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COB4 Computer Crime
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COB4 Computer Crime


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  • 1. Objectives
    • List measures to protect data from unauthorised access
    • List precautions against virus attacks
    • State examples of computer crimes
    • List measures to prevent computer crimes
  • 2. 4.1 Protecting Data
    • Some data is important and must be protected
    • Computers used more and more
    • More data digitalised
    • Computers being networked
    • Better accessibility to users …
    • … and criminals!
  • 3. 4.1 Protecting Data
    • Data Espionage: Identity Theft
      • In the past, identity data mainly stored in paper or card form
        • Identity thieves had to be physically present to steal it
      • Identity data is now digitally stored and shared
        • Theft can be carried out over connected the Internet!
  • 4. 4.1 Protecting Data
    • DoS (Denial-of-Service) Attack
      • A massive attack
        • Send a flood of data packages to a target system
        • Bring systems or entire networks to a stand-still
      • Carried out externally using Trojans or backdoor programs
  • 5. 4.1 Protecting Data
  • 6. 4.1 Protecting Data
    • To ensure the security of data transfer
      • Fix identity of a user
        • Unique identification, systems, applications, services and resources
  • 7. 4.2 Theft of Computers
    • Stealing computers
      • Effective way to steal data
    • Jacking
      • Difficult to cut open secured ATMs
      • ATMs are located in busy area
      • Impossible to cut ATMs open without attracting attention
  • 8. 4.2 Theft of Computers
    • Solutions to theft of computers
      • Safety doors and alarm systems
  • 9. 4.3 Malicious Programs
    • Programs that are designed with ill intentions
    • Types: Viruses, worms and Trojan Horses
      • A Trojan Horse allows others to control your computer by creating a “backdoor”
      • Names: NetBus and Back Orifice
      • Can use your computer to attack other computers.
  • 10. 4.3 Malicious Programs
    • Precaution against Malicious Programs
      • Install anti-virus and update software
  • 11. 4.3 Malicious Programs
    • Precaution against Malicious Programs (Cont’d)
      • Back up data regularly
      • If you suspect that your computer has been infected
        • Disconnect your computer from the network and the Internet
        • Search the Internet with another computer for solutions to remove the malicious program
  • 12. 4.3 Malicious Programs
    • Identity theft. Encryption.
    • Denial-of-Service attack. Install and update anti-virus programs.
    • Programs that are designed with ill intentions. Anti-virus software, regular data back-ups etc.
  • 13. 4.4 Firewall
    • A firewall
      • A program
      • Controls
        • Access to your computer from the network
        • Which programs from your computer can access the network
  • 14.
    • A program that scans your computer and seeks to remove any viruses present. It also stops viruses from being installed and activated.
    • A program that controls access to/ from your computer from/ to the network
    4.4 Firewall
  • 15. 4.4 Firewall
    • A firewall (Cont’d)
      • Complements anti-virus software
      • Alerts you of possible intrusion
  • 16. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access
    • How do you to prevent these situations?
  • 17. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access
    • Passwords
      • Most common form of protection against unauthorised data access
      • BIOS password
        • Stored on the motherboard
        • Another layer to the security
        • Easily bypassed by removing the BIOS battery
  • 18. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access
  • 19. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access
    • Passwords (Cont’d)
      • Screensaver password
        • Screensaver activated after a period of inactivity
        • A password is needed to resume work
  • 20. 4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access
    • Encryption
      • Complements password protection
      • Encrypt highly confidential data especially
      • Makes it difficult for anyone to try to read your data
      • Important when using the Internet because your data can be accessible
  • 21.
    • Keep your PC under lock and key. Install safety locks, alarm systems etc.
    • Password, data encryption etc.
    4.5 Protecting Your Data from Unauthorised Access
  • 22. 4.6 Hijacked/Misused Internet Accounts
    • Prevention measures
      • Change passwords frequently
      • Avoid using simple passwords
      • Do not share passwords
    • Internet accounts can be hijacked if others get to know your account name and password
  • 23. 4.7 Computer Crimes
    • Computer crimes
      • Acts performed using computers that
      • Goes against the laws in a country
    • Is the Internet Anonymous?
      • People act irresponsibly on the Internet because they thought that nobody knows who they are
      • But their identity on the Internet can be traced
  • 24. 4.7 Computer Crimes
    • Laws governing computer usage cover the following:
      • Illegal or offensive material
      • Child pornography
      • Criminally racist material
      • Hacking, cracking and other computer crimes
      • Offensive e-mails
      • Pirated software
  • 25. 4.7 Computer Crimes
    • Many international organisations formed to tackle computer crimes
  • 26. 4.7 Computer Crimes
    • An industry that produces programs to combat computer crimes has arisen
  • 27. 4.7 Computer Crimes
    • The laws in different countries
      • Laws governing computer acts vary among countries
      • New laws are being enacted to deal with new situations
  • 28. 4.7 Computer Crimes
    • Are computer crimes a serious threat?
      • Computers are heavily relied upon
        • By businesses
        • In many critical areas
          • Many disruptions if computers are not in order
      • Computer crimes can spread at a very fast rate
      • Financial losses from computer crimes are very high
  • 29.
    •  Cracking
    •  Pirated software
    •  Child pornography
    • 2  Heavy reliance on computers for critical functions,
    •  Fast proliferation of computer crimes
    •  High financial losses
    4.7 Computer Crimes
  • 30. Summary
    • Security is important because some files contain confidential information. The loss or leakage of information may cause an organisation to lose a lot of money.
    • To prevent PCs from being stolen, we can use a drive lock. Important data can be stored in an external hard disk that is kept away from your PC.
  • 31. Summary
    • Viruses, worms and Trojan Horses are types of malicious programs.
    • 4.To protect against malicious viruses, install anti-virus programs. Also, back up important data regularly. A firewall can also help to detect viruses that might have escaped detection by the anti-virus software.
    • 5. To prevent physical unauthorised access, use passwords such as a BIOS password and a screensaver password.
  • 32. Summary
    • Hacking and cracking are examples of computer crime. Crackers gain unauthorised access to a computer network to view, steal and even delete files.
    • To prevent unauthorised access from the Internet, use a firewall.
  • 33. Summary
    • Apart from bringing convenience such as Internet banking and e-commerce, the Internet has become a tool for crime.
    • We should be careful when giving out personal information, including credit card information, logins and passwords. Change passwords frequently and do not share passwords.