Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Energy power point
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Energy power point

1,973
views

Published on


2 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,973
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
142
Comments
2
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Unit 1: ENERGY Stop Monkey-N-ing around and Go Green already! P.S. I’m Mookie the Monkey 1
  • 2. What is ENERGY? Energy is the ability to do Work! _______! 2
  • 3. Work occurs when a force! causes an _____ object to _____ in move! the same direction as the force.! 3
  • 4. FORMS OF ENERGY Both basic states of energy, Kinetic and potential, can exist in many forms!!
  • 5. THERMAL (HEAT) The total Kinetic! ________ energy of the particles in matter. (molecular motion)! 6
  • 6. SOUND A type of mechanical energy. It is the energy produced when vibrate! objects ________. Ex: tuning fork, bell! 7
  • 7. MECHANICAL Energy with which moving! objects ______ perform work.! Ex: Wind, flowing water, using a hammer! 8
  • 8. ELECTRICITY A form of energy produced by movement! the ________ electrons! of ________! 9
  • 9. CHEMICAL Energy STORED in chemical bonds! that can ____ be released. Ex: food, fossil fuels, battery acid! 10
  • 10. STORED MECHANICAL ENERGY: Stored energy due to a change in the shape of an object. Ex: ! A stretched rubber band! _______________! 11
  • 11. STORED MECHANICAL ENERGY: 12
  • 12. LIGHT A form of radiant! _______ energy that moves in a wave! ______.! Ex: lamp, stars! 13
  • 13. SOLAR ENERGY All forms of energy that SUN! come from the ______.! 14
  • 14. NUCLEAR Energy STORED in the nucleus! ________ (center) of an atom.! Ex: nuclear bombs! 15
  • 15. GEOTHERMAL (HEAT) Heat energy STORED within Earth! the _____. Ex:! Volcanic eruptions, geysers! 16
  • 16. All forms of energy can be classified as Kinetic or potential. The two basic states of energy. So, what’s the difference?!17
  • 17. POTENTIAL ENERGY 1) Potential energy is stored energy due to and object’s _____________! Position! 21
  • 18. POTENTIAL ENERGY 2) An object that is lifted from its position on Earth gravitational! has __________ potential Energy which depends on height! ______ and mass! 22
  • 19. POTENTIAL ENERGY 3) Massive objects have _____ more! potential energy than less massive objects! 23
  • 20. POTENTIAL ENERGY 4) An object at a higher elevation will have more! _____ potential energy than an object at a lower elevation! 24
  • 21. KINETIC ENERGY 1)  Kinetic is energy of ! Motion! ___________! 25
  • 22. KINETIC ENERGY 2) Kinetic depends on the _____ and the MASS! _______ of an SPEED! object.! 26
  • 23. KINETIC ENERGY 3) Faster objects More! have ____ kinetic energy than slower objects.! 27
  • 24. REVIEW QUESTONS: WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST KINETIC ENERGY? A B D C
  • 25. WHICH SKIIER HAS THE GREATEST POTENTIAL ENERGY? A B D C
  • 26. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS Do you remember the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS AND ENERGY?! 30
  • 27. Law of Conservation of ENERGY: (same for mass) Can’t be made  Mass/ NRG ____________  Mass/ NRG ______________  Can’t be destroyed  Mass/ Energy can only  __________  Change form!!! 
  • 28. DURING ENERGY CHANGES, IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY, Gaining THE OTHER IS _______ ENERGY: THE WAVE LOSES ENERGY: THE SAND GAINS ENERGY
  • 29. DURING ENERGY CHANGES, IF ONE BODYIS LOSING ENERGY THE OTHER IS GAINING ENERGY: THE WAVE LOSES ENERGY: THE SAND GAINS ENERGY
  • 30. DURING ENERGY CHANGES THE TOTAL ENERGY REMAINS THE SAME ENERGY ALWAYS FLOWS FROM HIGH TO LOW (source to sink)
  • 31. THE ENERGY WILL FLOW FROM: THE FLAME TO THE FINGER
  • 32. ENERGY WILL FLOW FROM ICE THE FINGER TO THE ICE
  • 33. THE LIQUID LOSES ENERGY AS THE ICE GAINS ENERGY
  • 34. WHEN WILL THE EXCHANGE OF ENERGY STOP? WHEN EQUILIBRIUM IS REACHED THE LIQUID AND THE ICE REACH THE SAME TEMPERATURE
  • 35. UNUSABLE ENERGY: Very often during the energy transformation process, heat! some ____ energy is produced due to friction. This is wasted energy and is lost to the environment.! 39
  • 36. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS Example: A ! television changes ! electrical NRG! into light and! sound NRG! 40
  • 37. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS 41
  • 38. Do Now: Focused Free Write What is different about how each of the three popcorns? How were they made? Explain!
  • 39. Methods of Energy Transfer
  • 40. Energy moves from regions of high _________ concentration to low ________ concentrations of energy. 44
  • 41. Source _______ To sink _______
  • 42. There are 3 methods of Energy Transfer  Radiation  ConDuction  ConVection
  • 43. ConDuction
  • 44. Explanation of Transfer Direct contact (touch) Molecule To Molecule
  • 45. -Conduction is a form of heat transfer by contact! direct _______ of molecules! 49
  • 46. Best Medium for energy transfer -Conduction occurs solids! fastest in _______! 50
  • 47. metals! are the best -_______ conductors of he heat energy.! 51
  • 48. Examples  Touching a hot surface  Electricity
  • 49. Conduction lab:
  • 50. Con ection
  • 51. Explanation of Transfer Energy transfer Due to Density differences
  • 52. -Convection is a form of heat transfer that occurs by up and down motions of a fluid! _______ due to differences in ______! density! 56
  • 53. Best Medium for energy transfer fluids! -occurs ONLY in _____ which are liquids and gases!! 57
  • 54. Examples  Hot air or water rising  Volcanoes  Lava lamp
  • 55. convection
  • 56.  Radiatio
  • 57. Explanation of Transfer Electromagnetic (EM) waves that move Through a vacuum (empty space)
  • 58. -radiation is the transfer of heat in waves! _____.! 62
  • 59. -Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of ______.! light! 63
  • 60. Best Medium for energy transfer No medium needed
  • 61. Examples Gamma X-rays UV Visible Infrared Microwave radio
  • 62. HEAT NOTES 1. HEAT: the energy of particles! moving __________! 66
  • 63. HEAT NOTES 2. HOT OBJECTS contain more! __________ heat than than cold ones! 67
  • 64. HEAT NOTES 3. All objects above Absolute zero! __________ contain heat! 68
  • 65. HEAT NOTES 4. Heat always flows hotter! from ______ objects to ______ objects cooler! until the objects same! reach _____ temperature.! 69
  • 66. HEAT NOTES 5. The greater the difference in temperature between the two objects, the faster! _________ heat is transferred.! 70
  • 67. HOW IS HEAT TRANSFERRED BETWEEN OBJECTS? 71
  • 68. Heat Transfer at Work
  • 69. Name that type of heat transfer! Conduction! Radiation! Convection! 73
  • 70. Heat Transfer across the globe  http://www.classzone.com/ books/earth_science/terc/ content/visualizations/ es1705/es1705page01.cfm
  • 71. Specific Heat Quantity of heat needed to raise One gram of any Substance by 1 degree Celsius
  • 72. Specific Heat The higher the Specific heat… The more energy is needed to raise the temperature
  • 73. Measuring Specific Heat Energy can be measures in many different ways. Typical units include: Joules ____________________, _________________, & Watts calories ___________________
  • 74. The term “Joule” is named after English Scientist James Prescott Joule who lived from 1818 to 1889. He discovered that Heat is a type of Energy! 1,000 joules =1 kilojoule = 1 Btu
  • 75. Do Now! Read the did you know and complete practice questions 1-10!
  • 76. 1.  What substance has the highest specific heat? Use your Reference Tables Liquid water 4.18 Joules/gramºC
  • 77. 2. Why do metals have low specific heats?  They are solid
  • 78. 3. Why are pans made of metals with low specific heats? Because metals are good Conductors And have low specific heats. Therefore they will heat up quickly and cook your food faster.
  • 79. 4. Which would Take more energy to raise its Temperature, water Or land? water
  • 80. 5. Which would Heat up and cool off Faster, land or water? land
  • 81. Water (liquid) = 4.18 Iron (Fe) = 0.45 Copper (Cu) = 0.38 6. Which of these three substances will heat up fastest? Copper because it has the lowest specific heat
  • 82. 7. Which material would require the greatest amount of heat energy to raise its temperature from 50 C to 100 C? A. 10 grams of granite B. 10 grams of ice C. 10 grams of lead D. 10 grams of iron
  • 83. 8. Which pan would you use if you wanted to cook your food quickly? copper iron Cp = 0.38 Cp = 0.45
  • 84. 9. Which material would require the greatest amount of heat energy to raise its temperature from 50 C to 100 C? A. granite B. ice C. lead D. iron
  • 85. 10. Calculate how many joules would be required to raise 3 grams of water from 50 C to 65 C. 3 x15x 4.18 = =188.1j
  • 86. PHASES OF Matter:
  • 87. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules.
  • 88. A) SOLID B) LIQUID C) GAS
  • 89. Motion How is it Does it have Volume? (Kinetic bonded? A definite energy) shape? Solid Little K.E. Molecules Strong yes yes vibrate More Liquid K.E. Not Molecules bonded no yes move freely rigidly Most Gas K.E. Not no no Molecules move bonded fast
  • 90. What are the changes of phase called? FREEZING solid liquid MELTING CONDENSATION liquid gas VAPORIZATION
  • 91. 2. ENERGY IS RELEASED (lost) DURING: FREEZING SOLID LIQUID CONDENSATION LIQUID GAS from higher K.E. to lower K.E.
  • 92. 3. ENERGY IS ABSORBED (gained) DURING: MELTING SOLID LIQUID VAPORIZATION LIQUID GAS from lower K.ETo higher K.E.
  • 93. Energy stored during a phase change is called Latent heat __________________ No change in temperature 98
  • 94. TAKE OUT YOUR EARTH SCIENCE REFERENCE TABLES 99
  • 95. (Earth Science Reference Tables : front page) Properties of Water
  • 96. Heating Curve of Water VAPORIZATION 100 STEAM temp CONDENSATION 0C WATER MELT 0 FREEZE ICE HEAT ENERGY ADDED (Joules)
  • 97. MELTING / FREEZING SEE EARTH SCIENCE REFERENCE TABLE: Energy is absorbed + 334 J/gram 00 C 00 C - 334 J/gram Energy is released
  • 98. VAPORIZATION/ CONDENSATION Energy is absorbed +2260 J/g 1000 C -2260 J/g 1000 C Energy is released
  • 99. 1. Which phase changes release energy? freezing & condensation 2. Which phase changes absorb energy? Vaporization & melting 3. Which phase has the most K.E.? GAS (STEAM)
  • 100. The Earth is always trying to achieve Equilibrium Energy is constantly being re-distributed flowing from source to sink
  • 101. The Earth Receives Energy from two sources:
  • 102. SUN
  • 103. Radioactive Energy CORE
  • 104. All matter radiates some _____________ Electromagnetic _____________ Energy
  • 105. The sun emits energy in _____ ALL wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum
  • 106. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 107. Each type of energy differs in its wavelength __________ 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 108. A wavelength is the distance between two crests of the wave.
  • 109. Frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time.
  • 110. The Sun gives off light and heat in the form of VISIBLE _________________ and UV __________________ electromagnetic energy.
  • 111. However, the short wavelengths (dangerous UV radiation) are mostly GAMMA absorbed by the ozone so they don’t OZONE reach earth’s surface
  • 112. The Ozone layer is found in the stratosphere _________________ layer of the atmosphere.
  • 113. 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 114. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 115. SHORT WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN THE STRATOSPHERE gamma, X-RAYS OZONE
  • 116. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 117. SHORT WAVE LENGTHS ARE MOSTLY ABSORBED by THE OZONE IN THE STRATOSPHERE gamma, x-rays, UV OZONE
  • 118. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 119. This energy is absorbed by Earth’s surface, which in turn reradiates the energy in the form of heat called infrared ________________ radiation
  • 120. OZONE VISIBLE LIGHT : PASSES THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE WITH THE GREATEST INTENSITY
  • 121. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: REFERENCE TABLE PAGE 14 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 122. 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Increasingwavelength Decreasingwavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 123. Sun emits all Infrared: wavelengths Heat energy that Earth re-radiates
  • 124. How does too Much CO2 contribute to Global warming? CO2 H2 0 VAPOR INFRARED METHANE GAS CO2 absorbs infrared
  • 125. Interactions between Electromagnetic Energy & The Environment:
  • 126. 1. ABSORBTION - UV ABSORBED by OZONE IN STRATOSPHERE INFRARED ABSORBED BY CO2&H2O vaporoxide methane, nitrous 2. REFLECTION - BY CLOUDS, ICE, SNOW & WATER 3. SCATTERING - BY AEROSOLS, WATER DROPLETS, ICE CRYSTALS, AIR POLLUTANTS, DUST, POLLEN 4. LIGHT IS BENT AS IT REFRACTION MOVES THROUGH VARIED DENSITIES 5. TRANSMISSION WHEN ENERGY PASSES THROUGH A MEDIUM
  • 127. 1. ABSORPTION 2. REFLECTION 3.SCATTERING 4. REFRACTION 5. TRANSMISSION
  • 128. Less than half ______of the incoming solar radiation is received by the Earth’s surface
  • 129. Surface properties of the Earth and Absorption of Energy:
  • 130. Reflection vs. Absorption & Radiation Color: Light (white) reflects dark (black) absorbs Texture: Rough surface absorbs smooth surface reflects
  • 131. Absorption   Good absorbers are also good re-radiators.   What type of surface is the best absorber? – Dark Pavement warms before – Rough grassy lawns.   What type of surface is the best reflector of radiation? – Light Snow and Ice reflect – Shiny insolation and remain – Flat cold.
  • 132. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: LAB 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 10 0 10 2 10 4 gamma X ray Microwaves Ultra Infrared violet Radio waves Decreasing wavelength Increasing wavelength visible Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red
  • 133. Spectroscope Lab
  • 134. Greenhouse Effect Short wavelength visible light enters the greenhouse, is absorbed, then re-radiated as longer wavelength infrared (heat). The glass traps the infrared.
  • 135. What is Global Warming? increase An ___________ in the Earth’s Average surface air temperature
  • 136. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT 145
  • 137. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT HEAT IS TRAPPED BY THE GLASS OF THE GREENHOUSE Incoming is Short wave outgoing is Ex: Visible light Longer wave Infrared 146 Energy absorbed
  • 138.  Short wave radiation Visible light like ___________ passes through the glass of a greenhouse and is absorbed _______________ by the objects inside the greenhouse. 147
  • 139.  These objects reradiate __________________ the energy as infrared Long Wave Radiation ___________________ _, which get reflected back into the greenhouse and warms the air. 148
  • 140.  In Earth’s atmosphere, there are many gases that act like the glass of a greenhouse and trap ________ long-wave radiation, keeping it in the Earth’s Atmosphere. These are known as… 149
  • 141. Greenhouse Gases! 150
  • 142. Greenhouse Effect  CO2 and H2O absorb infrared that is re -radiated from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, holding that heat in the atmosphere and raising the global temperature.
  • 143. What are the Greenhouse gases? H2 0 VAPOR CO2 METHANE GAS INFRARED Ozone CFCs
  • 144. Without some greenhouse gases, the Earth would cold be too _____________ for us to survive. But an overload of greenhouse gases creates a problem as well!
  • 145. How does too Much CO2 contribute to Global warming? CO2 H2 0 VAPOR INFRARED METHANE GAS CO2 absorbs infrared
  • 146. Greenhouse Effect  What human activities contribute to CO2 production and an increase in the greenhouse effect? – Burning of fossil fuels – Global deforestation
  • 147. If present trends continue possible effects may include  Rising sea levels due to melting polar ice caps;  Increasing frequency and severity of storms and hurricanes;  More frequent heat waves and droughts; and  Relocation of major crop growing areas.
  • 148. Which of the following best represents the type of energy received by the Earth and the re-emitted by the Earth? A B c
  • 149. Which of the following best represents the type of energy received by the Earth and the re-emitted by the Earth? A B c
  • 150. WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS REPRESENTED BY THE RADIATION AT B? A)  INSOLATION C) VISIBLE LIGHT B) ULTRAVIOLET B A D) INFRARED ENERGY
  • 151. WHICH TYPE OF ENERGY IS REPRESENTED BY THE RADIATION AT B? A)  INSOLATION C) VISIBLE LIGHT B) ULTRAVIOLET B A D) INFRARED ENERGY
  • 152. What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE? An energy resource ! that is Being used faster ________________ than Earth Produces ________________ it! _______.! 161
  • 153. What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE? Examples:! Fossil Fuels, minerals! __________________! 162
  • 154. What is a NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE? To make our non- renewable resources last longer we can Reduce! ________________ Reuse! ________________ Recycle! _____________.! 163
  • 155. What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE? An energy resource ! that is Earth supplies faster ________________ than we use it ________________ “unlimited”!.! _______ 164
  • 156. What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE? Examples: Solar, wind, biomass ________________ (trees etc..)! _______________! 165
  • 157. What is a RENEWABLE RESOURCE? A renewable resource produces less _________ (substance pollution! that can harm living things and/or the environment! 166
  • 158. Look at the pie graph!!!  Only 7% of our energy consumption is from renewable resources!!! Try to make little changes in your life to reduce your dependence on Non-Renewable Resources!  What do you plan to do?

×