
      • sits on top of
      • solid bedrock
    • Complete the landscape Activity worksheet
    • A CHANGE IN CLIMATE CAN ALSO CREATE AN ICE AGE
    • WHICH LEADS TO GLACIERS AND GLACIAL LANDSCAPES
    • drumlins outwash plain
    • GLACIERS DEPOSIT _______________ SEDIMENTS. UNSORTED
    • BEDROCK ACTED UPON BY GLACIERS IS GENERALLY POLISHED AND
      • SCRATCHED
      • (STRIATED)
      • By sediment
      • in the ice
    • Glacial valleys are generally U- SHAPED
    • escarpment U-shaped valley
    • WHILE RIVER VALLEYS ARE: V- SHAPED
    • COASTAL LANDSCAPES:
      • ARE PRIMARILY AFFECTED BY THE ACTION OF
      • WAVES AND
      • OCEAN CURRENTS
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    • THE BEDROCK OF IN AN AREA WILL CAUSE STREAMS TO DRAIN IN A PATTERN
      • THAT CAN BE SEEN FROM
      • OVER-HEAD.
      • THESE ARE CALLED
      DRAINAGE PATTERNS
    • Mississippi River Delta
    •  
    • Match the geologic structures below To the drainage patterns they would create.
    • THIS OCCURS WHEN: Rock resistance is all similar
    • THIS OCCURS WHEN: WATER FLOWS IN THE PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE Rock resistances are different
    • WATER FLOWS DOWN HILL FOLLOWING THE PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE
    • FOLLOWING THE PATH OF LEAST RESISTANCE
    • STAGES IN LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT:
      • THE MATURITY OF A LANDSCAPE DEPENDS UPON THE PORTION OF THE LAND THAT HAS BEEN WORN DOWN TO OR NEAR
      • BASE LEVEL (NOT SEA LEVEL)
    • THE 3 STAGES OF LANDSCAPE MATURITY :
      • 1.MUCH OF THE LAND AT HIGH ELEVATIONS
      • 2. STEEP HILL SLOPES
      • 3. FAST STREAMS
      • 4. DEEP V-SHAPED VALLEYS
      YOUNG
      • 1. ROUNDED HILL SLOPES (IF MOIST CLIMATE)
      • 2. STREAM VALLEYS ARE BROAD
      • 3. STREAMS BEGIN TO MEANDER
      MATURE
      • 1. MOSTLY ERODED TO BASE LEVEL
      • 2. STREAMS HAVE LOW SLOPE (GRADIENT)
      • 3. STREAMS MOVE SLOW & MEANDER
      • 4. FERTILE AND THICK SOIL HORIZON A
      OLD
    • CAN CAUSE OLD LANDSCAPES TO BE REJUVINATED BACK TO YOUNG AGAIN UPLIFT
    • THE INFLUENCE OF HUMANS:
      • THROUGH THE USE OF
      • HUMANS HAVE BEEN ABLE TO ALTER THE SHAPE OF THE LAND
      TECHNOLOGY
    • WE CAN MAKE CHANGES IN THE LANDSCAPE IN A FEW MONTHS THAT WOULD TAKE NATURE HUNDREDS OF YEARS TO ACHIEVE
    • It could also take hundreds of years to remedy the effects of technology . negative
    •  
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      • ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND CONSERVATION CAN HELP TO PRESERVE OUR
      • SOIL, WATER, AND AIR
    •