EROSION
EROSION: <ul><li>TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENTS </li></ul>
AND DEPOSITING  THEM ELSEWHERE
 
EROSION IS DRIVEN BY THE FORCE OF GRAVITY
THE AGENTS OF EROSION ARE: <ul><li>RUNNING WATER </li></ul><ul><li>WIND </li></ul><ul><li>MOVING ICE (GLACIERS) </li></ul>
Each Agent of Erosion Produces it’s Own Characteristic shape and Texture  in the Sediment :
 
ROUNDS AND SMOOTHES THE ROCK SURFACE ALSO MAKES IT SMALLER
WIND BLOWN SEDIMENTS FROST  AND  PIT   THE ROCK SURFACE
SMALL SEDIMENTS IN THE  GLACIER  POLISHES  &  SMOOTHES   THE ROCK SURFACE LARGE SEDIMENTS  SCRATCH   AND  STRIATE  THE ROC...
FALLEN ROCKS ARE SHARP  & ANGULAR
RUNNING WATER   The primary agent of erosion is:
Colorado River
Grand Canyon
Niagra Falls
 
 
 
EROSION BY WATER: <ul><li>PARTICLES ARE CARRIED  IN SEVERAL WAYS DEPENDING ON THEIR </li></ul><ul><li>SIZE </li></ul>
THREE ways streams transport sediment:
SEDIMENTS  IN SOLUTION : <ul><li>DISSOLVED IONS </li></ul>
examples : <ul><li>Salt </li></ul><ul><li>calcite </li></ul>
Dissolved ions in solution
SEDIMENTS  IN SUSPENSION : COLLOIDS
Can you think of examples : <ul><li>SILT </li></ul><ul><li>CLAY </li></ul>
 
SEDIMENTS  ROLLED AND  BOUNCED: <ul><li>LARGE SEDIMENTS   dragged along the bottom </li></ul>
 
VELOCITY OF A STREAM  DEPENDS ON: <ul><li>SLOPE  (GRADIENT)   AND </li></ul><ul><li>DISCHARGE </li></ul><ul><li>volume of ...
 
 
 
 
Water moves faster on the outside  of a bend EROSION Water moves slower on the inside  of a bend DEPOSITION LABEL YOUR DIA...
Erosion occurs at points  Depsosition occurs  at points  B & E A & F A B C D F E
B C D E F Maximum erosion  occurs where there is maximum _____________ On a straight path the maximum velocity is in the _...
EROSION OCCURS AT THE OUTSIDE  DEPOSITION OCCURS AT THE INSIDE
 
THE MOVEMENT OF THE WATER CAN EVENTUALLY FORM AN OXBOW LAKE
SEDIMENTS LEFT BEHIND BY STREAMS AND WIND ARE   ________ <ul><li>SORTED   </li></ul><ul><li>dropped off in size order </li...
CALCULATE THE MINIMUM VELOCITY OF A STREAM NEEDED TO CARRY A PEBBLE:
(SEE REF. TABLE PAGE 6)
APPROXIMATELY 50 CM/SEC
WHAT IS THE MINIMUM VELOCITY NEEDED TO CARRY A BOULDER? 200 CM/SEC
SORTING
WIND:
 
EROSION BY WIND OCCURS PRIMARILY IN: <ul><li>DRY CLIMATES </li></ul>
The particles transported (eroded) by wind are _________ <ul><li>Sorted </li></ul>
 
 
 
 
 
Severe draughts in the mid-west during the 1920’s and 30’s caused this area to be known as the  “Dust bowl”
Glacial Erosion: <ul><li>When more snow in winter accumulates than _______ in the summer the snow at the bottom turns to _...
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>1.Glaciers create   </li></ul><ul><li>U-  shaped valleys  </li></ul>Characteristics of Glacial Erosion:
 
 
 
escarpment U-shaped valley
 
 
Advancing glacier
Retreating glacier
 
Long Island Sound South Shore North Shore
<ul><li>2. Sediments left behind by glaciers are </li></ul>STRIATIONS SHOW THE DIRECTION   OF MOVEMENT OF THE GLACIER poli...
 
3. SEDIMENTS LEFT BEHIND BY GLACIERS ARE: <ul><li>UNSORTED </li></ul>
Advancing glacier MORE SNOW FALLS THAN MELTS
Retreating glacier ICE BEGINS TO MELT DUE TO CLIMATE CHANGE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Terminal end of advancing glacier Latest advance Melt-water carrying sorted Sediment toward the ocean
 
THE SOUTH SHORE OF LONG ISLAND
 
Glacial Till F FOUND ON THE NORTH SHORE OF LONG ISLAND
FASTEST VELOCITY IS AT THE CENTER OF THE VALLEY
Some glacial features include: escarpment U-shaped valley
drumlins outwash plain
<ul><li>Some Glacial Features include : </li></ul><ul><li>U-shaped valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Moraines: unsorted sediments ...
River erosion:  notice the V-shaped valleys  and meanders (bending)
 
Valley glacier eroding a U-shape
Glacial features left behind
Glaciers / Rivers
A B C A B C Match the  cross sections below with  the lines on the stream A B C
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  • Merrill Snyder
  • Merrill ES Snyder Feather Hesser
  • Merrill Snyder
  • Merrill earth science Snyder Feather Hesser Glencoe
  • Erosion New

    1. 1. EROSION
    2. 2. EROSION: <ul><li>TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENTS </li></ul>
    3. 3. AND DEPOSITING THEM ELSEWHERE
    4. 5. EROSION IS DRIVEN BY THE FORCE OF GRAVITY
    5. 6. THE AGENTS OF EROSION ARE: <ul><li>RUNNING WATER </li></ul><ul><li>WIND </li></ul><ul><li>MOVING ICE (GLACIERS) </li></ul>
    6. 7. Each Agent of Erosion Produces it’s Own Characteristic shape and Texture in the Sediment :
    7. 9. ROUNDS AND SMOOTHES THE ROCK SURFACE ALSO MAKES IT SMALLER
    8. 10. WIND BLOWN SEDIMENTS FROST AND PIT THE ROCK SURFACE
    9. 11. SMALL SEDIMENTS IN THE GLACIER POLISHES & SMOOTHES THE ROCK SURFACE LARGE SEDIMENTS SCRATCH AND STRIATE THE ROCK SURFACE
    10. 12. FALLEN ROCKS ARE SHARP & ANGULAR
    11. 13. RUNNING WATER The primary agent of erosion is:
    12. 14. Colorado River
    13. 15. Grand Canyon
    14. 16. Niagra Falls
    15. 20. EROSION BY WATER: <ul><li>PARTICLES ARE CARRIED IN SEVERAL WAYS DEPENDING ON THEIR </li></ul><ul><li>SIZE </li></ul>
    16. 21. THREE ways streams transport sediment:
    17. 22. SEDIMENTS IN SOLUTION : <ul><li>DISSOLVED IONS </li></ul>
    18. 23. examples : <ul><li>Salt </li></ul><ul><li>calcite </li></ul>
    19. 24. Dissolved ions in solution
    20. 25. SEDIMENTS IN SUSPENSION : COLLOIDS
    21. 26. Can you think of examples : <ul><li>SILT </li></ul><ul><li>CLAY </li></ul>
    22. 28. SEDIMENTS ROLLED AND BOUNCED: <ul><li>LARGE SEDIMENTS dragged along the bottom </li></ul>
    23. 30. VELOCITY OF A STREAM DEPENDS ON: <ul><li>SLOPE (GRADIENT) AND </li></ul><ul><li>DISCHARGE </li></ul><ul><li>volume of water </li></ul>
    24. 35. Water moves faster on the outside of a bend EROSION Water moves slower on the inside of a bend DEPOSITION LABEL YOUR DIAGRAM (EROSION) & (DEPOSITION) EROSION DEPOSITION
    25. 36. Erosion occurs at points Depsosition occurs at points B & E A & F A B C D F E
    26. 37. B C D E F Maximum erosion occurs where there is maximum _____________ On a straight path the maximum velocity is in the ___________ below the ____________ center surface velocity
    27. 38. EROSION OCCURS AT THE OUTSIDE DEPOSITION OCCURS AT THE INSIDE
    28. 40. THE MOVEMENT OF THE WATER CAN EVENTUALLY FORM AN OXBOW LAKE
    29. 41. SEDIMENTS LEFT BEHIND BY STREAMS AND WIND ARE ________ <ul><li>SORTED </li></ul><ul><li>dropped off in size order </li></ul>
    30. 42. CALCULATE THE MINIMUM VELOCITY OF A STREAM NEEDED TO CARRY A PEBBLE:
    31. 43. (SEE REF. TABLE PAGE 6)
    32. 44. APPROXIMATELY 50 CM/SEC
    33. 45. WHAT IS THE MINIMUM VELOCITY NEEDED TO CARRY A BOULDER? 200 CM/SEC
    34. 46. SORTING
    35. 47. WIND:
    36. 49. EROSION BY WIND OCCURS PRIMARILY IN: <ul><li>DRY CLIMATES </li></ul>
    37. 50. The particles transported (eroded) by wind are _________ <ul><li>Sorted </li></ul>
    38. 56. Severe draughts in the mid-west during the 1920’s and 30’s caused this area to be known as the “Dust bowl”
    39. 57. Glacial Erosion: <ul><li>When more snow in winter accumulates than _______ in the summer the snow at the bottom turns to _________. </li></ul>melts ice gravity advance <ul><li>If it becomes thick enough, it’s weight will cause it to move under the pull of___________. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called a glacial _________ </li></ul>
    40. 62. <ul><li>1.Glaciers create </li></ul><ul><li>U- shaped valleys </li></ul>Characteristics of Glacial Erosion:
    41. 66. escarpment U-shaped valley
    42. 69. Advancing glacier
    43. 70. Retreating glacier
    44. 72. Long Island Sound South Shore North Shore
    45. 73. <ul><li>2. Sediments left behind by glaciers are </li></ul>STRIATIONS SHOW THE DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT OF THE GLACIER polished & striated (scratched)
    46. 75. 3. SEDIMENTS LEFT BEHIND BY GLACIERS ARE: <ul><li>UNSORTED </li></ul>
    47. 76. Advancing glacier MORE SNOW FALLS THAN MELTS
    48. 77. Retreating glacier ICE BEGINS TO MELT DUE TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    49. 87. Terminal end of advancing glacier Latest advance Melt-water carrying sorted Sediment toward the ocean
    50. 89. THE SOUTH SHORE OF LONG ISLAND
    51. 91. Glacial Till F FOUND ON THE NORTH SHORE OF LONG ISLAND
    52. 92. FASTEST VELOCITY IS AT THE CENTER OF THE VALLEY
    53. 93. Some glacial features include: escarpment U-shaped valley
    54. 94. drumlins outwash plain
    55. 95. <ul><li>Some Glacial Features include : </li></ul><ul><li>U-shaped valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Moraines: unsorted sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Drumlins: elongated moraines </li></ul><ul><li>kettle lakes: round glacial lake </li></ul><ul><li>finger lakes: elongated glacial lake </li></ul><ul><li>outwash plains: deposited by melt-water streams </li></ul><ul><li>Erratic: large rock </li></ul><ul><li>deposited by a glacier </li></ul><ul><li>Escarpment: steep cliff </li></ul><ul><li>Horn: sharp peak </li></ul>Drumlins outwash plain Kettle lakes
    56. 96. River erosion: notice the V-shaped valleys and meanders (bending)
    57. 98. Valley glacier eroding a U-shape
    58. 99. Glacial features left behind
    59. 100. Glaciers / Rivers
    60. 101. A B C A B C Match the cross sections below with the lines on the stream A B C

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