Chemistry!
Do Now: <ul><li>Look at your periodic table, what one word to the symbols for these three words spell? </li></ul><ul><li>C...
What is Chemistry? <ul><li>Chemistry is the study of __________and it’s __________. </li></ul><ul><li>But what is matter a...
Matter is… <ul><li>Anything that has ______ and takes up ___________________.  In other words it’s stuff. Not Energy! But ...
Matter is… <ul><li>Stuff that’s made of tiny particles called ______!  </li></ul>atoms
Matter Exists in 4 forms: <ul><li>SOLID </li></ul><ul><li>LIQUID  </li></ul><ul><li>GAS </li></ul><ul><li>PLASMA: </li></u...
Four States of Matter:
Gas <ul><li>Particles have _______ spaces between them. Gases are mostly empty space. </li></ul>large
Gas: (continued) <ul><li>Particles can ___________ in all directions </li></ul><ul><li>Particles _______________ their con...
Liquids! <ul><li>Particles are in contact but they are ____________ as in solids. </li></ul>Not as close
Liquid: (continued) <ul><li>Particles can ___________  </li></ul><ul><li>Past one another, changing their positions. </li>...
Solid <ul><li>Particles are ____________ in an orderly arrangement </li></ul>Tightly Packed
Solid (Continued) <ul><li>Particles __________ but ____________ move freely. </li></ul><ul><li>Solids have a ______  shape...
Changes in State (Phase) <ul><li>Matter can change from one form into another by either changes in _ ______  or changes in...
You must be able to describe all phase changes! Do they require addition or release of heat? Phase Changes
Phase Changes of Water
Heating Curve <ul><li>Each Substance undergoes phase changes at different temperatures!  </li></ul>
Important Fact! <ul><li>The temperature _______ change during a phase change.  This is indicated by a __________ (flat) li...
Part Two: Atomic Structure
Chemistry Review! <ul><li>An  ELEMENT  is: </li></ul><ul><li>A simple ______ substance made from one type of atom that can...
Chemistry Review! <ul><li>2. An  ATOM  is: </li></ul><ul><li>the smallest part of an _______ that retains the properties o...
Chemistry Review! <ul><li>3. A  COMPOUND  is: </li></ul><ul><li>two or more _______ joined ____________. </li></ul>chemica...
Chemistry Review! <ul><li>4. A  MOLECULE  is: </li></ul><ul><li>the smallest part of a _________ that retains the properti...
Chemistry Review! <ul><li>5. A  Chemical Bond  is: </li></ul><ul><li>the ____________ (joining) of atoms.  </li></ul>conne...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>The center of an atom is called the ________. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Particles in th...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!!
Must Know facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>c. The protons have a ________ charge and the neutrons have ___ charge.  </li></ul>...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>d. Tiny _________ orbit the nucleus in specific regions called ___________ or _____...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>e. _____ electrons fit in the first energy level, _______ in the second, and ______...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>f. The number of protons in an atom is called the _____________. </li></ul>Atomic N...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>g. The number of protons and neutrons added together is called the _____________. <...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>h. Atoms without an overall charge are called _______. </li></ul><ul><li>i. Atoms w...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>j. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons (and different atom...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!! Atomic Number Symbol Atomic Mass
Do Now: <ul><li>Put Homework in the box! </li></ul><ul><li>Sit quietly in your seats and wait for Ms. Gaga’s Performance… ...
Must know Facts about Atoms!!! Simple Carbon Atom + 4e- 2e-
A Visual Representation Notice that the same elements can combine in a variety of ways to form new, unique substances that...
THOUGHT QUESTION: <ul><li>Are there more compounds or elements in the world? Explain. </li></ul>There are more compounds.
Structure of the Atom <ul><li>ATOMIC NUMBER </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic number determines the __________ of the element. ...
Structure of the Atom <ul><li>In a NEUTRAL atom with no charge, the electrons ________ the protons. </li></ul>equal
Structure of the Atom <ul><li>Use your notes to label the diagram! </li></ul>
Structure of the Atom <ul><li>The center of the atom is called the _______ </li></ul><ul><li>It is a cluster of ________ &...
Structure of the Atom <ul><li>If you add the number of protons and the number of neutrons you get the _____________ </li><...
Structure of the Atom <ul><li>The number of _______ can be obtained by subtracting the proton number from the atomic mass....
Structure of the Atom <ul><li>The rings represent different regions around the nucleus called energy levels, shells or ___...
Structure of the Atom <ul><li>Let’s read the explanation paragraph at the bottom of the page! </li></ul>
Do Now: Focused Free Write <ul><li>Today is Twin day…. Explain how even though you are wearing the same clothes, that I ca...
Diagram of an Atom <ul><li>Use this page to review vocabulary and to complete the Atomic Structure  Activity on the next p...
The Periodic Table
Look at this page:
Elements and the Periodic Table: 1.  PERIODIC TABLE : a chart which organizes elements by their _________. Atomic #
Elements and the Periodic Table: 2.  METALLOIDS : elements that are located along the ________. They have properties of __...
Elements & the Periodic Table: 3.  A NON-METAL : an element located to the _____ of the staircase elements which is usuall...
Elements & the Periodic Table: 4.  A METAL : is located to the ______ of the staircase. Metals are usually _______ and goo...
Elements & the Periodic Table: <ul><li>4.  Metals  (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>They are _______, which means they can be...
Elements & the Periodic Table: 5.  NOBLE GASES:  belong in group ___ . They are _______, which means they ________ react w...
Do Now: Debate <ul><li>Why does ice float in water? </li></ul><ul><li>This is confusing because solid are usually denser t...
Elements & the Periodic Table: Use your periodic table to complete  the information in the chart.
Part Three: Chemical Reactions
Why do Atoms form Chemical Bonds? <ul><li>To get a “full” Valence shell of electrons </li></ul>
Valence Electrons <ul><li>Electrons located in the outermost energy level of a given atom </li></ul>
Sodium (Na) P=___ N=___ 11 12 2e- Valence  Electrons 8e- 1e-
Chlorine (Cl) P=___ N=___ 17 18 2e- Valence  Electrons 8e- 7e-
Valence Electrons <ul><li>Atoms need to have FULL valence shells or they will react with other substances! </li></ul>
Valence Electrons <ul><li>How many valence electrons are in one sodium atom? ______  </li></ul><ul><li>Is it full? _____  ...
Valence Electrons <ul><li>How many valence electrons are in one chlorine atom? ______  </li></ul><ul><li>Is it full? _____...
Valence Electrons <ul><li>Sodium will donate (give away) it’s one valence electron to chlorine. This way both atoms will h...
Valence Electrons <ul><li>When this happens, sodium will become a +1 ION and chlorine will become a -1 ION. Since opposite...
 
Ion: <ul><li>A charged atom (either because electrons are lost or gained!) </li></ul>
Ionic Bond: <ul><li>The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions </li></ul>
However, <ul><li>Some atoms do not transfer or donate their electrons. Instead, the share their electrons! this is called…...
 
Covalent Bond: <ul><li>A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons </li></ul>
<ul><li>One oxygen atom will form covalent bonds with two hydrogen atoms to form one molecule of water. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Oxygen (8) P=___ N=___ 8 8 2e- Valence  Electrons 6e-
Hydrogen (1) P=___ N=___ 1 0 Valence  Electrons 1e-
Complete the THOUGHT QUESTION on the bottom or your page : <ul><li>Helium and Neon never form compounds? Explain why. (Hin...
Important Fact: <ul><li>When atoms form chemical bonds, the properties of the elements __________! </li></ul>change
Important Fact: <ul><li>For example, sodium is highly reactive metal and chlorine is a greenish gas. However, when they ch...
Chemical Reactions Notes <ul><li>Chemical Reaction: When _____ are ____ or ______to form new ___________ </li></ul>bonds s...
Turn the page! <ul><li>Lets look at this cartoon which models different kinds of chemical reactions. </li></ul>
Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 1. A  SPONTANEOUS  ________ change.  I’m not talking about painting a house...
Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 2. A  SPONTANEOUS   production of energy such as _______ or ____. If you mi...
Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 3. The production of a ____________! This is when you mix two liquids and g...
Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 4. The formation of a _____. Bubbles and fizzing indicate the formation of ...
Do now: What do call these two atoms? (hint compare the nucleus)  Protons Neutrons Isotopes!!
Label the following: positive ion, negative ion, neutral atom Protons Neutrons Electrons Negative Ion,  because there are ...
Label the following: positive ion, negative ion, neutral atom Protons Neutrons Electrons Positive Ion,  because there are ...
Label the following: positive ion, negative ion, neutral atom Protons Neutrons Electrons Neutral Atom,  because the electr...
Writing Chemical Equations: A CHEMICAL EQUATION is a ______________ way of showing showing what’s happening during a chemi...
Writing Chemical Equations: Scientist are busy!!! They can’t write out everything!  Its just like how you text message you...
Do Now! <ul><li>Keep Homework on your desk… </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Part One of the Do Now Ditto! </li></ul><ul><li>It ...
Helpful Terms: 1. REACTANT: a __________ material. Reactants are written BEFORE the arrow starting
Helpful Terms: 2. PRODUCT: an ________ material. Products are written after the arrow.  ending
Helpful Terms: 3. COEFFICIENT: A number placed __________ an atom or molecule to show the amount of each atom or molecule....
Helpful Terms: 4. SUBSCRIPT: A small number placed in the lower______ of a chemical symbol to show the number of atoms of ...
Helpful Terms: 5. A BALANCED EQUATION: When writing a chemical equation the number of atoms on the reactant side MUST ____...
Law of Conservation of Mass: (same for mass) Mass/ NRG ____________ Mass/ NRG ______________ Mass/ Energy can only _______...
Law of Conservation of Mass: (same for mass) CH 4  + 2O 2   CO 2   + 2H 2 0 C=1  C=1 H=4  =  H=4 O=4  O=4 The equation dem...
Classwork!!! Determine the number of atoms in the following chemical formulas.
Do Now: <ul><li>Answer do now questions on the catalyst review demo… </li></ul>
Reaction Rates What factors affect how quickly or slowly a reaction takes place? Factor #1 _____________________ Factor #2...
Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 1. TEMPERATURE is a measure of the ave...
Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>TEMPERATURE: The greater the t...
Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 2. SURFACE AREA: is the amount of an o...
Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 2.  Surface Area: The greater the surf...
Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 3.  CONCENTRATION: refers to the amoun...
Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 3.  Concentration: The greater the con...
Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>The ADDITION OF A CATALYST:  <...
Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>The ADDITION OF A INHIBITOR:  ...
Do Now: Free Write! <ul><li>Is it possible to produce (make heat) with out adding something that is already hot (like the ...
Lab today <ul><li>Chemical Reactions! Lets read the directions together! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to wear your goggl...
Do Now: Tell me what you think! <ul><li>Let’s take a quick break from chemistry… Instead check out my awesome new lava lam...
Mixtures Review!!!
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>1.  MIXTURE :  </li></ul>When two or more substances  are joined (combined) physically not chem...
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>2.  State two ways that mixtures are different from compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>a) The substan...
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>2.  State two ways that mixtures are different from compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Mixtures ca...
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>3. What are the two types of mixtures? </li></ul><ul><li>a)  Heterogeneous:  </li></ul>A soluti...
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>3. What are the two types of mixtures? </li></ul><ul><li>a)  Homogeneous:  </li></ul>A solution...
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>4.  Dissolving:  The process in which particles spread _______ in a mixture.  </li></ul>evenly
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>5.  Solution : a ____________ mixture in which one substance called a ______ is _____________ i...
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>6.  Dilute:  A solution with a _______ amount of solute </li></ul><ul><li>7.  Concentrated : A ...
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>8.  Unsaturated:  a solution that contains ____ solute than it can hold at a given temperature....
Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>10.  Supersaturated:  A _________ solution that contains _____ solute than it normally does at ...
Factors that affect solubility! <ul><li>a. TEMPERATURE: </li></ul>Higher temperatures     Higher Solubility
Factors that affect solubility! <ul><li>b. SURFACE AREA: </li></ul>Greater surface area    Higher solubility
Factors that affect solubility! <ul><li>c. STIRRING: </li></ul>Stirring will increase the reaction rate.
Factors that affect solubility! <ul><li>d. PRESSURE: </li></ul>An increase in pressure can increase the amount of gas that...
Do Now: Use this Cartoon to make a Acid Vs Bases Chart
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>1. INDICATOR:  </li></ul>A substance that detects the presence of an acid ...
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>Common Indicators to detect the presence of an acid or base: </li></ul><ul...
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>Common Indicators to detect the presence of an acid or base: </li></ul><ul...
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>Common Indicators to detect the presence of an acid or base: </li></ul><ul...
 
Characteristics of Acids and Bases: pH paper (numerical scale) The juice of Red Cabbage Hydrogen (H+)  bitter red blue bel...
 
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>2. pH Scale:  </li></ul><ul><li>A scale used for measuring the _________ o...
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>2. pH Scale:  </li></ul><ul><li>c. Any value less than ___ represents an _...
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>2. pH Scale:  </li></ul><ul><li>d. Any value more than __ represents a ___...
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>2. pH Scale:  </li></ul><ul><li>e. A substance with a value of 7 is called...
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions
Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>3. Neutralization Reaction:  </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction of an acid and...
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Transcript of "Chem packet 3"

  1. 1. Chemistry!
  2. 2. Do Now: <ul><li>Look at your periodic table, what one word to the symbols for these three words spell? </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Neodymium </li></ul><ul><li>Yttirium </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Chemistry? <ul><li>Chemistry is the study of __________and it’s __________. </li></ul><ul><li>But what is matter anyway? </li></ul>matter reactivity
  4. 4. Matter is… <ul><li>Anything that has ______ and takes up ___________________. In other words it’s stuff. Not Energy! But Stuff! </li></ul>mass Space (volume)
  5. 5. Matter is… <ul><li>Stuff that’s made of tiny particles called ______! </li></ul>atoms
  6. 6. Matter Exists in 4 forms: <ul><li>SOLID </li></ul><ul><li>LIQUID </li></ul><ul><li>GAS </li></ul><ul><li>PLASMA: </li></ul>Most important on Earth, we will focus on these. an ionized charged gas. Most common in the universe.
  7. 7. Four States of Matter:
  8. 8. Gas <ul><li>Particles have _______ spaces between them. Gases are mostly empty space. </li></ul>large
  9. 9. Gas: (continued) <ul><li>Particles can ___________ in all directions </li></ul><ul><li>Particles _______________ their containers </li></ul><ul><li>_________ energy </li></ul>Move freely Expand to fill Highest
  10. 10. Liquids! <ul><li>Particles are in contact but they are ____________ as in solids. </li></ul>Not as close
  11. 11. Liquid: (continued) <ul><li>Particles can ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>Past one another, changing their positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids _______________ their containers </li></ul>Slip and slide Take the shape of
  12. 12. Solid <ul><li>Particles are ____________ in an orderly arrangement </li></ul>Tightly Packed
  13. 13. Solid (Continued) <ul><li>Particles __________ but ____________ move freely. </li></ul><ul><li>Solids have a ______ shape </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul>Vibrate do not definite Lowest Energy
  14. 14. Changes in State (Phase) <ul><li>Matter can change from one form into another by either changes in _ ______ or changes in ___________ . </li></ul>Pressure Temperature
  15. 15. You must be able to describe all phase changes! Do they require addition or release of heat? Phase Changes
  16. 16. Phase Changes of Water
  17. 17. Heating Curve <ul><li>Each Substance undergoes phase changes at different temperatures! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Important Fact! <ul><li>The temperature _______ change during a phase change. This is indicated by a __________ (flat) line on a heating curve. </li></ul>does not horizontal
  19. 19. Part Two: Atomic Structure
  20. 20. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>An ELEMENT is: </li></ul><ul><li>A simple ______ substance made from one type of atom that can’t be further broken down. </li></ul>pure
  21. 21. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>2. An ATOM is: </li></ul><ul><li>the smallest part of an _______ that retains the properties of the element. </li></ul>element
  22. 22. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>3. A COMPOUND is: </li></ul><ul><li>two or more _______ joined ____________. </li></ul>chemically elements
  23. 23. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>4. A MOLECULE is: </li></ul><ul><li>the smallest part of a _________ that retains the properties of the compound. </li></ul>compound
  24. 24. Chemistry Review! <ul><li>5. A Chemical Bond is: </li></ul><ul><li>the ____________ (joining) of atoms. </li></ul>connection
  25. 25. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>The center of an atom is called the ________. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Particles in the nucleus are the ______ and the _______ </li></ul>nucleus protons neutrons
  26. 26. Must know Facts about Atoms!!!
  27. 27. Must Know facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>c. The protons have a ________ charge and the neutrons have ___ charge. </li></ul>positive no
  28. 28. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>d. Tiny _________ orbit the nucleus in specific regions called ___________ or _______. These particles have a ________ charge. </li></ul>electrons energy levels Orbitals negative
  29. 29. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>e. _____ electrons fit in the first energy level, _______ in the second, and _______ in the third. </li></ul>Two eight eight
  30. 30. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>f. The number of protons in an atom is called the _____________. </li></ul>Atomic Number Atomic Number Symbol
  31. 31. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>g. The number of protons and neutrons added together is called the _____________. </li></ul>Atomic Mass
  32. 32. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>h. Atoms without an overall charge are called _______. </li></ul><ul><li>i. Atoms with an overall charge are called ______. </li></ul>neutral ions
  33. 33. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! <ul><li>j. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons (and different atomic masses) are called _____________. </li></ul>isotopes
  34. 34. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! Atomic Number Symbol Atomic Mass
  35. 35. Do Now: <ul><li>Put Homework in the box! </li></ul><ul><li>Sit quietly in your seats and wait for Ms. Gaga’s Performance… you must be very very quiet or she will not perform! </li></ul>
  36. 36. Must know Facts about Atoms!!! Simple Carbon Atom + 4e- 2e-
  37. 37. A Visual Representation Notice that the same elements can combine in a variety of ways to form new, unique substances that have different chemical properties!
  38. 38. THOUGHT QUESTION: <ul><li>Are there more compounds or elements in the world? Explain. </li></ul>There are more compounds.
  39. 39. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>ATOMIC NUMBER </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic number determines the __________ of the element. </li></ul>Identity
  40. 40. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>In a NEUTRAL atom with no charge, the electrons ________ the protons. </li></ul>equal
  41. 41. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>Use your notes to label the diagram! </li></ul>
  42. 42. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>The center of the atom is called the _______ </li></ul><ul><li>It is a cluster of ________ & ________ </li></ul>Nucleus (0 charge) (+ charge) Neutrons Protons
  43. 43. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>If you add the number of protons and the number of neutrons you get the _____________ </li></ul>Atomic Mass
  44. 44. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>The number of _______ can be obtained by subtracting the proton number from the atomic mass. </li></ul>neutrons
  45. 45. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>The rings represent different regions around the nucleus called energy levels, shells or _____________ </li></ul>Orbitals
  46. 46. Structure of the Atom <ul><li>Let’s read the explanation paragraph at the bottom of the page! </li></ul>
  47. 47. Do Now: Focused Free Write <ul><li>Today is Twin day…. Explain how even though you are wearing the same clothes, that I can still tell you apart. Relate this concept to what you know about chemistry. Hint: use words such as “compound” “element” “isotope” “properties” </li></ul>
  48. 48. Diagram of an Atom <ul><li>Use this page to review vocabulary and to complete the Atomic Structure Activity on the next page! </li></ul>
  49. 49. The Periodic Table
  50. 50. Look at this page:
  51. 51. Elements and the Periodic Table: 1. PERIODIC TABLE : a chart which organizes elements by their _________. Atomic #
  52. 52. Elements and the Periodic Table: 2. METALLOIDS : elements that are located along the ________. They have properties of ________ metals and non-metals. staircase both
  53. 53. Elements & the Periodic Table: 3. A NON-METAL : an element located to the _____ of the staircase elements which is usually ____, ________ and a ______ conductor or energy. ________________ right dull brittle (or they are a gas) poor
  54. 54. Elements & the Periodic Table: 4. A METAL : is located to the ______ of the staircase. Metals are usually _______ and good _________ of energy. left shiny conductors
  55. 55. Elements & the Periodic Table: <ul><li>4. Metals (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>They are _______, which means they can be drawn into thin ______. </li></ul><ul><li>They are ________, which means they can be hammered into thin sheets. </li></ul>ductile wires malleable
  56. 56. Elements & the Periodic Table: 5. NOBLE GASES: belong in group ___ . They are _______, which means they ________ react with any other elements. They’re SNOBS!!! 18 inert DO NOT
  57. 57. Do Now: Debate <ul><li>Why does ice float in water? </li></ul><ul><li>This is confusing because solid are usually denser than liquids… think about this!!! Isn’t water wacky!!! What do you think? </li></ul>
  58. 58. Elements & the Periodic Table: Use your periodic table to complete the information in the chart.
  59. 59. Part Three: Chemical Reactions
  60. 60. Why do Atoms form Chemical Bonds? <ul><li>To get a “full” Valence shell of electrons </li></ul>
  61. 61. Valence Electrons <ul><li>Electrons located in the outermost energy level of a given atom </li></ul>
  62. 62. Sodium (Na) P=___ N=___ 11 12 2e- Valence Electrons 8e- 1e-
  63. 63. Chlorine (Cl) P=___ N=___ 17 18 2e- Valence Electrons 8e- 7e-
  64. 64. Valence Electrons <ul><li>Atoms need to have FULL valence shells or they will react with other substances! </li></ul>
  65. 65. Valence Electrons <ul><li>How many valence electrons are in one sodium atom? ______ </li></ul><ul><li>Is it full? _____ </li></ul><ul><li>Will sodium react?_____ </li></ul>1 No Yes
  66. 66. Valence Electrons <ul><li>How many valence electrons are in one chlorine atom? ______ </li></ul><ul><li>Is it full? _____ </li></ul><ul><li>Will sodium react?_____ </li></ul>7 No Yes
  67. 67. Valence Electrons <ul><li>Sodium will donate (give away) it’s one valence electron to chlorine. This way both atoms will have their out shell filled! </li></ul>
  68. 68. Valence Electrons <ul><li>When this happens, sodium will become a +1 ION and chlorine will become a -1 ION. Since opposite charges attract, sodium and chlorine will form an… </li></ul>
  69. 70. Ion: <ul><li>A charged atom (either because electrons are lost or gained!) </li></ul>
  70. 71. Ionic Bond: <ul><li>The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions </li></ul>
  71. 72. However, <ul><li>Some atoms do not transfer or donate their electrons. Instead, the share their electrons! this is called… </li></ul>
  72. 74. Covalent Bond: <ul><li>A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons </li></ul>
  73. 75. <ul><li>One oxygen atom will form covalent bonds with two hydrogen atoms to form one molecule of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Lets draw it! </li></ul>
  74. 76. Oxygen (8) P=___ N=___ 8 8 2e- Valence Electrons 6e-
  75. 77. Hydrogen (1) P=___ N=___ 1 0 Valence Electrons 1e-
  76. 78. Complete the THOUGHT QUESTION on the bottom or your page : <ul><li>Helium and Neon never form compounds? Explain why. (Hint: you may need to draw the atoms) </li></ul>They have a full valence shell.
  77. 79. Important Fact: <ul><li>When atoms form chemical bonds, the properties of the elements __________! </li></ul>change
  78. 80. Important Fact: <ul><li>For example, sodium is highly reactive metal and chlorine is a greenish gas. However, when they chemically form crystalline salt! </li></ul>
  79. 81. Chemical Reactions Notes <ul><li>Chemical Reaction: When _____ are ____ or ______to form new ___________ </li></ul>bonds substances broken made
  80. 82. Turn the page! <ul><li>Lets look at this cartoon which models different kinds of chemical reactions. </li></ul>
  81. 83. Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 1. A SPONTANEOUS ________ change. I’m not talking about painting a house! It’s a change that happens on its own like a apple that turns brown in the air color
  82. 84. Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 2. A SPONTANEOUS production of energy such as _______ or ____. If you mix two substances without Adding or Removing heat and you notice a temp change or light. Bingo!!! Heat Light
  83. 85. Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 3. The production of a ____________! This is when you mix two liquids and get the formation of a solid substance. This is seldom in everyday life! Precipitate
  84. 86. Clues that would indicate a chemical reaction: 4. The formation of a _____. Bubbles and fizzing indicate the formation of new substance. Bubbles during boiling do not count! Phase changes are physical changes! Gas
  85. 87. Do now: What do call these two atoms? (hint compare the nucleus) Protons Neutrons Isotopes!!
  86. 88. Label the following: positive ion, negative ion, neutral atom Protons Neutrons Electrons Negative Ion, because there are more electrons than protons!
  87. 89. Label the following: positive ion, negative ion, neutral atom Protons Neutrons Electrons Positive Ion, because there are more protons than electrons!
  88. 90. Label the following: positive ion, negative ion, neutral atom Protons Neutrons Electrons Neutral Atom, because the electrons equal the protons!
  89. 91. Writing Chemical Equations: A CHEMICAL EQUATION is a ______________ way of showing showing what’s happening during a chemical reaction. Short- hand
  90. 92. Writing Chemical Equations: Scientist are busy!!! They can’t write out everything! Its just like how you text message your friends… TTYL… LOL… J/K… Please read the box…
  91. 93. Do Now! <ul><li>Keep Homework on your desk… </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Part One of the Do Now Ditto! </li></ul><ul><li>It is very warm in here today… please be quiet so that it cools down in here ! </li></ul>
  92. 94. Helpful Terms: 1. REACTANT: a __________ material. Reactants are written BEFORE the arrow starting
  93. 95. Helpful Terms: 2. PRODUCT: an ________ material. Products are written after the arrow. ending
  94. 96. Helpful Terms: 3. COEFFICIENT: A number placed __________ an atom or molecule to show the amount of each atom or molecule. ( Doesn’t jump the plus sign) in front of
  95. 97. Helpful Terms: 4. SUBSCRIPT: A small number placed in the lower______ of a chemical symbol to show the number of atoms of the element. It only applies to the element to the left of it! right
  96. 98. Helpful Terms: 5. A BALANCED EQUATION: When writing a chemical equation the number of atoms on the reactant side MUST _____ the number on the product side? Why? equal
  97. 99. Law of Conservation of Mass: (same for mass) Mass/ NRG ____________ Mass/ NRG ______________ Mass/ Energy can only __________ Can’t be made Can’t be destroyed Change form!!!
  98. 100. Law of Conservation of Mass: (same for mass) CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 0 C=1 C=1 H=4 = H=4 O=4 O=4 The equation demonstrates the law of conservation of mass.
  99. 101. Classwork!!! Determine the number of atoms in the following chemical formulas.
  100. 102. Do Now: <ul><li>Answer do now questions on the catalyst review demo… </li></ul>
  101. 103. Reaction Rates What factors affect how quickly or slowly a reaction takes place? Factor #1 _____________________ Factor #2 _____________________ Factor #3 _____________________ Factor #4 _____________________ Catalysts / Inhibitors Concentration Surface Area Temperature
  102. 104. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 1. TEMPERATURE is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move.
  103. 105. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>TEMPERATURE: The greater the temperature the _________ the reaction time. </li></ul>greater temperature reaction rate slow fast
  104. 106. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 2. SURFACE AREA: is the amount of an object that is exposed to the environment. The smaller the particles in a sample the greater the surface area
  105. 107. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 2. Surface Area: The greater the surface area the _________ the reaction time. greater Surface area reaction rate slow fast
  106. 108. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 3. CONCENTRATION: refers to the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent. The more stuff dissolved in a given volume of solvent the more concentrated the solution
  107. 109. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? 3. Concentration: The greater the concentration the _________ the reaction time. faster Concentration reaction rate slow fast
  108. 110. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>The ADDITION OF A CATALYST: </li></ul><ul><li>Catalysts are substances that ___________ a reaction rate. Watch the hydrogen peroxide demonstration to show how yeast acts as a catalyst. </li></ul>increase
  109. 111. Reaction Rates How do these factors affect the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction? <ul><li>The ADDITION OF A INHIBITOR: </li></ul><ul><li>An inhibitor will decrease a reaction rate! </li></ul>
  110. 112. Do Now: Free Write! <ul><li>Is it possible to produce (make heat) with out adding something that is already hot (like the sun, or the oven) … If so, how? </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Today!!! Please read directions quietly, and have you homework out on your desk! </li></ul>
  111. 113. Lab today <ul><li>Chemical Reactions! Lets read the directions together! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to wear your goggles at all times! </li></ul>
  112. 114. Do Now: Tell me what you think! <ul><li>Let’s take a quick break from chemistry… Instead check out my awesome new lava lamp!!!! Make some observations… Why are the colors separated? Why do they move? Can you figure out the science behind the funky lamp? Write your answer down on a clean sheet of paper! </li></ul>
  113. 115. Mixtures Review!!!
  114. 116. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>1. MIXTURE : </li></ul>When two or more substances are joined (combined) physically not chemically
  115. 117. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>2. State two ways that mixtures are different from compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>a) The substances in a mixture _____________________ </li></ul>Retain their properties
  116. 118. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>2. State two ways that mixtures are different from compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Mixtures can be _________ by physical means such as: ________, ___________, ________ and __________________. </li></ul>separated filtering evaporation magnet Density differences
  117. 119. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>3. What are the two types of mixtures? </li></ul><ul><li>a) Heterogeneous: </li></ul>A solution that looks different throughout. Example: Chef Salad
  118. 120. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>3. What are the two types of mixtures? </li></ul><ul><li>a) Homogeneous: </li></ul>A solution that looks same throughout. Example: a glass of lemonade
  119. 121. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>4. Dissolving: The process in which particles spread _______ in a mixture. </li></ul>evenly
  120. 122. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>5. Solution : a ____________ mixture in which one substance called a ______ is _____________ in another substance called a ______. _______ is often called the _________ solvent because it can dissolve many things </li></ul>homogeneous Water solute universal dissolved solvent
  121. 123. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>6. Dilute: A solution with a _______ amount of solute </li></ul><ul><li>7. Concentrated : A solution with a ______ amount of solute </li></ul>small large
  122. 124. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>8. Unsaturated: a solution that contains ____ solute than it can hold at a given temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Saturated : a solution that contains ____ the solute it can hold at a given temperature. </li></ul>less all
  123. 125. Mixtures Review!!! <ul><li>10. Supersaturated: A _________ solution that contains _____ solute than it normally does at room temperature. </li></ul>saturated more
  124. 126. Factors that affect solubility! <ul><li>a. TEMPERATURE: </li></ul>Higher temperatures  Higher Solubility
  125. 127. Factors that affect solubility! <ul><li>b. SURFACE AREA: </li></ul>Greater surface area  Higher solubility
  126. 128. Factors that affect solubility! <ul><li>c. STIRRING: </li></ul>Stirring will increase the reaction rate.
  127. 129. Factors that affect solubility! <ul><li>d. PRESSURE: </li></ul>An increase in pressure can increase the amount of gas that can dissolve in a liquid
  128. 130. Do Now: Use this Cartoon to make a Acid Vs Bases Chart
  129. 131. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>1. INDICATOR: </li></ul>A substance that detects the presence of an acid or a base
  130. 132. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>Common Indicators to detect the presence of an acid or base: </li></ul><ul><li>a._______________________ </li></ul>pH paper (numerical scale)
  131. 133. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>Common Indicators to detect the presence of an acid or base: </li></ul><ul><li>b. ______________________ </li></ul>Litmus paper (red/blue color change)
  132. 134. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>Common Indicators to detect the presence of an acid or base: </li></ul><ul><li>c. _________ </li></ul><ul><li>______________ </li></ul>The juice of Red Cabbage
  133. 136. Characteristics of Acids and Bases: pH paper (numerical scale) The juice of Red Cabbage Hydrogen (H+) bitter red blue below above Red Green/blue Slippery sour Hydroxide ion (OH-) Acids Bases Donates ______________ to a solution Donates _______________ to a solution May taste ____ May taste ________ Turns Litmus ____ Turns Litmus _________ Has a pH value _______ 7 Has a pH value _________ 7 Turns Cabbage juice _____ Turns cabbage juice _____________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Usually feels _______
  134. 138. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>2. pH Scale: </li></ul><ul><li>A scale used for measuring the _________ of an acid or a base. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a numeric scale from _____________ </li></ul>strength 0-14
  135. 139. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>2. pH Scale: </li></ul><ul><li>c. Any value less than ___ represents an _____. The lower the value, the ________ the acid. </li></ul>7 acid stronger
  136. 140. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>2. pH Scale: </li></ul><ul><li>d. Any value more than __ represents a ______. The higher the number, the _________ the base. </li></ul>7 base stronger
  137. 141. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>2. pH Scale: </li></ul><ul><li>e. A substance with a value of 7 is called _______. </li></ul>neutral
  138. 142. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions
  139. 143. Acids and Bases: Two Types of Solutions <ul><li>3. Neutralization Reaction: </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction of an acid and a base to produce two neutral products: </li></ul><ul><li>_________ and _________ </li></ul>Salt NaOH + HCL  NaCl + H 2 O water (SALT) (ACID) (BASE) (WATER)
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