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Earthquake Notes Slide show
 

Earthquake Notes Slide show

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If you are absent you can review the power point slides on your own. Theses are also great to study from.

If you are absent you can review the power point slides on your own. Theses are also great to study from.

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  • Start here on Monday Period 3!!!! We left off discussing this chart and it’s meaning on Page 11 of the Earth Science reference tables.
  • Stop here and give class work for double period.
  • Use the demo that Mr. Mckee make

Earthquake Notes Slide show Earthquake Notes Slide show Presentation Transcript

  • Dynamics of the Earth
  •  
  • I. Evidence of Crustal Motions:
    • A. ________________ wears down the earth’s crust.____________ _______________ creates new mountains.
    Weathering & Erosion ( Uplift ) Plate tectonics
  • B. Sedimentary beds are deposited as _______________ __(_____ _) Horizontal Layers Strata
  • THIS SEDIMENTARY STRATA SHOWS NO EVIDENCE OF UPLIFT OR CRUSTAL MOTION LAW OF ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY
  • C. Evidence of motions within the Earth’s crust is indicated by: 1._____________ 2._____________ 3._____________ Tilting Folding Faulting
  • TILTING
  • FOLDING
  • FAULTING: OFF SET LAYERS
  • FAULTING
  •  
  • D. ______________ provide direct evidence of crustal movement. Earthquakes
  • World Distribution
  • U.S . Distribution
  • _______ ______ and ________ _______ are 2 changes that can be observed after an earthquake. Fault lines Uplifted land (displaced strata)
  • EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE
  •  
  •  
  • E. ______ ________ are used in mapping surveys and indicate exact positions and elevations. Bench marks
  • Changes in ________________ of benchmarks are evidence that the land is either ___________ or____________ rising sinking elevation
  • F.Displaced marine fossils found in mountains have 2 interpretations: 1. _____________________________ _______________________________ 2. _____________________________ ________________________________ Higher sea levels covered mountains Rocks were uplifted from a previous ocean bottom
  • G. _____________ is the rising of the crust _____________ is the sinking of the crust Uplift Subsidence
  • II: EARTHQUAKES
    • 1. The movement of ____________ inside
    • _______________
    • 2. _______________ is the movement of rock along a surface where the rocks are broken.
    A. 2 processes that cause earthquakes: magma volcanoes faulting
    • B. ________ movement of the crust over long periods of time builds ___________
    • within the rocks.
    Slow stress
  • Increased pressure causes the _______ _______ to break creating a ________. Rock strata fault
  • When faulting occurs energy radiates through the earth as _ _______ _ _______ that cause the ground to _______________ Seismic waves vibrate
  • III.Measuring the Earthquakes:
    • A. There are 2 scales to measure earthquakes:
    • 1. ________________
    • 2. ________________
    Mercalli Richter
    • B. _______________ scale is based upon the observations of people and damage caused. It
    • measures ___________
    • of the earthquake from
    • ____ to ____
    Mercalli intensity 1 12
  • Mercalli Scale – Intensity scale I II III IV V VI
    • C._______________
    • uses the seismograp h to determine the ________________
    • Magnitude is the total
    • ______ released by the earthquake.
    Richter Scale magnitude energy
    • Its numerical scale is ____ to ____.
    • Each of the numerical steps represent ____ increase.
    1 10 31X
  • Richter Scale – Magnitude scale
  • V. Parts of the Earthquake:
    • A. The place underground where the break or fault occurs is the _______ of the quake.
    focus
  •  
    • The __________ is the location along the surface of the earth just above the focus where the earthquake is felt most strongly.
    epicenter
  • A. The 2 most important energy waves are:
    • P-wave or Primary
    • and
    • S-wave or Secondary
  • P-wave Primary Wave S-wave Secondary wave
  • B. Characteristics of Primary Waves (P) waves:
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    Faster than S waves Recorded first travels through both solids and fluids
  • C. Characteristics of Secondary Waves (S) waves:
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    • _______________________
    Slower than P waves Recorded after P-wave Can not travel through fluids
  • TYPES OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES
    • D. Both S and P waves travel faster through ___________
    • material.
    denser
  • VI. Finding the Epicenter:
    • A. The seismograph records the ________________ and
    • ________________________________________
    magnitude Records arrival time of seismic waves Use reference table page 11
  • Seismograph
  •  
  • B. The steps for calculating your distance from the epicenter:
    • 1. ________________________
    • 2. ________________________
    • 3. ________________________
    • 4. ________________________
    Subtract arrival time of P from arrival time of S Mark the interval on Y-axis Slide marks to match P & S curve Follow down to x-axis and read distance
  • 01:10:00 01:20:00 01:18:00 01:24:00
  • Step 1
    • Subtract the arrival time of the P wave from the arrival time of the S wave
    • 01:24:00
    • - 01:18:00
    • 00:06:00
    • Lag time=
    • 6 minutes !!!
  • Step 2
    • Mark the interval on the Y-axis
  • Step 3
    • Slide the marks to match the P and S Curves.
    • Make sure the paper is straight!
  • Step 4
    • Follow down to the X-axis and read distance
  •  
  • Practice questions:
    • 1. The arrival of the P-wave is 12:03:00.
    • The arrival of an S-wave is 12:07:00 the difference is:
    • How far is this earthquake from the seismic station?
    4 minutes 2600 Km
  • Practice questions:
    • 2. The arrival time of the
    • P-wave is 2:05:00
    • The arrival of the S-wave is 2:08:00
    • the difference is:
    • How far is this earthquake from the seismic station?
    3 minutes 1800 Km
  • Practice questions:
    • 3. If the difference in arrival
    • time between P and S waves is
    • 2 minutes 35 seconds
    • what is the distance from the earthquake to the
    • Seismograph stations?
    1500 Km
  • Practice questions:
    • 4. How long does it take for a P-wave to travel from the focus of an earthquake to a seismograph station 2,000 km. away?
    4 minutes
  • Practice questions:
    • 5. What is the difference in arrival time between P and S waves for an earthquake
    • that is 5,000 kilometer away from a seismograph station?
    6 mins 40 secs
  • VII. THE ORIGIN TIME OF AN EARTHQUAKE:
    • A. Earthquake waves detected at _______ times by observers are at _______ distances from the epicenter.
    later greater
  • B. To find the origin time seismologists need to know:
    • 1. _____________________
    • 2. _____________________
    Arrival time of P-wave Travel time of P-wave (how long it took)
  • Example:
    • A seismograph recording station located 5,700 km. from an epicenter.
    • It receives a P-wave at 2:45pm
    • At what time did the earthquake actually occur at the epicenter?
    • First:
    • use the distance to find out
    • the travel time.
    • Then: subtract the travel time from the arrival time.
    The answer is: 9 min . 2:36
  • SF = San Francisco 300 km LV = Las Vegas 390 km LA = Los Angeles 189 km Seismic Stations TRIANGULATION TO FIND THE EPICENTER SF LV LA 300 km
  • VIII. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH:
    • A. The crusts thickness______
    • It is _________________
    • under the oceans and
    • _________ under continents.
    varies thinner thicker
    • Continental crust is mostly_______________, ____________density & __________________
    • The ocean basins are mostly ________ and ______ or ___________
    granitic dark dense basaltic low light
  •  
  • B. Inferred characteristics of Earth’s Interior:
    • 1. Studying the _____________
    • of _____________ ________ allows us to make inferences about the structure and composition of the Earth’s interior.
    transmission Earth Quake Waves
  • S-waves can not pass through liquid
  • P-waves are bent as they pass through the different layers Based on the density of the layer
    • 2. The _____________ of a seismic wave changes with the __________ of the material it travels through.
    • Waves are also ___________ (bent) as they travel through different densities
    velocity density refracted
    • We know that P-waves can be transmitted through
    • ________ _______ & ______
    • S-Waves can be transmitted through ONLY
    • ________________
    solid liquid gas solid
    • 3. Earth Quake Shadow Zones:
    • When an earthquake occurs both
    • ____________ are received from most of the earth.
    • Opposite sides of the earth where the epicenter is, receives
    • ____ but NO _______ because S-waves can not penetrate the _______ outer core.
    S and P waves S P liquid
  • S-waves can not pass through liquid
    • ____________ occurs at the ___________ (boundaries)
    refraction interfaces
  •  
  • L et’s Draw This Diagram in our Notebook :