British raj in rf india*British mostly lied on present countries ofIndia , Pakistan & Bangladesh .*When we talk about other countries lying inIndian sub continent Burma , Ceylon ,Singapore ,Nepal and Bhutan were the major countriesunderBritish.*Many fierce battles occurred and India kept
CAUSES OF THE REVOLT*By his Doctrine of lapse policy lord Dalhousie annexed many states of India suchas Satara, Jhansi, Nagpur etc. According to his policy, if an Indian ruler did nothave his real son , he was not allowed to adopt any son of his relative to becomehis successive.*The Muslims were also very unhappy with the East India Company. It wasdeclared by the company that after the death of Bahadur shah II , his successorwould not enjoy the title of Raja, held by the Mughal Emperor.*The English introduced many changes in Indian social life such as- Abolition ofsati, child marriage, allowing widow to remarry, banning girl child infanticide etc.*The introduction of Railways meant that the untouchables would also travel thesame compartment as Brahmins.*Economic exploitation of India and her people became the potent cause of unrest.The English company had its officials carried India’s wealth to England in severalways.*The Indian soldiers were discriminated and were considered inferior.*The Indian soldiers were sent across the seas which was forbidden as per Hindureligious beliefs.
onset of the reBellion*several months of increasing tensions coupled withvarious incidents preceded the actual reBellion.*on 26 feBruary 1857 the 19th Bengal native infantry (Bni)regiment Became concerned that new cartridges they hadBeen issued were wrapped in paper greased with cow andpig fat, which had to Be opened By mouth thus affectingtheir religious sensiBilities.* their colonel confronted them supported By artilleryand cavalry on the parade ground, But after somenegotiation withdrew the artillery, and canceled the nextmornings parade.
mangal pandey*on 29 march 1857 Barrackpur , near parade ground, calcutta , 29year old mangal pandey took various steps against east indiacompany . he declared that he will reBel against his commanders.*sergeant-major james hewson went to investigate only to havepandey shoot at him. hewson raised the alarm. when his adjutant lt.henry Baugh came out to investigate the unrest, pandey opened fireBut hit Baughs horse instead.*general hearsey when saw the fire in the eyes of mangal pandey ,he asked indian jemadar to arrest mangal pandey , the jemadarrefused to do so.*on 22nd of the april jemadar was put onto the death By generalhearsey Because of disoBedience towards British raj.*after failing to incite his comrades into an open and activereBellion, mangal pandey tried to take his own life By placing hismusket to his chest, and pulling the trigger with his toe. he onlymanaged to wound himself, and was court-martialled on 6 april. hewas hanged on 8 april.
Bahadur shah zafar*Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed the Emperor of the wholeof India. Most contemporary and modern accounts suggest thathe was coerced by the sepoys and his courtiers to sign theproclamation against his will. In spite of the significant loss ofpower that the Mughal dynasty had suffered in the precedingcenturies, their name still carried great prestige acrossnorthern India.*initially, the Indian soldiers were able to significantly pushback Company forces, and captured several important towns inHaryana, Bihar, Central Provinces and the United Provinces.When the European troops were reinforced and began tocounterattack, the sepoys who mutinied were especiallyhandicapped by their lack of a centralised command andcontrol system.*on may 11 the regiments that had rebelled at Meerut theprevious day reached Delhi and asked for a formal audiencewith Bahadur Shah which was granted the next day. It wasattended by several excited sepoys who treated him familiarlyor even disrespectfully.
Rani laxmi bai : jhansi Bundelkhand.Jhansi was a Maratha-ruled princely state in ki raniWhen the Raja of Jhansi died without a biological male heir in1853, it was annexed to the British Raj by the Governor-Generalof India under the doctrine of lapse. His widow, Rani LakshmiBai, protested against the denial of rights of their adoptedson. war broke out, Jhansi quickly became a centre of the Whenrebellion. A small group of Company officials and theirfamilies took refuge in Jhansis fort, and the Raninegotiated their evacuation. However, when they left thefort they were massacred by the rebels over whom theRani had no control; the Europeans suspected the Rani ofcomplicity, despite her repeated denials.By the end of June 1857, the Company had lost control of muchof Bundelkhand and eastern Rajasthan . After being drivenfrom Jhansi and Kalpi, on 1 June 1858 Rani Lakshmi Bai and agroup of Maratha rebels captured the fortress city ofGwalior from the Scindia rulers, who were British allies. TheRani died on 17 June, the second day of the Battle of Gwaliorprobably killed by a carbine shot from the 8th Hussars,according to the account of three independent Indianrepresentatives.
Major places which were involvedinto the Indian rebellion•Meerut•Delhi•Agra•Allahabad•Oudh•Awadh•Kanpur•Jhansi•Lucknow•Punjab•indore
Consequences of the consequences of the Indian rebellion Indian rebellionThe Revolt of 1857 was the most dramatic instance of Indias struggle againstforeign rule. But it was no sudden occurrence. It was the culmination of acentury long resistance to domination by the British whose scale, durationand intensity of plunder were unprecedented in Indian history..First war of independence , the revolt of 1857 broke but with failureof the revolt the thinking of purna swaraj ( completeindependence ) came into the minds youth and public.The British parliament passed a new act in 1858 known as governmentof India act 1858 and transferred the powers of east India companyto the British crown in Oder to be more responsible towardsmanaging Indian affairs.The land and property of Muslims was confiscated on a large scaleand they were treated with suspicion and hostility.The British decided to respect the social believes and practices ofpeople of India .
Let us summarize*British east India company ruled over presentDays of Bangladesh , India , Pakistan , Thailand,Myanmar & Ceylon.*Doctrine of lapse and many other kinds of policies which wereintroduced by British was the main cause of this revolt.•Rani Lakshmi Bai, Mangal Pandey, Bahadur Shah ll and TantyaTope were the great leaders of this revolt.•*Merrut, Delhi ,Kanpur, Punjab, Indore, Awadh and Oudh werethe major places where these revolts occur.•The first war of independence helped in the realization ofindependence in the minds of youth and public
suBmitted to mr vishalsuBmitted By angad singh