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Earthquake Srevised Sci8

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  • Use the demo that Mr. Mckee make
  • Transcript

    • 1. Dynamics of the Earth
    • 2.  
    • 3. I. Evidence of Crustal Motions:
      • A. ________________ wears down the earth’s crust.____________ _______________ creates new mountains.
      Weathering & Erosion ( Uplift ) Plate tectonics
    • 4. B. Sedimentary beds are deposited as _______________ __(_____ _) Horizontal Layers Strata
    • 5. THIS SEDIMENTARY STRATA SHOWS NO EVIDENCE OF UPLIFT OR CRUSTAL MOTION LAW OF ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY
    • 6. C. Evidence of motions within the Earth’s crust is indicated by: 1._____________ 2._____________ 3._____________ Tilting Folding Faulting
    • 7. TILTING
    • 8. FOLDING
    • 9. FAULTING: OFF SET LAYERS
    • 10. FAULTING
    • 11.  
    • 12. D. ______________ provide direct evidence of crustal movement. Earthquakes
    • 13. World Distribution
    • 14. U.S . Distribution
    • 15. _______ ______ and ________ _______ are 2 changes that can be observed after an earthquake. Fault lines Uplifted land (displaced strata)
    • 16. EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE
    • 17.  
    • 18.  
    • 19. E. ______ ________ are used in mapping surveys and indicate exact positions and elevations. Bench marks
    • 20. Changes in ________________ of benchmarks are evidence that the land is either ___________ or____________ rising sinking elevation
    • 21. F.Displaced marine fossils found in mountains have 2 interpretations: 1. _____________________________ _______________________________ 2. _____________________________ ________________________________ Higher sea levels covered mountains Rocks were uplifted from a previous ocean bottom
    • 22. G. _____________ is the rising of the crust _____________ is the sinking of the crust Uplift Subsidence
    • 23. II: EARTHQUAKES
    • 24.
      • 1. The movement of ____________ inside
      • _______________
      • 2. _______________ is the movement of rock along a surface where the rocks are broken.
      A. 2 processes that cause earthquakes: magma volcanoes faulting
    • 25.
      • B. ________ movement of the crust over long periods of time builds ___________
      • within the rocks.
      Slow stress
    • 26. Increased pressure causes the _______ _______ to break creating a ________. Rock strata fault
    • 27. When faulting occurs energy radiates through the earth as _ _______ _ _______ that cause the ground to _______________ Seismic waves vibrate
    • 28. III.Measuring the Earthquakes:
      • A. There are 2 scales to measure earthquakes:
      • 1. ________________
      • 2. ________________
      Mercalli Richter
    • 29.
      • B. _______________ scale is based upon the observations of people and damage caused. It
      • measures ___________
      • of the earthquake from
      • ____ to ____
      Mercalli intensity 1 12
    • 30. Mercalli Scale – Intensity scale I II III IV V VI
    • 31.
      • C._______________
      • uses the seismograp h to determine the ________________
      • Magnitude is the total
      • ______ released by the earthquake.
      Richter Scale magnitude energy
    • 32.
      • Its numerical scale is ____ to ____.
      • Each of the numerical steps represent ____ increase.
      1 10 31X
    • 33. Richter Scale – Magnitude scale
    • 34. V. Parts of the Earthquake:
      • A. The place underground where the break or fault occurs is the _______ of the quake.
      focus
    • 35.  
    • 36.
      • The __________ is the location along the surface of the earth just above the focus where the earthquake is felt most strongly.
      epicenter
    • 37. A. The 2 most important energy waves are:
      • P-wave or Primary
      • and
      • S-wave or Secondary
    • 38. P-wave Primary Wave S-wave Secondary wave
    • 39. B. Characteristics of Primary Waves (P) waves:
      • _______________________
      • _______________________
      • _______________________
      • _______________________
      Faster than S waves Recorded first travels through both solids and fluids
    • 40. C. Characteristics of Secondary Waves (S) waves:
      • _______________________
      • _______________________
      • _______________________
      • _______________________
      Slower than P waves Recorded after P-wave Can not travel through fluids
    • 41. TYPES OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES
    • 42.
      • D. Both S and P waves travel faster through ___________
      • material.
      denser
    • 43. VI. Finding the Epicenter:
      • A. The seismograph records the ________________ and
      • ________________________________________
      magnitude Records arrival time of seismic waves Use reference table page 11
    • 44. Seismograph
    • 45.  
    • 46. SF = San Francisco 300 km LV = Las Vegas 390 km LA = Los Angeles 189 km Seismic Stations TRIANGULATION TO FIND THE EPICENTER SF LV LA 300 km
    • 47. Skip Page 4 in your out line! Start with VIII: The Layers of the Earth
    • 48. VIII. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH:
      • A. The crusts thickness______
      • It is _________________
      • under the oceans and
      • _________ under continents.
      varies thinner thicker
    • 49.
      • Continental crust is mostly_______________, ____________density & __________________
      • The ocean basins are mostly ________ and ______ or ___________
      granitic dark dense basaltic low light
    • 50. B. Inferred characteristics of Earth’s Interior:
      • 1. Studying the _____________
      • of _____________ ________ allows us to make inferences about the structure and composition of the Earth’s interior.
      transmission Earth Quake Waves
    • 51. S-waves can not pass through liquid
    • 52. P-waves are bent as they pass through the different layers Based on the density of the layer
    • 53.
      • 2. The _____________ of a seismic wave changes with the __________ of the material it travels through.
      • Waves are also ___________ (bent) as they travel through different densities
      velocity density refracted
    • 54.
      • We know that P-waves can be transmitted through
      • ________ _______ & ______
      • S-Waves can be transmitted through ONLY
      • ________________
      solid liquid gas solid
    • 55.
      • 3. Earth Quake Shadow Zones:
      • When an earthquake occurs both
      • ____________ are received from most of the earth.
      • Opposite sides of the earth where the epicenter is, receives
      • ____ but NO _______ because S-waves can not penetrate the _______ outer core.
      S and P waves S P liquid
    • 56. S-waves can not pass through liquid
    • 57.
      • ____________ occurs at the ___________ (boundaries)
      refraction interfaces
    • 58.  
    • 59. L et’s Draw This Diagram in our Notebook :