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Dynamic Earth Note Packet

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  • 1. Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 UNIT 5: DYNAMIC EARTH  PACKET 6: PLATE TECTONICS, EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES “I feel the Earth move under my feet” p.s. I’m Geno HONORS EARTH SCIENCE MS. GILL NOTE PACKET #6 NAME:_______________________ PER:____ DATE:______ ________ Page # ____
  • 2. Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6Vocabulary:Asthenospherecontact MetamorphismContinental crustConvergentCrustDensityDivergentDown-warpingDynamic EquilibriumEarthquake epicentersEarthquake magnitudeEarthquakesEquilibriumFaultingFoldingHeat enginesHeat flowHot spotsHydrosphereInner coreIsland arcsLithospheric platesMagmaMagnetic patternsMantleMid-ocean ridgeOceanic crustOuter corePlatePlate tectonicsRadioactive materialsRateRefractionResidual heatRock cycleseismic WavesStatic EquilibriumSubduction zoneTectonic forcesTransformTrenchesTsunamisVelocityVolcanoes Page # ____
  • 3. Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 I. Earth’s Interior: Four Layers (see page 10 of Ref Tables) -__________________: solid, dense, 6,000º C, Iron and Nickel -__________________: Liquid, dense, 3,700º-5,500ºC (increases with depth), Iron and Nickel -__________________: Solid, minerals rich in Fe, Si, Ma, 1,500º - 3,200º C -__________________: upper layer, rigid, lighter rock, <1,000ºC QuickTimeª and a Some terms to know: decompressor are needed to see this picture. - _______________________: Upper layer of the mantle, may act in a semi-fluid (plastic) manner - _________________: (Mohorovicic Discontinuity): The boundary between the mantle and the crust - _______________________: Consists of the crust and the rigid upper mantle Where is the crust thickest? ______________________________ Where is the crust thinnest? _______________________________ Why is the core so hot? -Still retains heat from original formation. -Radioactive materials releasing energy as they decay. -Increased pressure from above What happens to rock density, going from the crust to the core? ______________________ What happens to temperature, going from the crust to the core? ______________________ What happens to pressure, going from the crust to the core? ________________________ Page # ____
  • 4. Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 II. The Theory of Plate Tectonics: The Earth’s lithosphere is made of a number of solid pieces , called ____________ which move in relation to each other. These plates are “riding” on a more “plastic molten” layer below. This layer is called the _____________________________.Theory of Continental Drift:A. Proposed by ___________ ____________ in 1915. It stated that the Earth’s continents separated and collided as they have moved over the surface of the Earth for millions of years.B. Wegener’s evidence for his theory:1. When you line up _____________________ and ________________________ they appear to fit like a puzzle.2. ___________ species have beenfound on widely separated parts of the Earth.3. ___________________ and _______________________ have a good match of ancient continental rocks and tectonic ____________ and ___________ structures.4. Some mountain chains appear to be continuous from ___________________ to __________________Ex. _____________________________ and ______________________________5. Evidence of _________________ climatesEx. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________6. Rocks of the ocean basins are _________________________ then continental rocks. Page # ____
  • 5. Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6A. The two major Pieces of evidence are for seafloor spreading are:1. ________________________________________________________________2. ________________________________________________________________ When rock hardened it kept the alignment forming a permanent record of the ______________________ ______________________ of the Earth at that time. Rocks found farther from the ridges have a __________________ magnetic polarity. Parallel stripes of ___________________ on either side of these ridges preserve the record of many _____________________ of the Earth’s magnetic field.B. The _____________________, ___________________ (basaltic) igneous rocks of the crust near the ocean ridges are covered with a thin layer of _________________. This is evidence that the Earth’s crust is very _________________ near the ridges. The oldest parts of the ocean crust are found far from the _______________ ridges and near the ____________________. Lithospheric plates _________________ in size and are made up of a combination of _______________________ crust and _____________________________ crust. II. Ocean Floor Spreading:Further evidence of horizontal movement of Earth’s crust.C. The ocean floor has a system of submerged mountain ranges called __________________________________________ _________________ Material from deep within the Earth comes to the surface at the ________________ where is spreads apart to make __________ ________________ ______________ Page # ____
  • 6. Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6Three kinds of plate motion occur at plate boundaries:1.____________________ 2. ____________________ 3. ______________________There are three types of convergent boundaries: 1b. When two ocean plates converge 1a. When ocean collides with continent the the ____________, ____________________ ocean plate dives _______________ ocean plate will _______________________ down under or ____________ into the mantle forming a forming an ___________________ ________________ ________ ____________. 1c. When two continental plates converge the edges of _____________ are crumpled up forming __________________ _____________________. Page # ____
  • 7. Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 2. At _______________ plate boundaries, the plates move __________ and ___________ flows up forming parallel ridges made of ______ ______________ _____________ 3. At transform plate boundaries, the plates move ________________ each other causing shallow ________________ ______________________. Page # ____
  • 8. Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6 I. Mantle Convection Cells: The evidence shows that approximately _______ million years ago, the major continents were_______________, and since that time they have been _________________. A convection cell is a stream of heated material that is moving because of ___________ _________________. These convection cells exist in the part of the mantle called the _______________________. The two sources of this heat are: 1. ___________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________ Page # ____
  • 9. Unit 5: Dynamic Earth Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #6Hot Spots:Places on the Earth’s surface where plumes of ________________ are rising up from themantle not located along ________________ ______________ ________________.As a plate passes over a hot spot, a __________ ___ ___________ _______________Forms. The only mountain that _______________ ______________ is the mountainlocated directly over the __________ _____________. Page # ____