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Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
Dynamic Earth
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  • 1. The Earth’s Interior
  • 2. The Earth’s Interior
    • Four Layers (see page 10 of Ref Tables)
    • Inner Core : solid, dense, 6,000 º C, Iron and Nickel
    • Outer Core : Liquid, dense, 3,700º-5,500ºC (increases with depth), Iron and Nickel
    • Mantle : Solid, minerals rich in Fe, Si, Ma, 1,500º - 3,200º C
    • Crust : upper layer, rigid, lighter rock, <1,000ºC
  • 3. The Earth’s Interior
    • Some terms to know:
    • Asthenosphere : Upper layer of the mantle, may act in a semi-fluid (plastic) manner
    • Moho (Mohorovicic Discontinuity): The boundary between the mantle and the crust
    • Lithosphere : Consists of the crust and the rigid upper mantle
  • 4. The Earth’s Interior
    • Where is the crust thickest?
    • Mountain Ranges.
    • Where is the crust thinnest?
    • The Ocean Floor.
  • 5. The Earth’s Interior
    • Why is the core so hot?
    • Still retains heat from original formation.
    • Radioactive materials releasing energy as they decay.
    • Increased pressure from above.
  • 6.  
  • 7. The Earth’s Interior
    • What happens to rock density, going from the crust to the core?
    • It increases.
    • What happens to temperature, going from the crust to the core?
    • It increases.
    • What happens to pressure, going from the crust to the core?
    • It increases.
  • 8. Continental Drift and the Origin of Plate Tectonics
  • 9.  
  • 10. Wegener’s Map showing the breakup of Pangea See Reference Table Page 9
  • 11. Note how they fit together
  • 12. I.The Theory of Plate Tectonics :
    • The Earth’s lithosphere is made of a number of solid pieces, called __________ which move in relation to each other.
    plates
  • 13. These plates are “riding”on a more “plastic molten” layer below These plates are “riding”on a more “plastic molten” layer below
  • 14. This plastic molten layer of magma is called the: asthenosphere
  • 15.  
  • 16.
    • 1. Theory of Continental Drift
    • Proposed by _______ ________ in 1915. It stated that the earth’s continents separated and collided as they have moved over the surface of the Earth for millions of years.
    Alfred Wegener
  • 17. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Geographer and Polar Explorer
  • 18.
    • B. Wegener’s evidence for his
    • his theory:
    • 1. When you line up __________
    • and _________
    • they fit like a puzzle.
    S.America Africa
  • 19.  
  • 20. 2. __________ species have been found on widely separated parts of the earth. Fossil
  • 21. 3. Permian fossils are very similar in widely separated continents
  • 22. Cynognathus
  • 23. Lystrosaurus
  • 24.
    • Mt. Sirus
    • Antarctica
    • Lystrosaurus beds
  • 25. Mesosaurus
  • 26. 3. _____________ and ______________ have a good match of ancient continental rocks and tectonic _________ and _________ structures. S. America Africa fault fold
  • 27. 4. Some mountain chains appear to be continuous from ____________ to______________ continent continent
  • 28. 5. Evidence of _________ climates different from present. ancient Ex . Finding coal beds which indicate tropical climates
  • 29. Technology developed during WWII
    • Sonar - image the deep ocean using reflected sound.
    • Magnetometer - detect faint magnetic fields.
    • Developed to search for U-boats
  • 30. World War II Submarine warfare
  • 31.  
  • 32. Harry Hess
    • Geologist at Princeton U.
    • 1962 publishes “geopoetry.”
    • Sea floor spreading hypothesis.
    • Suggested that the ocean floor itself might be moving.
  • 33. Cold War Nuclear Submarines
    • SSN Nautilus
    • 1st nuclear powered submarine
  • 34. Mid-ocean ridge
  • 35.  
  • 36. 6 . Rocks of the ocean basins are _________ than continental rocks. younger
  • 37. II. Ocean Floor Spreading:
    • Further evidence of horizontal movement of earth’s crust:
    • A. The ocean floor has a system of submerged mountain ranges called ______________________
    Mid-Ocean Ridges
  • 38. Material from deep within the earth comes to the surface at the ___________________ where it spreads apart to make ________________. Ocean ridges New ocean crust
  • 39.  
  • 40. Sea floor spreading
  • 41. B. The two major pieces of evidence are: Age of igneous ocean material 1. 2. Reversal of magnetic polarity
  • 42. When rock hardened it kept the alignment forming a permanent record of the ___________________ of the earth at that time. Magnetic field
  • 43.  
  • 44. N S
  • 45. N S
  • 46.  
  • 47. N S Magnetic polarity reversal
  • 48.  
  • 49. Rocks found farther from the ridges have a _____________ magnetic polarity. Parallel stripes of ________________ on either side of these ridges preserve the record of many ____________ of the earth’s magnetic field. reversed magnetism reversals
  • 50. Measuring the Age of the Ocean Floor
    • 1968, establishment of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP).
    • Specially outfitted ship for drilling into the ocean floor and retrieving rock samples.
    • Sediment layers and igneous rock dated to reveal the age of the ocean floor in different places.
  • 51. Deep Sea Drilling Project ship - Glomar Challenger
  • 52. C. The _______ _________ (basaltic) igneous rocks of the crust near the ocean ridges are covered with a thin layer of ____________. dark dense sediment
  • 53. This is evidence that the earth’s crust is very ___________ near the ridges. young
  • 54.  
  • 55.  
  • 56. The oldest parts of the ocean crust are found far from the ___________ ridges and near the _______________ ocean continents
  • 57.  
  • 58. Acceptance of Sea Floor Spreading (Plate Tectonics)
    • 1970’s - rapid confirmation of remaining predictions and acceptance of the basic theory by most geologists.
    • 1980’s - Plate Tectonics becomes the dominant paradigm in geology.
    • 1990’s - Development of a detailed plate tectonic history of the last 700 million years.
  • 59.
    • Lesson 2
  • 60. Lithospheric Plates ___________ in size and are made up of a combination of ___________ crust and ______________ crust vary oceanic continental
  • 61. Three kinds of plate motion occur at plate boundaries:
    • 1. _____________________
    • 2. _____________________
    • 3. _____________________
    convergent divergent transform
  • 62.  
  • 63.  
  • 64.  
  • 65.  
  • 66. Aerial view of the San Andreas fault slicing through the Carrizo Plain in the Temblor Range east of the city of San Luis Obispo. (Photograph by Robert E. Wallace, USGS.)
  • 67.  
  • 68.
      • 1a.When ocean collides with continent the_________ ocean plate dives down under or ____________ into the mantle forming a
      • ___________________
    denser subducts Subduction zone
  • 69. Oceanic-Continental Convergence Ex. Andes in S.America
  • 70. 1b.When two ocean plates converge the _______ ___________ocean plate will __________ forming an ____________ ________ older subduct island arc denser
  • 71. Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence Ex. Indonesia, Phillippines,Japan & Aleutians
  • 72.
    • Called SUBDUCTION
    Continent-Oceanic Crust Collision
  • 73. 1c.When two continental plates converge the edges of _______ are crumpled up forming _________ ________________ both mountains folded
  • 74. Continental-Continental Convergence Ex. Himalayas
  • 75. Himalayas
  • 76. 2.At ____________ plate boundaries, the plates move ___________ and ________ flows up forming parallel ridges made of _______ __________ __________ divergent magma new igneous apart rock
  • 77. Divergent Plate Boundary Ex. Mid-Atlantic Ridge
  • 78.
    • Iceland has a divergent plate boundary running through its middle
    Iceland: An example of continental rifting
  • 79. 3. At ____________ plate boundaries, the plates move ________ each other causing shallow _____________ _______________ transform earth past quakes
  • 80. Transform Plate Boundary Ex. San Andreas Fault of California
  • 81. core III. MANTLE CONVECTION CELLS:
  • 82. These plates are “riding”on a more “plastic molten” layer below III. MANTLE CONVECTION CELLS:
  • 83. The evidence shows that approximately _______ million years ago, the major continents were _______________ 200 connected
  • 84. And since that time they have been __ _________ separating
  • 85. A convection cell is a stream of heated material that is moving because of _________ DENSITY DIFFERENCES
  • 86. These convection cells exist in part of the mantle called the _______________ ASTHENOSPHERE
  • 87. asthenosphere
  • 88. The two sources of this heat are: 1. 2. Residual (leftover) heat from the formation of the Earth Heat generated from radioactive decay from the core of the earth
  • 89. Hot Spots:
    • Places on the Earth’s surface where plumes of __________ are rising up from the mantle not located along ________ _________ ________
    magma active Plate boundaries
  • 90.  
  • 91. As a plate passes over a hot spot, a _______________ _______________ forms CHAIN OF VOLCANIC MOUNTAINS
  • 92.  
  • 93. The tectonic plate moves over a fixed hotspot forming a chain of volcanoes. The volcanoes get younger from one end to the other.
  • 94.  
  • 95. The only mountain that _______ ________ is the mountain located directly over the _____ ______ remains active hot spot

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