A. ________________ wears down the earth’s crust.____________ _______________ creates new mountains.
Weathering & Erosion ( Uplift ) Plate tectonics
B. Sedimentary beds are deposited as _______________ __(_____ _) Horizontal Layers Strata
THIS SEDIMENTARY STRATA SHOWS NO EVIDENCE OF UPLIFT OR CRUSTAL MOTION LAW OF ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY
C. Evidence of motions within the Earth’s crust is indicated by: 1._____________ 2._____________ 3._____________ Tilting Folding Faulting
FAULTING: OFF SET LAYERS
D. ______________ provide direct evidence of crustal movement. Earthquakes
U.S . Distribution
_______ ______ and ________ _______ are 2 changes that can be observed after an earthquake. Fault lines Uplifted land (displaced strata)
E. ______ ________ are used in mapping surveys and indicate exact positions and elevations. Bench marks
Changes in ________________ of benchmarks are evidence that the land is either ___________ or____________ rising sinking elevation
F.Displaced marine fossils found in mountains have 2 interpretations: 1. _____________________________ _______________________________ 2. _____________________________ ________________________________ Higher sea levels covered mountains Rocks were uplifted from a previous ocean bottom
G. _____________ is the rising of the crust _____________ is the sinking of the crust Uplift Subsidence
1. The movement of ____________ inside
2. _______________ is the movement of rock along a surface where the rocks are broken.
A. 2 processes that cause earthquakes: magma volcanoes faulting
B. ________ movement of the crust over long periods of time builds ___________
within the rocks.
Increased pressure causes the _______ _______ to break creating a ________. Rock strata fault
When faulting occurs energy radiates through the earth as _ _______ _ _______ that cause the ground to _______________ Seismic waves vibrate
III.Measuring the Earthquakes:
A. There are 2 scales to measure earthquakes:
B. _______________ scale is based upon the observations of people and damage caused. It
of the earthquake from
____ to ____
Mercalli intensity 1 12
Mercalli Scale – Intensity scale I II III IV V VI
uses the seismograp h to determine the ________________
Magnitude is the total
______ released by the earthquake.
Richter Scale magnitude energy
Its numerical scale is ____ to ____.
Each of the numerical steps represent ____ increase.
1 10 31X
Richter Scale – Magnitude scale
V. Parts of the Earthquake:
A. The place underground where the break or fault occurs is the _______ of the quake.
The __________ is the location along the surface of the earth just above the focus where the earthquake is felt most strongly.
A. The 2 most important energy waves are:
P-wave or Primary
S-wave or Secondary
P-wave Primary Wave S-wave Secondary wave
B. Characteristics of Primary Waves (P) waves:
Faster than S waves Recorded first travels through both solids and fluids
C. Characteristics of Secondary Waves (S) waves:
Slower than P waves Recorded after P-wave Can not travel through fluids
TYPES OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES
D. Both S and P waves travel faster through ___________
VI. Finding the Epicenter:
A. The seismograph records the ________________ and
magnitude Records arrival time of seismic waves Use reference table page 11
SF = San Francisco 300 km LV = Las Vegas 390 km LA = Los Angeles 189 km Seismic Stations TRIANGULATION TO FIND THE EPICENTER SF LV LA 300 km
Skip Page 4 in your out line! Start with VIII: The Layers of the Earth
VIII. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH:
A. The crusts thickness______
It is _________________
under the oceans and
_________ under continents.
varies thinner thicker
Continental crust is mostly_______________, ____________density & __________________
The ocean basins are mostly ________ and ______ or ___________
granitic dark dense basaltic low light
B. Inferred characteristics of Earth’s Interior:
1. Studying the _____________
of _____________ ________ allows us to make inferences about the structure and composition of the Earth’s interior.
transmission Earth Quake Waves
S-waves can not pass through liquid
P-waves are bent as they pass through the different layers Based on the density of the layer
2. The _____________ of a seismic wave changes with the __________ of the material it travels through.
Waves are also ___________ (bent) as they travel through different densities
velocity density refracted
We know that P-waves can be transmitted through
________ _______ & ______
S-Waves can be transmitted through ONLY
solid liquid gas solid
3. Earth Quake Shadow Zones:
When an earthquake occurs both
____________ are received from most of the earth.
Opposite sides of the earth where the epicenter is, receives
____ but NO _______ because S-waves can not penetrate the _______ outer core.
S and P waves S P liquid
S-waves can not pass through liquid
____________ occurs at the ___________ (boundaries)