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Geologic History Note Packet Geologic History Note Packet Document Transcript

  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 UNIT 7: EARTH’S HISTORY  PACKET 8: EARLY EARTH, SEQUENCING EVENTS, RELATIVE AGE, ABSOLUTE AGE, FOSSIL RECORD “Maybe one day I’ll make a good index fossil” P.S. I’m Boris HONORS EARTH SCIENCE MS. GILL NOTE PACKET #8 NAME:_______________________ PER:____ DATE:______ ________ Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8Vocabulary:absolute datingBig Bangcorrelationcross-cutting relationshipserosionevolutionextinctionextrusionfaultingfolding,fossil recordhalf-lifeindex fossilinclusionintrusionisotopemeteoritic debrisoriginal horizontalityOut-gassingradioactive decayred-shift (Doppler effect)relative datingrock recordstratigraphysuperpositionunconformityUniformitarianismvolcanic ash layer Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8Earth’s Formation•Earth formed through the gravitational _________________ and __________________ of asteroids androcky debris.•This accretion of material generated a tremendous ______________ causing the planet to be molten.•The denser materials settled into the interior and the Earth’s _____________ internal structure formed.-Earths first atmosphere 4.6 billion years ago was most likely comprised of hydrogen and helium (two mostabundant gases found in the universe!)Through the process of outgassing, the outpouring of gases from theearths interior, many other gases were injected into the atmosphere. These include: water vapor (produced rain - rivers, lakes, oceans), carbon dioxide, nitrogen As outgassing occurred over a period of millions of years, the atmosphere evolved to its current stateLife and Evolution:Variations in Fossils and Environments•Evidence from the ______________________ (preserved in sedimentary rocks) shows that a wide varietyof life forms have lived in Earth’s changing environments over time.•The comparisons of fossil remains and ______________________________ enable scientists to makepredictions about the Earth’s past environment.•A major reason for changes in Earth’s _________________ over geologic time has been the movements ofplates and their associated landmasses.Fossils and the Evolution of LifeThe theory of ______________________ states that life forms change through time.As environmental conditions change, variations within a species give certain individuals a greater chance for_________________ and __________________.Rates of EvolutionThe ________________________ provides evidence for the theory of organic evolution.This also shows that evolution does not always occur at the same _________.There are times of rapid ___________ and subsequently rapid ________________ of new species. • An impact event, such as the collision of a comet or asteroid with Earth, may cause catastrophic environmental changes leading to rapid extinctions and evolutions. • Such an event probable occurred at 65 million years ago and is associated with a massive extinction of roughly 70% of the Earth’s species. Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8Life On Earth Precambrian (4.6 - 4.06 b.y.) {Little to No Life} - Simple organisms (soft-bodied; “jellyfish”) - Fossils are rare Paleozoic (540 – 245 m.y.) {Life in the Oceans} - Organisms proliferate and become more complex (_______________________) - Shelled (mineralized skeletons and shells) organisms develop (Brachiopods/Trilobites) - _______________________ develop from lobe-finned fish - Era ends with a ________________________ killing off more than 95% of the life on earth Mesozoic Life (245-65) {Life on Land and Oceans, Dinosaurs!} - “Age of _________________” (dinosaurs, flying reptiles and birds develop) - Modern _____________________________ begins to develop on land - Era ends with a mass extinction killing off dinosaurs, ammonoids, flying reptiles, and some swimming reptiles. Cenozoic Life (65 m.y. – present) {Life on Land and Oceans} - “Age of Mammals” (____________ begin to develop and evolve) - Humans develop from _______________ (Homo Habilus 1.6 m.y.) How old is the Earth? Scientists have determined the age of the Earth to be about 4.6 x 109 (billion) years old. 4,600, 000, 000 years = 4.6 x 109 years (scientific notations you should know) 109 = ______________ 106 = ______________ 103 = ______________ 1012 = _______________ The study of Geologic History began in the late 1700’s when James Hutton published his Theory of the Earth. In this work he was the first scientist to argue effectively that geologic processes proceed over long spans of time Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8THE PRINCIPLE OF UNIFORMITY: Geologists can infer events of the past by ________________________________________________________________________________Uniformitarianism (Principle of _____________________________) :states that the forces that acted upon the ______________________ crust in the__________________ arethe same as those that are ________________________ today. ****_______________________________________________________________**** Principle of Uniformitarianism the physical, chemical, and biological processes that operate today have also operated in the geologic past; “The present is the key to the past”Relative Dating Techniques:Relative Dating: determining the age of a rock or fossil relative to the age of surrounding rocks and earthmaterialsRelative Dating Laws-Original Horizontality - states that sediments are deposited in horizontal layers-Law of Superposition - states that in an undeformed sequence of strata, each bed is older than the one above itand younger than the one below it.-Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships Intrusions are younger than the rocks than the rocks that they intrude Extrusions are younger than the rocks they form above. Faults are younger than the rocks that they cut throughRelative Dating Techniques: Five Basic Laws! 1. Law of ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Law of ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Law of ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Law of ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Law of ___________________________________________________________________ Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 1. Law of Original Horizontality: _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ If strata are _______________ then they must have suffered some kind of disturbance after they were deposited. 2. Law of Superposition- the principle that the _______________ layers in a sequence of rock strata must have been deposited _________________ the layers above, unless the rock strata have been ___________ or _____________. The __________rocks are found at the bottom. Geologists can date the ____________ ages of the strata from __________ to ___________ . 3. Law of Inclusions: A rock must first exist in order to be weathered, deposited and cemented as a ___________ in another rock. Therefore, If rock is composed of _________, the rock fragments must be _____________ than the rock in which they are found. Rock fragments (or inclusions) that are contained in another rock are older than the rocks in which they are found _______ is older in A. _______ is older in B. The law of inclusions also applies to fossil preserved in bedrock. _____________________ are any naturally preserved remains or impressions of living things. They are found in ___________________________________, because____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Fossils give us information about _______________________________________. Unconformity Buried erosional surfaces that are preserved in the rock record Create “gaps” in the geologic rock record Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 4. Law of Cross-Cutting Relationships: Any ___________ or ____________ must be younger than ALL the rock through which it cuts. Simply put, the body of rock that is cross-cut had to be there first in order to be cut by an intruding igneous body or fault. In general rock is always ____________________ than the process that changed it. Some processes include: _______________________, ____________________, ___________________, _________________________ & _______________________. These changes can lead to exceptions to the Law of Superposition: a. __________________________ is an igneous rock that formed from lava on the surface of the crust. An _____________________ must be younger than the strata below it, but _________________ than any layers above. b. _____________________ are created when molten rock ( ____________) is injected into older rock layers in the crust. ___________ are ____________ than all the rock layers in contact with them. c. ___________________ are bends in rock strata. _____________________ can overturn rock strata so that ______________ rock lies on top of _____________rock. Explain how folding can create an exception to the Law of Superposition. _____________________________ ________________________________________ d. _________________ are cracks in rock strata. _______________ produce offset layers. Which numbers are older than the fault labeled B? _______ Which are younger?__________ Processes that can change the order of rock strata: Rock strata must be _________________ than the process that changed it. _________________, _______________ and __________________ __________________ are features created after rock or sediment has been deposited. Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 5. Law of Original Lateral Continuity: When sediment is dumped by an agent of erosion, strata extends from the source of deposition until it gradually thins to zero, or until it reaches the edges of the basin of ____________________. This concept enables geologists to correlate outcrops of strata that has been dissected by processes of ______________.Practice ActivitiesDirections: List the age rock layers in correct age order from oldest to youngest. _____________ Oldest _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Youngest _____________ Oldest _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Youngest Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 CORRELATION OF ROCK STRATA: A. Correlation is ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Rock Correlation • Correlation is the process of matching rock units or events in separate rock formations • Correlation of rock units and geologic events can be based upon continuity, similar rock composition, fossil evidence, and volcanic markers. B. WAYS TO CORRELATE ROCK FORMATIONS: 1. “Walking the outcrop” is done by ______________________________________________ This is correlation by _____________________________________. Similarities in rock texture and composition can be used to match rock units over large areas 2. You can match the rock strata in one location with the rock strata in more distant locations by ________________________________________________. Fossils can be used to help match separated rock layers. 3. Time correlation compares ______________ ________________ contained in rock the strata. 4. The best index fossils: a. ______________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________ This ensures that the fossils will have a wide horizontal and narrow vertical distribution 5. Another way of correlating layers by time is through ________________________________. Violent volcanic eruptions can emit large quantities of volcanic ash. The ash can spread out over a large area of land creating an excellent geologic marker for rock correlation. These ash falls are very __________________ events. A single layer of ________________ can be found over a large area, this allows geologists to make a ________________________ from one location to another at the position of a common ash fall. Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE: Geologists noticed that rock __________________________ could be identified by the fossils they contained. They also found that certain _____________________ were consistently located _____________________ or ______________________ other formations. From these observations they established a __________________ ____________ ___________ With a sequence of fossil groups from _____________ to ______________each of these groups was named for a location where its __________________________ could be observed in the rocks. Example:___________________________ Further observations from around the world established a _________________ ________________ __________________ based on _______________________________________________ AND _________________________ex:________________&______________ An _________________________ is the process of mountain building. SEE PAGES 8 & 9 IN YOUR ESRT!!! GEOLOGIC EVENTS OF THE PAST: A. _________________________ causes gaps in the geologic record. B. When a new layer of rock is laid down on a surface that has been____________________, it forms a buried erosion surface called an __________________________________. C. How an unconformity forms: Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 Absolute Dating: -Process of determining the exact age of a rock, fossil or Earth material in years before the present (as opposed to relative ages). Common units are: millions of years ago = m.y.a = 106 billions of years ago = b.y.a = 109 -What were some of the techniques used to determine absolute time prior to the discovery of radioactivity? __________________________ and _______________________ -Modern science now uses radioactive isotopes to find the absolute ages of a given material (rock, fossil, etc.). -___________________________ – Instrument used in the detection and study of isotopes RADIOACTIVE DATING: A. Fossils enabled geologists to give __________________________ time. Relative time compares rock ages to _________________. Example: The limestone is older than the sandstone. B. Measurements of natural _________________________ in rocks have allowed _________________ time scale to be an __________________ time scale. The ________________ _______________ of an object is measured in years. Example: The limestone was formed 2 mya (million years ago) and the sandstone was formed 1 mya. Let’s review some basic chemistry to see how this works… Radioactive Isotope Dating • An element is a substance consisting of atoms that are chemically alike. • Most elements exist in several different types of isotopes (atoms with a different number of neutrons in their nuclei). • The nucleus (containing neutrons and protons) of radioactive isotopes is unstable and over time they will emit particles and electromagnetic energy. This is known as Radioactive Decay, and changes the radioactive isotope into other isotopes or atoms. This occurs until, eventually a stable isotope forms. Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 How can we use radioactive elements to date things? The rate of decay (breakdown) for any radioactive isotope is ______________. Over a given period of time, a definite fraction of the atoms of an isotope will ____________ ISOTOPE: ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Ex. C C D. If the nucleus has more or fewer than the normal number of _________________, The isotope may be _______________________________. E. Radioactive isotope will break down naturally into a lighter element called __________________ __________________ which is stable. *This process is called __________________________ _____________. RADIOACTIVE DECAY: When an unstable ______________ element changes into a completely different (but stable) ___________ element. F. A sample starts out at “Time Zero” with ________ percent of radioactive material. ( Time Zero: when the sample originally formed by cooling and solidification) As time goes by and the sample gets older, the radioactive elements decay, and ____________ radioactive atoms remain in the sample. Therefore, the higher the ratio of decay product to radioactive element the _______________ the sample. The ratio between the mass of the radioactive element and it’s decay product in a sample is called the ________________________ G. The decay of the parent atoms in a sample to daughter atoms is a _________ process. That happens at _____________ rates for different radioactive elements. Lets model this with pennies. H. The rate of decay of a radioactive element is measured by it’s ________ _______ HALF-LIFE: ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Half Lives of Radioactive Isotopes • The rate of decay for any radioactive isotope is constant. • Over a given period of time, a definite fraction of the atoms in an isotope will decay to a stable form. • The time required for half of the atoms in a given mass of an isotope to decay is known as the half-life of the isotope. • Each radioactive isotope has it’s own characteristic half-lfe, which is not affected by any environmental conditions, mass or volume. • The front page of the ESRT lists the radioactive isotopes, and information regarding their decay and half-life. Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 Complete the Chart using the front cover of the Reference Tables: RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT DECAY PRODUCT HALF-LIFE 1 Carbon-14 2 Potassium-40 3 Uranium-238 4 Rubidium-87 Selecting the Best Radioactive Element: AGE OF SAMPLE RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT 1 Under 50,000 (RECENT) 2 Over 50,000 (OLDER) Carbon-14 is used for dating: _______________________________________ & _____________________________________ “Time Zero” for carbon dating begins when the organism ______________ or when the _________ burns out. • Radioactive isotopes with very long half-lives are excellent for dating very old rocks, but for younger objects, isotopes with shorter half-lives present a better tool to find accurate absolute ages. • One such isotope is Carbon-14 , with a half-life of 5,700 years. • C-14 dating – also called radiocarbon – can be used to date rocks and more importantly organic remains up to approximately 70,000 yrs. • This method has been used to date early humans, mastodonts, and many other geologically recent organic remains. Can all rocks be dated using this technique? -Igneous and Metamorphic rocks work excellent for radioactive dating because at the time of crystallization (or recrystallization), a specific ratio of stable and radioactive isotopes are incorporated into the crystals. -On the other hand, sedimentary (clastic) rocks do not work well because they are composed of older, pre- existing rock fragments. Page # ____
  • Unit 7: Geologic History Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #8 Calculating the age of a rock: The ratio between the amount of the original isotope (parent) and the amount of its decaying product (daughter), is used to establish the absolute age of a sample. 1. What would be the age of the rock that has equal amounts of C-14 and its decay product N-14? 2. What % of the sample is radioactive after the following half-lives, After 1 half-life: After 2 half-lives: After 3 half-lives: 3. After 11,200 years how much C-14 would remain in a 10 gram sample? Page # ____