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Earths dimension ppt np1

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Earths dimension ppt np1Presentation Transcript

• I get around the topography with no problem dude!!! …
P.S. I’m Rocky
Unit 3: Earth’s Dimensions
• The Earth’s Four Spheres
Geosphere
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
Biosphere
• Geosphere
Solid Earth
All interior layers of the Earth, from the surface to the core.
• See Page 10 in your ESRT!
• Atmosphere
Gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth.
• See Page 14 in your ESRT!
• Hydrosphere
All liquid and solid water on the Earth.
Oceans
Lakes
Rivers
Groundwater…and
Polar and high altitude ice caps.
Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. Only 3% of that water is fresh water.
• Page 1 in your ESRT
• Biosphere
All forms of life
Single celled protozoans to plant life to people.
• Interactions Among The Spheres
• The Spheres of Earth!
Put these in order of increasing density:
Asthenosphere
Hydrosphere
Lithosphere
Geosphere
• In your class work section use your ESRT to come up with a list of similarities and differences between the, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Lithosphere
• Making Accurate Map Projections
• Making Accurate Map Projections
The earth has a curved surface. This makes it very difficult to accurately depict true distances and directions on flat maps, or map projections.
• Mercator Projections
show the whole world as one contiguous map.
True distances are straight lines
Problem: High latitudes are enlarged tremendously. Greenland looks like it is the same size as north America! It’s really only 1/12 as large.
• Gnomonic Projections
looks like a sheet of paper were laid on earth’s surface.
It shows the shortest route between 2 points on earth.
Airline pilots use these maps.
Problem: Directions & distances are distorted
• Polyconic Projections
look as if a cone of paper were laid over the north or south poles.
Latitude and longitude lines have a slight curve.
Good for making topographic maps.
• What is the best map of the earth’s surface?
A globe
Best model of earth’s shape= ping pong ball!
• Latitude and Longitude
• How do we communicate an exact location on earth’s surface to another person?
What information do you need to locate a point on the earth’s surface?
You need a coordinate system!
• Coordinate System
A system or group of defined imaginary lines forming a grid
used for the determination or location of a point on the surface of an object.
Two intersecting lines are needed to locate a point on a 2d surface.
latitude/longitude system used to determine exact locations on the surface of the Earth
• Latitude and Longitude
How can positions on a sphere be located?
• Latitude
Angular distance north or south of the equator, measured from the center of the earth [the core].
They are Horizontal Lines running east-west, but, measure north-south.
Measured in degrees, minutes, and second.
• Latitude
Like climbing a ladder, N is up the ladder S is down
The equator is 0 degrees and the poles are at 90 degrees.
• Latitude
• Latitude
• Latitude lines are parallel to each other and are therefore also called parallels
• Lines get shorter in length as you move away from the equator
• if you drive east or west along a line of latitude, the altitude of Polaris remains the same
• Recall the Altitude of Polaris equals the latitude of the observer
•
• Longitude
Angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured from the center of the earth [the core].
Vertical Lines running north-south through the poles, but, measure east-west.
180° east or west or the prime meridian is the largest longitude there is
The prime meridian is 0 degrees and the International Date Line is 180 degrees.
• Longitude
• Longitude
• orange peels
• the long way
• Longitude
• Lines of Longitude (Meridian)
• lines are not parallel
• lines meet at the poles
• Also called meridians
• Lines are all of equal length
• As you travel N & S along a Meridian your time stays the same
• Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes.
• Each minute of a degree is divided into 60 equal parts called seconds.
• Complete the Activity on p.8
Prime Meridian
East
East
West
Equotor
International Date Line
•
• Equator
An imaginary horizontal line circling the Earth halfway between the north and south poles. It is a
referenceline for latitude.
0° latitude
• Prime Meridian
Imaginary vertical line from the N pole to S pole that passes through Greenwich England
Reference line for longitude
0° Longitude on the Earth.
• Other Reference Points
North Pole – The point at 90°North of the equator. Very top of earth
South Pole – The point 90°South of the equator. Very bottom of earth
• International Date Line
180° East or West of the Prime Meridian
On the direct opposite side of the earth from the prime meridian.
The Prime Meridian and the International Date form a vertical circle that cuts the earth in ½ vertically
• East of the International Date Line is a day earlier with the same time. West of the International Date Line is a day later with the same time
• Time Zones
The Earth rotates from west to east at a rate of 15°/hour.
Time zones are divided up by 1hour/15°
Travel to the west and the time gets earlier and travel to the east and the time gets later.
• Time Zones
+ New Day
- New Day
Noon
AM
PM
10
2
4
6
8
2
4
6
8
10
0o
30o
60o
90o
180o
150o
120o
30o
60o
90o
180o
150o
120o
(GMT)
East
West
• If it is 3:00 PM for a person located on the tip of India, what time is it for people in the following locations?
New York:______________
Middle of Australia:________
Florida: _________________
Italy:___________________
California: ________________
5 AM
7 PM
5 AM
11 AM
2 AM
• The diagram on the right shows the sun’s path in NY during different seasons. On this diagram to the right, label the following:
-Summer Solstice
-Equinox
-Winter Solstice
-12PM on each path
-9 AM on each path
-3 PM on each path
-Approximate time of sunrise and sunset
• Topographic Maps!
• Earths Fields and Field Maps
What is a field?
What is a field map?
• Describing Earth’s Fields
Field – a region which contains measurable quantities at every location. (i.e. elevation, temperature, pressure…)
Field Value – the value of what is being measured. (i.e. temperature, elevation, pollution concentrations…)
Magnitude – Value for a point on a field.
• Field Values (cont.)
Scalar Field – A field described in terms of magnitude alone (i.e. temp., pressure, humidity)
Vector Field – A field described with both magnitude and direction (i.e. wind velocity, gravity, magnetic fields)
• Isolines
A line on a field map that connects all points of equal value.
Note: ES0304
• Types of Isolines
Contour Line – Isoline that connects points of equal elevations on a contour map.
Isotherm - Isoline that connects points of equal temperature on a field map.
Isobar – Isoline that connects points of equal pressure on a field map.
• Isosurface
A surface in a field that has the same field valuethroughout.
• Important Field Map Terms
Topographic map/Contour map – A map that uses contour lines to show elevation and landforms.
Elevation– Height above mean(average) sea level.
Contour interval – Vertical distance, or change in elevation, between adjacent or consecutive contour lines.
• Scale
The ratio of a model to the object. (i.e. globe to earth)
Use the scale on the map as the ruler to measure that map.
• Angle of Declinationor Magnetic Declination
The angle between true north (geographic north, north pole) and magnetic north.
The angle of declination variesdepending on your position on the earth.
• General Contour Map Rules
Rule of ‘V’s – as contour lines cross a stream they bend uphill.
The steeper the slope the closer the lines are to each other.
• CONTOUR LINES BEND WHEN CROSS STREAMS
UPSIDE DOWN V’S POINT UPSTREAM STREAMS FLOW DOWN
• CLOSER CONTOUR LINES = STEEPER GRADIENT
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS WOULD BE VERY CLUTTERED IF ALL CONTOUR LINES WERE LABELED, SO ONLY HEAVIER LINES called an index contour SHOW LABELS
• Rules for Drawing Isolines:
1. Isolines connect points of equal value.
5
5
10
10
10
10
15
15
• 2. Isolines are gentle, curving lines- no sharp corners.
5
5
10
10
10
10
15
15
• 3. Isolines are always closed curves even though the map might only show part of it.
• 4. Isolines NEVER cross- this would mean that one point has two different values. Ex: one spot has two temperatures?
60 °
50 °
40 °
30 °
X
20°
Z
Y
• 5. Isolines usually are parallel. (They have a parallel trend.)
• Visualizations of contour lines
http://geology.asu.edu/~sreynolds/topo_gallery/topo_gallery.htm
• Tips on Drawing Contour Lines
• Always draw a contour line so that elevation reading is higher on one side of the contour line and lower on the other side.
• Assume a steady elevation change between neighboring readings when positioning contour lines.
• Adjacent contour lines tend to look alike.
• Continue drawing a contour line until it reaches the boundary of plotted data or “closes” to form a loop by making its way to its starting point.
• Contour lines never stop or end within a data field, and they never fork, touch or cross one another.
• Contour lines cannot skip values and must always appear in sequence.
• Only draw contour lines that fall within the range of data reported on the map.
• Always label all contour lines.
• 80
80
90
90
80
90
90
100
120
100
80
90
90
120
112
120
80
90
80
90
110
100
Elevations in meters above sea level
90
90
70
80
80
Draw Isolines Connection equal values of elevation
Note: ES0304
• Highlight data points.
• Fill in gaps in data.
• Connect the dots.
• Go on to the next value.
• Making a Contour Map II
• Drawing Contour Maps III
• 100m
90m 10km
=
9m/km
10m
100m – 10m
10km
=
=
10km
Gradient –a measure of how a field value changes with distance.
Change in field value
Distance
Gradient shows how quickly the value changes from one point to another.
• A steep (high)gradient changes quickly and the isolines are close together.
A gentle (low)gradient changes slowly and the lines are far apart.
Steep area
Gentle area
1km=1cm
• Calculate the gradient of the slope along the line drawn in the diagram. Assume that elevations are given in feet. Show work including formula below:
Steep area
Gentle area
1km=1cm
• Making Contours worksheets
http://www.rcmurphy.net/Medina%202005/documents/Contours123.doc
• What is the pattern of the contour lines around a simple hill?
Concentric circles getting smaller - hill
• Identify the features marked at A and B
• Hachure contour lines (lines with tick marks) show depressions – the first hachure is equal to the last contour line passed
20
20
10
• WHAT DOES THIS PROFILE SHOW?
VOLCANO
NOTICE HACHURE DEPRESSION LINES IN CENTER SHOWING VOLCANIC VENT
• Profiles
Profile – a side view of an area showing elevation.
• TOPOGRAPHIC PROFILES
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS SHOW THE ELEVATION OR VERTICAL DISTANCE ABOVE SEA LEVEL OF THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH
TOPOGRAPHIC PROFILE IS A SIDE VIEW OF AN AREA CUT ALONG A PARTICULAR LINE.
• Notice line AB on the next page
• So, if we were to look at a profile view of line AB on our topographic map, what might we expect to see? Predictions?
Time to FIND OUT!
Step 2
• Take out a piece of scrap paper
• Make a small tick at A and B
• Make a small tick where each contour line crosses AB
• Label each tick mark with the correct value!
• Make the X-axis exactly as long as line AB.
• Next, decide what the HIGHEST and LOWEST elevation values are that line AB crosses on your topographic map and create a scale. You may wish to increase your scale by the contour interval on the map to make things easier. In this case, we are going up by 10’s, because our contour interval on the map is 10 meters.
• Remember Labels and Units!
• Hold your scrap paper page up to the profile.
• Transfer the tick marks directly onto the profile.
• straight edge may help
• connect the dots!
• This is what you might expect the “profile” or cross section view of line AB to look like!
Notice how the line dips below 250m where it crosses Long Creek
• Does it make sense? SURE! There is a creek flowing through this region. Think about where it would flow on your profile. We also recognize the V shaped contour lines that indicate the direction of water flow.
• The contour lines point up the page (orange), but Long Creek flows down the page.
• Contour lines point upstream. Stream flows from high elevation to low elevation. So a stream flows in the opposite direction the contours point.
• Or… if you are lucky enough to be able to do your profile on the same page as the topographic map…
You can use the:
“Drop down a dotted line” method!
Example
• Same idea, but no need for tick marks and scrap paper!