COB4 Computer Crime


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COB4 Computer Crime

  1. 1. Objectives <ul><li>List measures to protect data from unauthorised access </li></ul><ul><li>List precautions against virus attacks </li></ul><ul><li>State examples of computer crimes </li></ul><ul><li>List measures to prevent computer crimes </li></ul>
  2. 2. 4.1 Protecting Data <ul><li>Some data is important and must be protected </li></ul><ul><li>Computers used more and more </li></ul><ul><li>More data digitalised </li></ul><ul><li>Computers being networked </li></ul><ul><li>Better accessibility to users … </li></ul><ul><li>… and criminals! </li></ul>
  3. 3. 4.1 Protecting Data <ul><li>Data Espionage: Identity Theft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the past, identity data mainly stored in paper or card form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity thieves had to be physically present to steal it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity data is now digitally stored and shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theft can be carried out over connected the Internet! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 4.1 Protecting Data <ul><li>DoS (Denial-of-Service) Attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A massive attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Send a flood of data packages to a target system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bring systems or entire networks to a stand-still </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried out externally using Trojans or backdoor programs </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 4.1 Protecting Data
  6. 6. 4.1 Protecting Data <ul><li>To ensure the security of data transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix identity of a user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique identification, systems, applications, services and resources </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 4.2 Theft of Computers <ul><li>Stealing computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective way to steal data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jacking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to cut open secured ATMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATMs are located in busy area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to cut ATMs open without attracting attention </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 4.2 Theft of Computers <ul><li>Solutions to theft of computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety doors and alarm systems </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 4.3 Malicious Programs <ul><li>Programs that are designed with ill intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Types: Viruses, worms and Trojan Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Trojan Horse allows others to control your computer by creating a “backdoor” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names: NetBus and Back Orifice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use your computer to attack other computers. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 4.3 Malicious Programs <ul><li>Precaution against Malicious Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install anti-virus and update software </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 4.3 Malicious Programs <ul><li>Precaution against Malicious Programs (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back up data regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you suspect that your computer has been infected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disconnect your computer from the network and the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search the Internet with another computer for solutions to remove the malicious program </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 4.3 Malicious Programs <ul><li>Identity theft. Encryption. </li></ul><ul><li>Denial-of-Service attack. Install and update anti-virus programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Programs that are designed with ill intentions. Anti-virus software, regular data back-ups etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 4.4 Firewall <ul><li>A firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to your computer from the network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which programs from your computer can access the network </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>A program that scans your computer and seeks to remove any viruses present. It also stops viruses from being installed and activated. </li></ul><ul><li>A program that controls access to/ from your computer from/ to the network </li></ul>4.4 Firewall
  15. 15. 4.4 Firewall <ul><li>A firewall (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complements anti-virus software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alerts you of possible intrusion </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access <ul><li>How do you to prevent these situations? </li></ul>
  17. 17. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access <ul><li>Passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common form of protection against unauthorised data access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stored on the motherboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another layer to the security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easily bypassed by removing the BIOS battery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access
  19. 19. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access <ul><li>Passwords (Cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screensaver password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screensaver activated after a period of inactivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A password is needed to resume work </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access <ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complements password protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypt highly confidential data especially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it difficult for anyone to try to read your data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important when using the Internet because your data can be accessible </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Keep your PC under lock and key. Install safety locks, alarm systems etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Password, data encryption etc. </li></ul>4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access
  22. 22. 4.6 Hijacked/Misused Internet Accounts <ul><li>Prevention measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change passwords frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid using simple passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not share passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet accounts can be hijacked if others get to know your account name and password </li></ul>
  23. 23. 4.7 Computer Crimes <ul><li>Computer crimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts performed using computers that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goes against the laws in a country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the Internet Anonymous? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People act irresponsibly on the Internet because they thought that nobody knows who they are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But their identity on the Internet can be traced </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 4.7 Computer Crimes <ul><li>Laws governing computer usage cover the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal or offensive material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child pornography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminally racist material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hacking, cracking and other computer crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offensive e-mails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pirated software </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 4.7 Computer Crimes <ul><li>Many international organisations formed to tackle computer crimes </li></ul>
  26. 26. 4.7 Computer Crimes <ul><li>An industry that produces programs to combat computer crimes has arisen </li></ul>
  27. 27. 4.7 Computer Crimes <ul><li>The laws in different countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws governing computer acts vary among countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New laws are being enacted to deal with new situations </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. 4.7 Computer Crimes <ul><li>Are computer crimes a serious threat? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers are heavily relied upon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In many critical areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many disruptions if computers are not in order </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer crimes can spread at a very fast rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial losses from computer crimes are very high </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li> Cracking </li></ul><ul><li> Pirated software </li></ul><ul><li> Child pornography </li></ul><ul><li>2  Heavy reliance on computers for critical functions, </li></ul><ul><li> Fast proliferation of computer crimes </li></ul><ul><li> High financial losses </li></ul>4.7 Computer Crimes
  30. 30. Summary <ul><li>Security is important because some files contain confidential information. The loss or leakage of information may cause an organisation to lose a lot of money. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent PCs from being stolen, we can use a drive lock. Important data can be stored in an external hard disk that is kept away from your PC. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Summary <ul><li>Viruses, worms and Trojan Horses are types of malicious programs. </li></ul><ul><li>4.To protect against malicious viruses, install anti-virus programs. Also, back up important data regularly. A firewall can also help to detect viruses that might have escaped detection by the anti-virus software. </li></ul><ul><li>5. To prevent physical unauthorised access, use passwords such as a BIOS password and a screensaver password. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Hacking and cracking are examples of computer crime. Crackers gain unauthorised access to a computer network to view, steal and even delete files. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent unauthorised access from the Internet, use a firewall. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Apart from bringing convenience such as Internet banking and e-commerce, the Internet has become a tool for crime. </li></ul><ul><li>We should be careful when giving out personal information, including credit card information, logins and passwords. Change passwords frequently and do not share passwords. </li></ul>