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Earthquake Srevised Sci8
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  • 1. Dynamics of the Earth
  • 2.  
  • 3. I. Evidence of Crustal Motions:
    • A. ________________ wears down the earth’s crust.____________ _______________ creates new mountains.
    Weathering & Erosion ( Uplift ) Plate tectonics
  • 4. B. Sedimentary beds are deposited as _______________ __(_____ _) Horizontal Layers Strata
  • 5. THIS SEDIMENTARY STRATA SHOWS NO EVIDENCE OF UPLIFT OR CRUSTAL MOTION LAW OF ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY
  • 6. C. Evidence of motions within the Earth’s crust is indicated by: 1._____________ 2._____________ 3._____________ Tilting Folding Faulting
  • 7. TILTING
  • 8. FOLDING
  • 9. FAULTING: OFF SET LAYERS
  • 10. FAULTING
  • 11.  
  • 12. D. ______________ provide direct evidence of crustal movement. Earthquakes
  • 13. World Distribution
  • 14. U.S . Distribution
  • 15. _______ ______ and ________ _______ are 2 changes that can be observed after an earthquake. Fault lines Uplifted land (displaced strata)
  • 16. EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. E. ______ ________ are used in mapping surveys and indicate exact positions and elevations. Bench marks
  • 20. Changes in ________________ of benchmarks are evidence that the land is either ___________ or____________ rising sinking elevation
  • 21. F.Displaced marine fossils found in mountains have 2 interpretations: 1. _____________________________ _______________________________ 2. _____________________________ ________________________________ Higher sea levels covered mountains Rocks were uplifted from a previous ocean bottom
  • 22. G. _____________ is the rising of the crust _____________ is the sinking of the crust Uplift Subsidence
  • 23. II: EARTHQUAKES
  • 24.
    • 1. The movement of ____________ inside
    • _______________
    • 2. _______________ is the movement of rock along a surface where the rocks are broken.
    A. 2 processes that cause earthquakes: magma volcanoes faulting
  • 25.
    • B. ________ movement of the crust over long periods of time builds ___________
    • within the rocks.
    Slow stress
  • 26. Increased pressure causes the _______ _______ to break creating a ________. Rock strata fault
  • 27. When faulting occurs energy radiates through the earth as _ _______ _ _______ that cause the ground to _______________ Seismic waves vibrate
  • 28. III.Measuring the Earthquakes:
    • A. There are 2 scales to measure earthquakes:
    • 1. ________________
    • 2. ________________
    Mercalli Richter
  • 29.
    • B. _______________ scale is based upon the observations of people and damage caused. It
    • measures ___________
    • of the earthquake from
    • ____ to ____
    Mercalli intensity 1 12
  • 30. Mercalli Scale – Intensity scale I II III IV V VI
  • 31.
    • C._______________
    • uses the seismograp h to determine the ________________
    • Magnitude is the total
    • ______ released by the earthquake.
    Richter Scale magnitude energy
  • 32.
    • Its numerical scale is ____ to ____.
    • Each of the numerical steps represent ____ increase.
    1 10 31X
  • 33. Richter Scale – Magnitude scale
  • 34. V. Parts of the Earthquake:
    • A. The place underground where the break or fault occurs is the _______ of the quake.
    focus
  • 35.  
  • 36.
    • The __________ is the location along the surface of the earth just above the focus where the earthquake is felt most strongly.
    epicenter
  • 37. A. The 2 most important energy waves are:
    • P-wave or Primary
    • and
    • S-wave or Secondary
  • 38. P-wave Primary Wave S-wave Secondary wave
  • 39. B. Characteristics of Primary Waves (P) waves:
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    Faster than S waves Recorded first travels through both solids and fluids
  • 40. C. Characteristics of Secondary Waves (S) waves:
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    Slower than P waves Recorded after P-wave Can not travel through fluids
  • 41. TYPES OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES
  • 42.
    • D. Both S and P waves travel faster through ___________
    • material.
    denser
  • 43. VI. Finding the Epicenter:
    • A. The seismograph records the ________________ and
    • ________________________________________
    magnitude Records arrival time of seismic waves Use reference table page 11
  • 44. Seismograph
  • 45.  
  • 46. SF = San Francisco 300 km LV = Las Vegas 390 km LA = Los Angeles 189 km Seismic Stations TRIANGULATION TO FIND THE EPICENTER SF LV LA 300 km
  • 47. Skip Page 4 in your out line! Start with VIII: The Layers of the Earth
  • 48. VIII. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH:
    • A. The crusts thickness______
    • It is _________________
    • under the oceans and
    • _________ under continents.
    varies thinner thicker
  • 49.
    • Continental crust is mostly_______________, ____________density & __________________
    • The ocean basins are mostly ________ and ______ or ___________
    granitic dark dense basaltic low light
  • 50. B. Inferred characteristics of Earth’s Interior:
    • 1. Studying the _____________
    • of _____________ ________ allows us to make inferences about the structure and composition of the Earth’s interior.
    transmission Earth Quake Waves
  • 51. S-waves can not pass through liquid
  • 52. P-waves are bent as they pass through the different layers Based on the density of the layer
  • 53.
    • 2. The _____________ of a seismic wave changes with the __________ of the material it travels through.
    • Waves are also ___________ (bent) as they travel through different densities
    velocity density refracted
  • 54.
    • We know that P-waves can be transmitted through
    • ________ _______ & ______
    • S-Waves can be transmitted through ONLY
    • ________________
    solid liquid gas solid
  • 55.
    • 3. Earth Quake Shadow Zones:
    • When an earthquake occurs both
    • ____________ are received from most of the earth.
    • Opposite sides of the earth where the epicenter is, receives
    • ____ but NO _______ because S-waves can not penetrate the _______ outer core.
    S and P waves S P liquid
  • 56. S-waves can not pass through liquid
  • 57.
    • ____________ occurs at the ___________ (boundaries)
    refraction interfaces
  • 58.  
  • 59. L et’s Draw This Diagram in our Notebook :