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  • 1. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3B Name: ___________________________ Period: _____ Date:__________________ A. Which is bigger: Our Solar System or Our Sun? Naturally our ____________________ is bigger since the sun is apart of it. An object must always be bigger than something it includes. For example, a shoebox must always be bigger than the shoes. And your shoe must be big enough to fit your foot. B. Our Sun: -The sun is a star. -A ball of hot glowing gases. -It gets hotter as you go deeper. -Central force that has a high influence on planets orbits. -Without the sun’s energy and heat there would be no life on Earth -It holds everything in place by its gravity. -It contains about 99% of the mass of the solar system. Mythology The Sun God. Greeks Called it Hellos Mass 333 400 times the mass of the Earth Diameter 1 392 000 km (109 x Earth’s diameter) Gravity 28 times that on Earth 6000°C (average). From 4500 to 2000000°C up Surface Temperature to 15000000°C in the core. Period of rotation (day) Equator 26 Earth days, poles 37 Earth days Tilt of axis 122° Page #______
  • 2. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3B C. Our Solar System: D. The Formation of Our Solar System: The Solar System includes: • The Sun, a ______________size, of • ______________________ large cloud middle-aged star • Theice & dust existed gas, eight planets and associated moons • It began to contract & slowly rotate • ________________chunks of rock found mostly in a belt between Mars and Jupiter • Contraction increased density & rotation • __________________– mass of frozen gas and rock • Gravity began to pull material toward the • These are considered __________________ which appear in the sky during day and center • night. increases = increased rotation & Density gravity • Begins to form disk with large center • Central mass begins to heat up due to contraction • Temperatures reach 10 million °Kelvin • Hydrogen atoms begin to fuse together forming Helium • Fusion occurs, driving the formation of our Page #______ Sun • The material outside the central mass forms planets
  • 3. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3B E. The Parts of Our Solar System: Size Comparison Jovian vs. Terrestrial • The ______ is the center of the Solar System • _______________, also called ___________: (meaning earth-like) the first four planets • __________________: band of rocks orbiting the sun • ________________, also called ___________: the four planets farthest from the sun. Terrestrial Planets: • Four ___________ planets of the solar system • Relatively __________ in size and mass (Earth is the largest and most massive) • __________ surface • Surface of Venus cannot be seen directly from Earth because of it’s _______________________. Page #______
  • 4. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3B Jovian Planets: • Much _____________ in mass and size than terrestrial planets • Much lower average ___________________ • All have rings (not only Saturn!) • Mostly _________; no solid surface • Also known as Gas Giants because they are made of mostly hydrogen and helium Asteroids • Rocky objects with ____________ or _____________ shapes • Most orbit in a wide belt between _________ and ____________ • The total mass of all the asteroids is less than that of the Moon • Believed to be a planet that never formed • Range in size from dust to almost Moon size • Photographed by Galileo probe • Some Named Asteroids:  Ceres: 940 km (Largest known)  Pallas: 523 km  Vesta: 501 km  Juno: 244 km  Gaspra & Ida: Comets: • Only visible when they are close to the ________ • Icy nucleus, which evaporates and gets blown into space by solar wind pressure. • Mostly objects in highly _____________ orbits, occasionally coming close to the sun • Comet Composition: Dust, rock, frozen methane, ammonia, and water • Comets normally look like dirty ________________ • When they get close to stars, they begin to vaporize & _______________. • Forms a coma (tail) from the nucleus (head) • ___________: glowing trail of particles which always points away from the star Page #______ • Comets eventually break up into space debris • Oort Cloud: large collection of comets beyond ________
  • 5. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3B Meteoroids, Meteors & Meteorites: Meteoroids: chunks of randomly moving through space. Usually leftover comet or asteroid debris Meteor: Meteoroid that collides with Earth, evaporates in the atmosphere producing streaks of visible light (“shooting stars”) Most burn up before reaching the surface Meteor Shower: Many meteors at one time Meteorite: Meteor that does not totally burn up, & strikes the Earth’s surface. Planets: A planet is a body impact creates a crater The that is in orbit around the Sun, has enough mass for its self-gravity to overcome forces (nearly round) shape, and clears the neighborhood around its orbit. Planet order (closest to the sun to furthest): Write one interesting fact about each: MERCURY: ________________________________________________________ VENUS: __________________________________________________________ EARTH: __________________________________________________________ MARS: ___________________________________________________________ JUPITOR: ________________________________________________________ SATURN: _________________________________________________________ URANUS: _________________________________________________________ NEPTUNE: ________________________________________________________ How do the Planets move around the Sun? • All planets move in the same plane (a large imaginary flat surface) • Orbits generally inclined by no more than 3.4o except for Mercury at 7° • All planets in almost circular (elliptical) orbits around the sun • Sense of revolution: counter-clockwise • Kepler’s Laws govern the planets’ orbits Orbits • ____________ – the movement of an object around another object • __________ – the path taken by a revolving object Page #______ • Celestial objects have _______________ orbits • Velocity changes during revolution; planets further from Sun revolve slower
  • 6. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3B Elliptical Orbit • A circle has one central point, called a __________. • Ellipses have two points, called __________. • Therefore an ellipse is not a perfect circle. • Eccentricity is a measure of how off the ellipse is from being a perfect circle. Eccentricity The _________ of an ellipse is how much it varies from a true circle. The __________ the number, the closer the orbit is to a perfect circle. Formula for eccentricity: Eccentricity= Calculate the eccentricity of the ellipse below: foci foci Regents Question: Which object is located at one foci of the elliptical orbit of Mars? (1)the Sun (3)Earth (2)Betelgeuse (4)Jupiter Page #______
  • 7. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3B Know when to use your ESRT! Laws of Planetary Motion • Devised by German astronomer Johannes Kepler • He discovered the line joining the Sun and a planet sweeps equal areas in equal intervals of time The Three Kepler’s Laws: 1. Planets move around sun in elliptical orbits. Sun is at one focus point. 2. Planet moves faster when closer to the Sun due to gravitational pull of the Sun. 3.The greater the distance from the sun, the longer the period of revolution because Longer orbits and Slower orbital velocities. Orbital Energy • ______________ – the force of attraction between 2 objects • ______________ – the tendency of an object in motion to continue in motion along a straight path • The interaction of gravity and inertia keep planets in __________ Energy Transfer Page #______
  • 8. Unit 2: Astronomy Earth Science- Ms. Gill Note Packet #3B • Energy is transferred between ___________ and ______________ as a planet orbits the Sun. Orbital Velocity • The Earth’s orbital velocity is _____________ when kinetic energy is the highest. • This occurs when the Earth is ___________ to the Sun in its orbit. Page #______