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Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 I. Earth’s Interior: Four Layers (see page 10 of Ref Tables) -__________________: solid, dense, 6,000º C, Iron and Nickel -__________________: Liquid, dense, 3,700º-5,500ºC (increases with depth), Iron and Nickel -__________________: Solid, minerals rich in Fe, Si, Ma, 1,500º - 3,200º C -__________________: upper layer, rigid, lighter rock, <1,000ºC QuickTimeª and a Some terms to know: decompressor are needed to see this picture. - _______________________: Upper layer of the mantle, may act in a semi-fluid (plastic) manner - _________________: (Mohorovicic Discontinuity): The boundary between the mantle and the crust - _______________________: Consists of the crust and the rigid upper mantle Where is the crust thickest? ______________________________ Where is the crust thinnest? _______________________________ Why is the core so hot? -Still retains heat from original formation. -Radioactive materials releasing energy as they decay. -Increased pressure from above What happens to rock density, going from the crust to the core? ______________________ What happens to temperature, going from the crust to the core? ______________________ What happens to pressure, going from the crust to the core? ________________________ Page # ____
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 II. The Theory of Plate Tectonics: The Earth’s lithosphere is made of a number of solid pieces , called ____________ which move in relation to each other. These plates are “riding” on a more “plastic molten” layer below. This layer is called the _____________________________.Theory of Continental Drift:A. Proposed by ___________ ____________ in 1915. It stated that the Earth’s continents separated and collided as they have moved over the surface of the Earth for millions of years.B. Wegener’s evidence for his theory:1. When you line up _____________________ and ________________________ they appear to fit like a puzzle.2. ___________ species have beenfound on widely separated parts of the Earth.3. ___________________ and _______________________ have a good match of ancient continental rocks and tectonic ____________ and ___________ structures.4. Some mountain chains appear to be continuous from ___________________ to __________________Ex. _____________________________ and ______________________________5. Evidence of _________________ climatesEx. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________6. Rocks of the ocean basins are _________________________ then continental rocks. Page # ____
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6A. The _____________________, ___________________ (basaltic) igneous rocks of the crust near the ocean ridges are covered with a thin layer of _________________. Due to seafloor spreading the Earth’s crust is very _________________ near the ridges. The oldest parts of the ocean crust are found far from the _______________ ridges and near the ____________________. Lithospheric plates _________________ in size and are made up of a combination of _______________________ crust and _____________________________ crust.B. The two major Pieces of evidence are for seafloor spreading are:1. ________________________________________________________________2. ________________________________________________________________ When rock hardened it kept the alignment forming a permanent record of the ______________________ ______________________ of the Earth at that time. Rocks found farther from the ridges have a __________________ magnetic polarity. Parallel stripes of ___________________ on either side of these ridges preserve the record of many _____________________ of the Earth’s magnetic field. II. Ocean Floor Spreading:Further evidence of horizontal movement of Earth’s crust.C. The ocean floor has a system of submerged mountain ranges called _________________________________________________ Material from deep within the Earth comes to the surface at the ________________ where is spreads apart to make __________ _____________ ______________ Page # ____
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6Three kinds of plate motion occur at plate boundaries:1.____________________ 2. ____________________ 3. ______________________There are three types of convergent boundaries: 1b. When two ocean plates converge 1a. When ocean collides with continent the the ____________, ____________________ ocean plate dives _______________ ocean plate will _______________________ down under or ____________ into the mantle forming a forming an ___________________ ________________ ________ ____________. 1c. When two continental plates converge the edges of _____________ are crumpled up forming __________________ _____________________. Page # ____
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 2. At _______________ plate boundaries, the plates move __________ and ___________ flows up forming parallel ridges made of ______ ______________ _____________ 3. At transform plate boundaries, the plates move ________________ each other causing shallow ________________ ______________________. Page # ____
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 I. Mantle Convection Cells: The evidence shows that approximately _______ million years ago, the major continents were_______________, and since that time they have been _________________. A convection cell is a stream of heated material that is moving because of ___________ _________________. These convection cells exist in the part of the mantle called the _______________________. The two sources of this heat are: 1. ___________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________ Page # ____
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6Hot Spots:Places on the Earth’s surface where plumes of ________________ are rising up from themantle not located along ________________ ______________ ________________.As a plate passes over a hot spot, a __________ ___ ___________ _______________Forms. The only mountain that _______________ ______________ is the mountainlocated directly over the __________ _____________. Page # ____
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 II. LOCAL EVIDENCE OF CRUSTAL MOTIONS: A. ________________________ & _________________________wears down the Earth’s crust. III. EARTHQUAKES: _________________________ cause earthquakes: A. Two processes that ____________________________ creates new mountains. II. EARTHQUAKES: B. SedimentaryThe movement of _________________________ inside ___________________________. 1. beds are deposited as _________________________ _______________ or A. Two processes that cause earthquakes: 2. _______________________ is the movement of rock along a surface where the rocks are 1. The movement of _________________________ inside ___________________________. broken. _______________________________ 2. _______________________ movement of the of rock along a surface where the rocks are broken. B. ___________________ is the movement crust over long periods of time builds _______________ C. Evidence___________________ movement is indicated by: (label the diagrams) builds _______________ B. of motions within the Earth’spressure causes the over long periods of time crust of the crust within the rocks. Increased ___________________ ______________________ within the rocks. Increased pressure causes the ___________________ ______________________ 1. ______________________ to break creating a _________________________. When faulting occurs energy radiates through to break creating a _________________________. When faulting occurs energy radiates through the the Earth as __________________ ________________ that cause the the ground to Earth as __________________ ________________ that cause ground to ________________. 2. _____________________ ________________. The distribution of earthquakes is primarily along _________________________________________ There are three types of faults: (label the diagrams below) 3. _____________________ D. _______________________________________ provide direct evidence of crustal movement. ____________________ _________________ and ________________ __________________are two changes that can be observed after an earthquake. E. ______________________ ____________________ are used in mapping surveys and indicate exact positions and elevations. Changes in ______________________ of benchmarks are evidence that the land is either _________________________ or _______________________. _____________________________ F. Displaced fossils found in mountains have 2 interpretations: 1. ________________________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________________________ G. _________________________________ is the RISING OF THE CRUST _________________________________is the SINKING OF THE CRUST Page # ____ ____________________________________ _________________________________
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 What Controls the Level of Shaking? ______________________________ : More energy released _______________________________: Shaking decays with distance _______________________________: Amplify the shaking List the effect of earthquakes and give a brief description: 1. _________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________ 7. Will California eventually fall into the ocean??? _______ Page # ____
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 III. MEASURING THE EARTHQUAKES: A. There are 2 scales to measure earthquakes PARTS OF THE EARTHQUAKE: 1. ________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ The _________________________________ occurs is the upon the observations of people and the B. place underground where the break or fault scale is based damage caused. It measures the ____________________ of the earthquake from ______ to ______ _____________ of the quake C. The _________________________ is the location along determine the _____________________ _________________________ uses the seismograph to the Magnitude is the total _______________________ released is felt most strongly surface of the earth just above the focus where the quake by the earthquake. It’s numerical scale is _________ to _________. Each numeric step represents a _______ increase. The two most important energy waves are: ____________________________________________ QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a decompressor decompressor ____________________________________________ are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a decompressor QuickTimeª and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. needed to see this picture. are Characteristics of P-waves (primary) _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Characteristics of S-waves (secondary) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Page # ____ Both S and P waves travel FASTER through ____________________ material.
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 V. FINDING THE EPICENTER: A. The seismograph records the _____________________________ and _____________________________________________________________________________ (Use the chart on page 11 of your reference table) Find the best fit on the curve and read the B. The steps for calculating your distance from the epicenter: distance Mark off the difference in below arrival time of S and P waves on a piece of paper 1. __________________________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________________________ Page # ____ 4. __________________________________________________________________________
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 Practice Questions: 1. The arrival of the P-wave is 12:03:00 The arrival of an S-wave is 12:07:00 The difference is _____________________ How far is this earthquake from this seismic station? ____________________ 2. The arrival time of the P-wave is 2:05:00 The arrival time of the S-wave is 2:08:00 The difference is: _____________________ How far is this earthquake from the seismic station? _______________________ 3. If the difference in arrival time between P and S waves is 2min. 35 sec. What is the distance VIII. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH: A. The crusts thickness to the seismograph station? _________________________ from the earthquake ______________________. 4. How__________________P-wave the oceans It is long does it take for a under to travel from the focus of an earthquake to a seismograph station 2,000 km. away? _______________________________ and ____________________ under the continents. How long will the S-wave take to travel to this same station? ______________________ Continental crust is mostly ____________, __________ density & _________________________ 5. What is basins are mostly ______________ and and S waves for an earthquake that is The ocean the difference in arrival time between P ________________ or __________________ 5,000 kilometers away from the seismograph station? ______________________________ B. Inferred characteristics of the Earth’s Interior: VII. THE ORIGIN TIME OF AN EARTHQUAKE: 1. Studying the ____________________________ of A. An earthquake wave detected at __________________________ times by observers at _____________________ _________________ allows us to make inferences about the structure ____________________ distances from the epicenter. and composition of the Earth’s interior. B. To find the origin time seismologists need to know: 2. The _______________________ of a seismic wave changes with the ________________ of 1. _____________________________________________________________________ the material it travels through. Waves are also ___________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ as they travel through materials with different densities. Example: We know that P-waves can be transmitted through ___________ __________ & ___________ A seismograph recording station located 5,700 kilometers from an epicenter. It receives a P-wave at 2:45 P.M. At what time did the earthquake actually occur at the S-Waves can be transmitted through ONLY ________________ epicenter? Travel time: ______________ Origin time___________________ 3. Earth Quake Shadow Zones: When an earthquake occurs both ____________ are received from most of the earth. Opposite sides of the earth where the epicenter is, receives ____ but NO _______ because S-waves cannot penetrate the ________________ outer core. Page # ____ ______________________ (bending) occurs at the __________________ ( boundaries)
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 Draw a diagram of the earth’s interior and label and describe each layer or part: A- Inner Core: B- Outer Core: C- Moho: D- Mantle: E- Crust: Page # ____
Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6A Volcano is both the opening in the Earth’s crust through which molten rock flows, and IX. Volcanoesthe landform that develops around it. A ______________________ is both the opening in the Earth’s crust through which molten rock flows, and the landform that develops around it. Where volcanoes form: 1. At ____________________________________: Subducted plate material melts to form new magma Hot magma is less dense than surrounding rock, so it rises. Magma reaches the surface to form volcanoes 2. At _______________________________________________: Magma forms at mid-ocean ridges. Iceland formed as the result of volcanoes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. 3. At ___________________________: Caused by plumes of hot material from deep within the mantle. Hawaiian Islands were formed in this way.As plate moves over hot spot, new islands form. Page # ____