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Energy review
 

Energy review

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    Energy review Energy review Document Transcript

    • Name:_____________________________________________________________ Period:____________ Date:________________ Unit 1: Energy Honor Earth Science Energy Review Packet 1. Increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in Earth’s 9. The cross sections below show different patterns of air atmosphere increases atmospheric temperature movement in Earth's atmosphere. Air temperatures at because the carbon dioxide absorbs Earth's surface are indicated in each cross section. 1) incoming solar gamma ray radiation Which cross section shows the most likely pattern of 2) incoming solar visible light radiation air movement in Earth's atmosphere that would result 3) outgoing terrestrial ultraviolet radiation from the surface air temperatures shown? 4) outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation 1) 2. Which change would cause a decrease in the amount of insolation absorbed at Earths surface? 1) a decrease in cloud cover 2) 2) a decrease in atmospheric transparency 3) an increase in the duration of daylight 4) an increase in nitrogen gas 3. Under identical conditions, which surface will reflect 3) the greatest amount of insolation? 1) a basaltic sand beach 2) a pine tree forest 4) 3) a glacial ice sheet 4) a blacktop parking lot 4. Which type of surface absorbs the greatest amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun? 10. Which type of land surface would probably reflect the 1) smooth, shiny, and light colored most incoming solar radiation? 2) smooth, shiny, and dark colored 1) light colored and smooth 3) rough, dull, and light colored 2) light colored and rough 4) rough, dull, and dark colored 3) dark colored and smooth 5. Which type of electromagnetic radiation has the 4) dark colored and rough longest wavelength? 11. During nighttime cooling, most of the energy radiated 1) ultraviolet 2) gamma rays by Earth’s oceans into space is 3) visible light 4) radio waves 1) ultraviolet rays 2) gamma rays 6. A square meter of surface of which of these natural 3) visible light rays 4) infrared rays areas would most likely absorb the most insolation 12. Which process transfers energy primarily by during a clear day? electromagnetic waves? 1) a fast-moving river 1) radiation 2) evaporation 2) a dark-green forest 3) conduction 4) convection 3) a beach with white sand 4) a snow-covered field 13. Friction occurring at an interface always produces a 7. One result of a large volcanic eruption is that surface 1) transformation of energy air temperatures decrease over a sizable region of 2) form of pollution 3) chemical change Earth. This phenomenon occurs because volcanic 4) phase change eruptions usually decrease the 14. If large amounts of dust are added to the 1) transparency of the atmosphere atmosphere, the average air temperature will most 2) number of dust particles entering the atmosphere 3) amount of moisture in the atmosphere likely 4) reflection of sunlight within the atmosphere 1) decrease due to increased reflection of 8. Scientists are concerned about the decrease in insolation ozone in the upper atmosphere primarily because 2) decrease due to increased infrared absorption 3) increase due to increased reflection of insolation ozone protects life on Earth by absorbing certain 4) increase due to increased infrared absorption wavelengths of 15. Compared to the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation, 1) x-ray radiation the wavelength of infrared radiation is 2) ultraviolet radiation 3) infrared radiation 1) shorter 2) longer 4) microwave radiation 3) the same Page 1
    • 16. The cross section of a house is shown below. Open stairways allow air to move from one floor to another. The ridge vent is an opening in the roof that allows air to move in or out of the attic. During a windless summer day, the air inside this house is warmed by the Sun. In which cross section do the arrows show the most likely air movement when the windows are opened? 1) 2) 3) 4) 17. Water loses energy when it changes phase from 18. Insolation is often converted into potential energy by 1) gas to liquid 2) solid to liquid 1) evaporation of water from the oceans 3) solid to gas 4) liquid to gas 2) formation of fog in a valley 3) freezing of water droplets on a highway 4) precipitation of rain from a thunderstorm Page 2
    • 19. Which graph best represents the relative wavelengths of the different forms of electromagnetic energy? 1) 2) 3) 4) 20. How do clouds affect the temperature at the Earth's 22. Which statement about electromagnetic energy is surface? correct? 1) Clouds block sunlight during the day and 1) Violet light has a longer wavelength than red prevent heat from escaping at night. light. 2) Clouds block sunlight during the day and allow 2) X-rays have a longer wavelength than infrared heat to escape at night. waves. 3) Clouds allow sunlight to reach the Earth during 3) Radar waves have a shorter wavelength than the day and prevent heat from escaping at night. ultraviolet rays. 4) Clouds allow sunlight to reach the Earth during 4) Gamma rays have a shorter wavelength than the day and allow heat to escape at night. visible light. 21. An increase in which gas would cause the most 23. An object that is a good absorber of electromagnetic greenhouse warming of Earth’s atmosphere? energy is also a good 1) nitrogen 2) oxygen 1) reflector of electromagnetic energy 3) carbon dioxide 4) hydrogen 2) refractor of electromagnetic energy 3) radiator of electromagnetic energy 4) convector of electromagnetic energy Page 3
    • 24. Which diagram correctly indicates why convection 27. Which diagram best represents the direction of currents form in water when water is heated? convection currents around the burning wood of a 1) 2) campfire? 1) 2) 3) 3) 4) 4) 25. The graph below shows the air temperatures recorded at a city in the United States on two days in 28. Which graph best shows the relationship between July: a clear day and an overcast day. the amount of carbon dioxide contained in Earth's atmosphere and the average atmospheric temperature? 1) 2) 3) 4) Which statement best explains the differences in temperatures between the clear day and the overcast day? 29. A gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide 1) Clear skies usually accompany a warm front. would warm Earth’s atmosphere because carbon 2) Clear skies occur most often during nighttime dioxide is a hours. 1) poor reflector of ultraviolet radiation 3) Clouds increase the amount of heat energy 2) good reflector of ultraviolet radiation escaping the Earth's atmosphere at night. 3) poor absorber of infrared radiation 4) Clouds prevent much of the Sun's heat energy 4) good absorber of infrared radiation from reaching the Earth's surface during the 30. Which action would help an air-conditioner use less daytime hours. energy on a hot, sunny summer day? 26. Liquid water can store more heat energy than an 1) opening draperies and blinds equal amount of any other naturally occurring 2) adding insulation in the walls and ceiling substance because liquid water 3) turning on lights and heat-producing appliances 1) covers 71% of Earth’s surface 4) replacing light-colored roofing materials with 2) has its greatest density at 4 °C dark-colored ones 3) has the higher specific heat 4) can be changed into a solid or a gas Page 4
    • 31. The cross section below shows two compartments of 34. The energy radiated from the Sun consists of a water of equal volume insulated by Styrofoam and 1) narrow range of wavelengths, with ultraviolet separated by a metal dividing wall, forming a closed radiation having the greatest intensity energy system. 2) narrow range of wavelengths, with infrared radiation having the greatest intensity 3) wide range of wavelengths, with visible radiation having the greatest intensity 4) wide range of wavelengths, with x-ray radiation having the greatest intensity 35. Water vapor crystallizes in the atmosphere to form snowflakes. Which statement best describes the exchange of heat energy during this process? 1) Heat energy is transferred from the atmosphere to the water vapor. 2) Heat energy is released from the water vapor into the atmosphere. 3) Heat energy is transferred equally to and from the water vapor. 4) No heat energy is exchanged between the atmosphere and the water vapor. When the temperature of the water in compartment A decreases by 10 °C, the temperature of the water in compartment B will 1) remain unchanged 2) decrease by only 5°C 3) decrease by approximately 10°C 4) increase by approximately 10 °C 32. The graph below represents the relationship between the intensity and wavelength of the Sun's electromagnetic radiation. Which statement is best supported by the graph? 1) The infrared radiation given off by the Sun occurs at a wavelength of 2,000 angstroms. 2) The maximum intensity of radiation given off by the Sun occurs in the visible region. 3) The infrared radiation given off by the Sun has a shorter wavelength than ultraviolet radiation. 4) The electromagnetic energy given off by the Sun consists of a single wavelength. 33. As the temperature of an object approaches absolute zero (0º K), the amount of electromagnetic energy radiated by the object will 1) decrease 2) increase 3) remain the same Page 5
    • 36. The diagram below shows a cylinder filled with clean water. At the left of the cylinder is a light source, and at the right of the cylinder is a meter that measures the intensity (brightness) of light as it passes through the water. One minute after the light is turned on, a mixture of sand, silt, and clay is poured into the cylinder. Which graph shows the probable change in light intensity (brightness) recorded during the 6-minute period after the light is turned on? 1) 2) 3) 4) Page 6