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  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Stop here and give class work for double period.
  • Use the demo that Mr. Mckee make

Earthquakes final Earthquakes final Presentation Transcript

  • Dynamics of the Earth
  •  
  • Do Now: You are a geology detective, you are taking a hike in the Appellation Mountains upstate NY… you come across marine fossil in the bed rock and ask your self “How could Marine fossil be found so high in the bedrock… how did they get here? Give an explanation in your notebook.
  • I. Evidence of Crustal Motions:
    • A. ________________ wears down the earth’s crust.____________ _______________ creates new mountains.
    Weathering & Erosion ( Uplift ) Plate tectonics
  • B. Sedimentary beds are deposited as _______________ __(_____ _) Horizontal Layers Strata
  • THIS SEDIMENTARY STRATA SHOWS NO EVIDENCE OF UPLIFT OR CRUSTAL MOTION LAW OF ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY
  • C. Evidence of motions within the Earth’s crust is indicated by: 1._____________ 2._____________ 3._____________ Tilting Folding Faulting
  • TILTING
  • FOLDING
  • FAULTING: OFF SET LAYERS
  • FAULTING
  •  
  • D. ______________ provide direct evidence of crustal movement. Earthquakes
  • World Distribution
  • U.S . Distribution
  • _______ ______ and ________ _______ are 2 changes that can be observed after an earthquake. Fault lines Uplifted land (displaced strata)
  •  
  • EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE
  •  
  •  
  • E. ______ ________ are used in mapping surveys and indicate exact positions and elevations. Bench marks
  • Changes in ________________ of benchmarks are evidence that the land is either ___________ or____________ rising sinking elevation
  • F.Displaced marine fossils found in mountains have 2 interpretations: 1. _____________________________ _______________________________ 2. _____________________________ ________________________________ Higher sea levels covered mountains Rocks were uplifted from a previous ocean bottom
  • G. _____________ is the rising of the crust _____________ is the sinking of the crust Uplift Subsidence
  •  
  • II: EARTHQUAKES
    • 1. The movement of ____________ inside
    • _______________
    • 2. _______________ is the movement of rock along a surface where the rocks are broken.
    A. 2 processes that cause earthquakes: magma volcanoes faulting
    • B. ________ movement of the crust over long periods of time builds ___________
    • within the rocks.
    Slow stress
  • Increased pressure causes the _______ _______ to break creating a ________. Rock strata fault
  • When faulting occurs energy radiates through the earth as _ _______ _ _______ that cause the ground to _______________ Seismic waves vibrate
  • III.Measuring the Earthquakes:
    • A. There are 2 scales to measure earthquakes:
    • 1. ________________
    • 2. ________________
    Mercalli Richter
    • B. _______________ scale is based upon the observations of people and damage caused. It
    • measures ___________
    • of the earthquake from
    • ____ to ____
    Mercalli intensity 1 12
  • Mercalli Scale – Intensity scale I II III IV V VI
    • C._______________
    • uses the seismograp h to determine the ________________
    • Magnitude is the total
    • ______ released by the earthquake.
    Richter Scale magnitude energy
    • Its numerical scale is ____ to ____.
    • Each of the numerical steps represent ____ increase.
    1 10 31X
  • Richter Scale – Magnitude scale
  • Do Now: Read the Mercalli Intensity Scale and the highlighted section of the script.
  • Let’s Use The Mercalli Intensity Scale to Create An Isoseismal Map To Locate the Epicenter of An Earth Quake
  • VII V V VI VIII VI VIII VII VI VIII IV V VII IV VI IV VII VI V V IV
  • V. Parts of the Earthquake:
    • A. The place underground where the break or fault occurs is the _______ of the quake.
    focus
  •  
  • Do Now: Slinky Demo Time!!! Read over the Seismic Wave chart
  •  
  •  
  • Primary (p-wave Secondary (s-waves) Surface Also called… (compressional, shear) Causes the most damage… (Check one) Relative Speed (Slowest, Fastest or Intermediate) Describe the Wave Motion compared to the direction that the wave is traveling. Bonus: In what layers of the earth can they travel?
  •  
    • The __________ is the location along the surface of the earth just above the focus where the earthquake is felt most strongly.
    epicenter
  • A. The 2 most important energy waves are:
    • P-wave or Primary
    • and
    • S-wave or Secondary
  • P-wave Primary Wave S-wave Secondary wave
  • B. Characteristics of Primary Waves (P) waves:
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    Faster than S waves Recorded first travels through both solids and fluids
  • C. Characteristics of Secondary Waves (S) waves:
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    Slower than P waves Recorded after P-wave Can not travel through fluids
  • TYPES OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES
    • D. Both S and P waves travel faster through ___________
    • material.
    denser
  • Do Now: Take out Chart from Slinky Demo. Finish it.
  • VI. Finding the Epicenter:
    • A. The seismograph records the ________________ and
    • ________________________________________
    magnitude Records arrival time of seismic waves Use reference table page 11
  • Seismograph
  •  
  • B. The steps for calculating your distance from the epicenter:
    • 1. ________________________
    • 2. ________________________
    • 3. ________________________
    • 4. ________________________
    Subtract arrival time of P from arrival time of S Mark the interval on Y-axis Slide marks to match P & S curve Follow down to x-axis and read distance
  • 01:10:00 01:20:00 01:18:00 01:24:00
  • Step 1
    • Subtract the arrival time of the P wave from the arrival time of the S wave
    • 01:24:00
    • - 01:18:00
    • 00:06:00
    • Lag time=
    • 6 minutes !!!
  • Step 2
    • Mark the interval on the Y-axis
  • Step 3
    • Slide the marks to match the P and S Curves.
    • Make sure the paper is straight!
  • Step 4
    • Follow down to the X-axis and read distance
  •  
  • Practice questions:
    • 1. The arrival of the P-wave is 12:03:00.
    • The arrival of an S-wave is 12:07:00 the difference is:
    • How far is this earthquake from the seismic station?
    4 minutes 2600 Km
  •  
  • Practice questions:
    • 2. The arrival time of the
    • P-wave is 2:05:00
    • The arrival of the S-wave is 2:08:00
    • the difference is:
    • How far is this earthquake from the seismic station?
    3 minutes 1800 Km
  •  
  • Practice questions:
    • 3. If the difference in arrival
    • time between P and S waves is
    • 2 minutes 35 seconds
    • what is the distance from the earthquake to the
    • Seismograph stations?
    1500 Km
  •  
  • Practice questions:
    • 4. How long does it take for a P-wave to travel from the focus of an earthquake to a seismograph station 2,000 km. away?
    4 minutes
  • Practice questions:
    • 5. What is the difference in arrival time between P and S waves for an earthquake
    • that is 5,000 kilometer away from a seismograph station?
    6 mins 40 secs
  • VII. THE ORIGIN TIME OF AN EARTHQUAKE:
    • A. Earthquake waves detected at _______ times by observers are at _______ distances from the epicenter.
    later greater
  • B. To find the origin time seismologists need to know:
    • 1. _____________________
    • 2. _____________________
    Arrival time of P-wave Travel time of P-wave (how long it took)
  • Example:
    • A seismograph recording station located 5,700 km. from an epicenter.
    • It receives a P-wave at 2:45pm
    • At what time did the earthquake actually occur at the epicenter?
    • First:
    • use the distance to find out
    • the travel time.
    • Then: subtract the travel time from the arrival time.
    The answer is: 9 min . 2:36
  • Do Now: Plot the following City Distance to Epicenter Denver 1.50 x 10 3 Km Tampa 3.80 x 10 3 Km San Diego 0.65 x 10 3 Km
  • Do Now: Plot the following City Distance to Epicenter Wink 1.8 x 10 3 Km New York 1.1 x 10 3 Km Seattle 3.0 x 10 3 Km
  • SF = San Francisco 300 km LV = Las Vegas 390 km LA = Los Angeles 189 km Seismic Stations TRIANGULATION TO FIND THE EPICENTER SF LV LA 300 km
  • Do Now: Focused Free Write: How could you use seismic (P&S) waves to determine if an egg is raw, soft-boiled or hard-boiled without breaking the egg? Explain in 3-4 sentences.
  • VIII. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH:
    • A. The crusts thickness______
    • It is _________________
    • under the oceans and
    • _________ under continents.
    varies thinner thicker
    • Continental crust is mostly_______________, ____________density & __________________
    • The ocean basins are mostly ________ and ______ or ___________
    granitic dark dense basaltic low light
  •  
  • B. Inferred characteristics of Earth’s Interior:
    • 1. Studying the _____________
    • of _____________ ________ allows us to make inferences about the structure and composition of the Earth’s interior.
    transmission Earth Quake Waves
  • S-waves can not pass through liquid
  • P-waves are bent as they pass through the different layers Based on the density of the layer
    • 2. The _____________ of a seismic wave changes with the __________ of the material it travels through.
    • Waves are also ___________ (bent) as they travel through different densities
    velocity density refracted
    • We know that P-waves can be transmitted through
    • ________ _______ & ______
    • S-Waves can be transmitted through ONLY
    • ________________
    solid liquid gas solid
    • 3. Earth Quake Shadow Zones:
    • When an earthquake occurs both
    • ____________ are received from most of the earth.
    • Opposite sides of the earth where the epicenter is, receives
    • ____ but NO _______ because S-waves can not penetrate the _______ outer core.
    S and P waves S P liquid
    • ____________ occurs at the ___________ (boundaries)
    refraction interfaces
  •  
  • L et’s Draw This Diagram in our Notebook :
  •  
  • p-wave arrival at 21:58:30 s-wave arrival at 22:02:45 surface waves
  • Summary
    • p-wave arrival at 21:58:30
    • s-wave arrival at 22:02:45
    • Difference in arrival times — 4 min. 15 sec.
    • Travel Time Curves Distance = 2700 km
    • Actual Distance between Binghamton, NY and Port-Au-Prince, Haiti = 2647 km
  • Volcanoes
    • A Volcano is both the opening in the Earth’s crust through which molten rock flows, and the landform that develops around it.
    • Mt. Etna
  • Where Volcanoes Form
    • 1. At Subduction Boundaries – Subducted plate material melts to form new magma
    • Hot magma is less dense than surrounding rock, so it rises.
    • Magma reaches the surface to form volcanoes
  • Augustine, Alaska
  • Where Volcanoes Form
    • 2. At Divergent Boundaries
    • Magma forms at mid-ocean ridges.
    • Iceland formed as the result of volcanoes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
  • Where Volcanoes Form
    • 3. Hot Spots – Caused by plumes of hot material from deep within the mantle.
    • Hawaiian Islands were formed in this way.
    • As plate moves over hot spot, new islands form.
  • Mauna Loa
  • Kilauea
  • Stromboli
  • Stromboli
  • Paricutin, Mexico
  • Nevada Del Ruiz, Colombia
  • Pacaya, Guatemala
  • Mount Vesuvius
  • Pompeii
  • Crater Lake