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# Earth's dimensions np1

## by West Hollow MS Ms. Gill on Jan 02, 2011

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## Earth's dimensions np1Document Transcript

• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4 UNIT 3: EARTH’S DIMENSIONS  PACKET 4: EARTH’S SPHERES, LATITUDE & LONGITUDE, AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS I get around thetopography with no problem dude!!! … P.S. I’m Rocky HONORS EARTH SCIENCE MS. GILL NOTE PACKET #4 NAME:_______________________ PER:____ DATE: ________ Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4VocabularyEarth DimensionsApparent motionContour linesContour mapCoordinate systemDensityElevationEquatorFieldGradientIsolineLatitudeLocal timeLongitudeMagnitudesMeridiansModelsPollutionPrime meridianProfilesRateScaleSolar insolationStandard error of measurementTidesTime zonesTopographic maps Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4I. Earth’s Spheres: The four spheres of Earth______________________________, _________________________________________________________________, ___________________________________Geosphere: Solid Earth Atmosphere: Gaseous envelope-All interior layers of the Earth, from surrounding the Earththe surface to the corePage 10 in your ESRT Page 14 in your ESRTHydrosphere: All liquid and solid water on the Earth. Biosphere:-Oceans, Lakes, Rivers, Groundwater and ice caps. -All forms of life-Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered -Single celledwith water. Only 3% of that water is fresh water. protozoans to plant life-Page 1 in your ESRT to people Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4 II. Making Accurate Map Projections The earth has a curved surface. This makes it very difficult to accurately depict true distances and directions on flat maps, or map projections. -Mercator Projections show the whole world as one continuous map. True distances are straight lines. Problem: High latitudes are ________________ tremendously. Greenland looks like it is the same size as North America! It’s really only 1/12 as large. -Gnomonic Projections looks like a sheet of paper were laid on earth’s surface. It shows the __________ route between 2 points on earth. Airline pilots use these maps. Problem: Directions & distances are distorted -Polyconic Projections look as if a __________ of paper were laid over the north or south poles. Latitude and longitude lines have a slight curve. Good for making topographic maps. Problem: North is at the top center of the map What is the best map of the earth’s surface? __________________ Best Model for earth’s shape = ________________________ Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4III. Latitude and LongitudeHow do we communicate an exact location on earth’s surface to another person?-A _____________________________ is a system or group of defined imaginary lines forming agrid used for the determination or location of a point on the surface of an object.-_________ intersecting lines are needed to locate a point on a __________ surface.-___________________________________ system used to determine exact locations on thesurface of the Earth.Latitude:a) The ________________________ distance north or south of the equator, measured fromthe center of the earth [the core].b) They are ___________________________ running east-west, but measure north – southc) They are measured in degrees, minutes and seconds.d) Latitude is like climbing a __________________, N is up the ladder, S is down.e)The equator is 0 degrees and the poles are at 90 degrees.Lines of Latitude (parallels) • Lines are parallel to ___________________. • Therefore they are called ___________________. • Lines get ____________ in length as you move away from the ____________. • If you drive ____________ or ______________ along a line of latitude, the altitude of Polaris remains the _______________. Recall the _____________ of Polaris equals the latitude of the _____________. Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4 Longitude a) Is an ________________ distance _________ or _________ of the prime meridian, measured from the center of the earth [the core]. b) Vertical Lines running ___________ - ____________, but measure east-west. c) ____________ east or west of the prime meridian is the largest longitude. d) The prime meridian is 0 degrees and the International Date Line is 180 degrees. e) To help you remember think: Longitude –orange peels –the long way Lines of Longitude (Meridian) • Lines are __________ parallel. • Lines meet at the _____________. • Also called __________________. • Lines are all of _____________ length. • As you travel N & S along a Meridian, your _____________ stays the same. • Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes. • Each minute of a degree is divided into 60 equal parts called seconds. Must Know Facts about writing latitude and longitude coordinates: - Latitude is always given first - Longitude is always given after latitude - Always include units (degrees, minutes, seconds) - Always include compass direction (N, S for Latitude, E, W for Longitude) Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4 Equator: -An imaginary horizontal line circling the Earth halfway between the north and south poles. -It is a ____________________ line for latitude and has a latitude of __________ degree. Prime Meridian: Is an imaginary vertical line from the N pole to S pole that passes through Greenwich, England. It is a reference line for ______________________ and has a longitude of ________degree.Other reference points include the: - _________________, which is the point at 90° North of the equator (very top of earth). - _________________, which is the point 90° South of the equator (very bottom of earth). - The ____________________________________ is 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian, on the direct ________________ side of the earth from the prime meridian. - The Prime Meridian and the International Date form a ________________________ that cuts the earth in ½ vertically. East of the International Date Line is a day earlier with the same time. West of the International Date Line is a day later with the same time Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4Use this Map to answer the following questions ★B ★E ★C ★D ★F ★A1. Draw and label the Prime Meridian, Indicate East and West (becareful)2. Draw and label the International Date Line.3. Highlight the equator,4. Complete the chart below by giving the Latitude and Longitude coordinates for each of thelocations starred on the map. Give your answer to the nearest degree.Point Latitude and LongitudeA 70° S, 137° EBCDEF Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4 Time Zones •The Earth rotates from ___________ to ___________ at a rate of 15°/hour. •Time zones are ______________ up by 1hour/15° •Travel to the west and the time gets ______________ and travel to the east and the time gets ___________. If it is 3:00 PM for a person located on the tip of India, what time is it for people in the following locations? New York: ________ Alaska: ___________ Florida: __________ Italy: _____________ California: _________ The diagram on the right shows the sun’s path in NY during different seasons. On this diagram to the right, label the following: -Summer Solstice -Equinox -Winter Solstice -12PM on each path -9 AM on each path -3 PM on each path -Approximate time of sunrise and sunset Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4Earths Fields and Field MapsDescribing Earth’s Fields•Field– a region which contains _________________ quantities at every location. (i.e. elevation,temperature, pressure)•Field Value– the value of what is being _____________________. (i.e. temperature,elevation, pollution concentrations…)•Magnitude– Value for a point on a _____________.Field Values•Scalar Field– A field described in terms of ____________________ alone (i.e. temperature,pressure, humidity)•Vector Field – A field described with both magnitude and __________________ (i.e. windvelocity, gravity, magnetic fields) Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4IsolineIs a_______________ on a field map that connects all points of equal ___________________. Types of Isolines •Contour Line – Isoline that connects points of equal ___________________ on a contour map. •Isotherm - Isoline that connects points of equal ______________________ on a field map. •Isobar– Isoline that connects points of equal _____________________ on a field map. Isosurface: A _________________ in a field that has the same field __________ throughout. Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4Important Field Map Terms•Topographic Map/Contour Map – A map that uses contour lines to show____________________ and ___________________.•Elevation – Height above ___________(average) sea level.•Contour Interval– Vertical distance, or change in elevation, between two adjacent or_________________ contour lines Scale •The __________________ of a model to the object (i.e. globe to earth). •Use the ______________ on the map as the _______________ to measure that map. Angle of Declination or Magnetic Declination •The angle between ______________ north (geographic north, north pole) and ______________________ north. •The angle of declination __________________ depending on your ____________________ on the earth. General Contour Map Rules -Rule of ‘V’s – as ______________________cross a stream they bend _________________. -The ___________________ the slope the _______________ the lines are to each other. -Topographic maps would be very cluttered if all contour lines were labeled so only heavier lines called __________________ show labels. -Hachure contour lines (lines with tick marks) show depressions – the first hachure is equal to the last contour line passed Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4 Tips on Drawing Isolines  Isolines connect points of equal value.  Isolines are gentle, curving lines- no sharp corners.  Isolines are always closed curves even though the map might only show part of it.  Isolines NEVER cross- this would mean that one point has two different values. Ex: one spot has two temperatures?  Isolines usually are parallel. (They have a parallel trend.)  Always draw an isoline so that the value reading is higher on one side of the line and lower on the other than the value you are drawing  Assume a steady change between neighboring reading when positioning isolines.  Adjacent isolines tend to look alike  Continue drawing an isoline until it reaches the boundary of plotted data or “closes” to form a loop by making it way to it’s starting point.  Isolines never stop or end within a data field, and they never fork, touch or cross one another  Isolines cannot skip values and must always appear in sequence.  Only draw isolines that fall within the range of data reported on the map  Always label all isolinesDraw Isolines connecting the Elevations in the Field Map Below: Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4Gradient-A measure of how a field value __________________ with ____________________.Gradient = Change in field value (formula is on the cover of your ESRT) Distance 100m 10m 10km Show work including the formula here:-Gradient shows how quickly the value changes from one point to another.-A ___________________ gradient changes quickly and the isolines are close together.-A ____________________ gradient changes slowly and the lines are far apart-Circle and label the steep and gentle areas below: Calculate the gradient of the slope along the line drawn in the diagram. Assume that elevations are given in feet. Show work including formula below: 1km=1cm Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4Matching Landforms to their Contours MapsWhat is the pattern of the contour lines around a simple hill?_________________________________________________________________________Identify the features marked at A and B Hachure contour lines (lines with tickA:_____________________________ marks) show depressions – the firstB:_____________________________ hachure is equal to the last contour line passedWhat does this profile show?____________________________ Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4 Profiles -A profile is a side view of an area showing _______________. -Topographic maps show the elevation or vertical distance above sea level of the surface of the Earth -Topographic profile is a side view of this map cut along a particular line. STEPS TO DRAWING A PROFILE 1) Look at line A-B on the map on the following page. If we were to look at a profile view of line AB on our topographic map, what might we expect to see? Predictions? ________________________________________________________________________ 2) Take out a piece of scrap paper and hold the edge along line A-B. Make to small tick marks corresponding with A and B. 3) Make a small tick where each contour line crosses line A-B. Label each tick mark with the correct elevation value! 4) Now it’s time to draw your profile. Make your “x” axis the same exactly length as line A-B 5) Next, decide what the HIGHEST and LOWEST elevation values are that line AB crosses on your topographic map and create a scale. You may wish to increase your scale by the contour interval on the map to make things easier. In this case, we are going up by 10’s, because our contour interval on the map is 10 meters. 6) Hold your scrap paper page up to the profile. Transfer the tick marks directly onto the profile along the corresponding elevations. 7) Connect the dots! Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4 -This is what you might expect the “profile” or cross section view of line AB to look like! -Notice how the line dips below 250m where it crosses Long Creek -Does it make sense? SURE! There is a creek flowing through this region. Think about where it would flow on your profile. We also recognize the V shaped contour lines that indicate the direction of water flow. -The contour lines point up the page (orange), but Long Creek flows down the page. -Contour lines point upstream. Stream flows from high elevation to low elevation. So a stream flows in the opposite direction the contours point Page#___
• Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #4If you are lucky enough to be able to do your profile on the same page as the topographic map… youcan use the drop down method to draw the profile: Same idea, but no need for tick marks and scrap paper! Page#___