3 g


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

3 g

  1. 1. WiMAX and 3G Cellular: Competitive or Complementary? Mohamed K. Nezami, Ph.D., KI4CUA Princess Sumaya University for Technology Amman , JordanDRAFT E-mail: mnezami@psut.edu.jo Ph. 0777-38390 M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Presentation Outline • Legacy Wireless Networks (1st, 2nd, 2.5, and 3rd Generation). • Formation of the Fourth Generation Wireless Networks. • Emerging Wireless Broad Band Access Networks. – WiMax & 3G. – IP multimedia subsystem (IMS). – Convergence, interoperability, and coexistence. • A look at future 4G Wireless Networks.DRAFT • Potential new research and business developments. – Israel REMON wireless R&D program – India’s IIT wireless R&D program M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 1
  2. 2. Abstract The rapid evolution of wireless networking technologies has opened up new possibilities for wireless delivery of voice and multimedia services. In addition to the legacy GSM and current third generation (3G) mobile networks, new broadband wireless access technologies such as PANs, WLANs, WiMAX, Flash-OFDM, and DVB-H are emerging as alternative means to provide services to mobile users. These technologies are also offering possibilities for new players to enter the markets, inducing competition and possibly threatening the businesses of established players. For wireless service providing companies, government regulating agencies and researchers, it is necessary to distinguish between these systems and to be able to envision their differences and commons. In this presentation Dr. Mohamed Nezami overviews these systems and the standards andDRAFT services that governed their emergence. Then he performs an analysis of the emerging wireless technologies such as 3G and WiMax and their m arket potential and their technical challenges. M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Emerging Applications Dead ! GSM GPRS/EDGE UMTS/WiMax 1G 2G 3G Video Streaming Remote Medical Video Service Conference (Medical (High quality) image) 384 2,000 Still Video on Data Transmission Speed - k bps Imaging Demand: Audio Streaming Sports, News 144 Weather Text Messaging Video 128 Conference (Lower quality) Image Mobile TV Voice Video Surveillance, 64 Video Mail, Travel Electronic Newspaper JPEG Voice Still Photos E-Commerce Mail Electronic 32 Publishing Karaoke MobileDRAFT Fax Radio E-Mail 9.6 Telephone Data Audio (Voice) Weather, Traffic, News, Voice-driven Web Pages Sports, Stock updates Streaming Audio 0 M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 2
  3. 3. Emerging ApplicationsDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Emerging Applications Talk, listen, watch,DRAFT command, surf, play, ….. M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 3
  4. 4. Higher Speed DemandDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Current Wireless International Standards Coverage (Range)DRAFT 802.11 (WLAN), 802.15 (WPAN), Wireline Portable Low Mobility High Mobility 802.16 (WMAN). M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 4
  5. 5. IEEE802.15 (WPAN)DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Wireless Local Area Networks (IEEE802.11 WLAN) 802.11n >100MbPSDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 5
  6. 6. Coverage and Mobility of current Systems 802.20 802.16 Coverage 10km 802.16e 2G/2.5G Cellular 3G Cellular 1km 802.16d HSDPA/ HSUPA 100m 802.11 WLAN 10mDRAFT Bluetooth 802.15.3a (UWB) 0.1 1 10 100 Data Rate (Mbps) M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Coverage and Mobility of Current Systems 802.20 Vehicular HSDPA 2G/2.5G Cellular 3G Cellular 802.16e Mobility 802.15.3a Nomadic 802.16d (UWB) 802.11 WLAN 802.15 WPAN Stationary 802.16DRAFT (Bluetooth) Link Bit Rate Mbps 0.1 1 10 100 M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 6
  7. 7. Coverage and Mobility of current SystemsDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Optical Connection to Homes Bandwidth Wireline Portable Low Mobility High Mobility 1 Gbps 100 Mbps 10 Mbps WLAN, 150-250 WiMax HSD Fiber Km/hr ADSL, ADSL2, P VDSL2 A ADSL2+ 1 Mbps UMT SDRAFT 100 kbps EDGE+GPRS ISDN POTS 10 kbps GSM+GPRS Mobility M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 7
  8. 8. Legacy Wireless Networks: 2G & 1G • GSM: Global System of Mobile communications/ 1992 • GPRS peak data rates of 140 kbps; EDGE data rates of 384kbps • Difficult costly to 3G and International Roaming is available • CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access: IS-95/1993 • Peak data rate of 14.4kpbsDRAFT • Difficult costly evolution to 3G limited to USA and Korea M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WCDMA (UMTS) with HSDPA • HSDPA : High-Speed Downlink Packet Access • Peak data-rate per sector : DL – > 14.4 Mbps UL – > 2.0 Mbps • LTE > 70MbpsDRAFT WCDMA=UMTS=IMT2000=3G M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 8
  9. 9. Evolution of WLAN IEEE802.11xDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Evolution of WLAN IEEE802.11xDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 9
  10. 10. Current View of Wireless Runners Wi-Fi WiMAX 3G/HSDPA Mature technology Larger coverage Full mobility but limited coverage but limited mobility but lower speedDRAFT Mobile-Fi Promises everything 4G M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Transmission Technology behind WiMax and 4G FDM OFDMDRAFT OFDM uses bandwidth which is not available for use in traditional FDM M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 10
  11. 11. Principle of WiMaxDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Performance of Current Wireless Runners 802.11 802.16 802.20 UMTS WiFi WiMAX Mobile-FI 3G R99 Bandwidth 11-54 Mbps shared Share up to 70 Mbps Up to 1.5 Mbps each 384 Kbps – 2 Mbps Coverage is overlaid Range (LOS) 100 meters 30 – 50 km 3 – 8 km on wireless Range (NLOS) 30 meters 2 - 5 km (’07) infrastructure Mobility Portable Fixed (Mobile - 16e) Full mobility Full mobility Frequency/ 2.4 GHz for 802.11b/g 2-11 GHz for 802.16a Existing wireless <3.5 GHz Spectrum 5.2 GHz for 802.11a 11-60 GHz for 802.16 spectrum Licensing Unlicensed Both Licensed Licensed 802.16, 802.16a and 802.16 802.11a, b and g 802.20 in Part of GSM Standardization standardized REVd standardized, other development standard under developmentDRAFT Standards coming Availability In market today Products 2H05 Product late ‘06 CW in 6+ cities Intel, Fujitsu, Alcatel, Cisco, Motorola, GSM Wireless Backers Industry-wide Siemens, BT, AT&T, Qualcom and Industry Qwest, McCaw Flarion M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 11
  12. 12. Coverage and Throughput of Current Systems Blue- 802.11a/b/g 802.11n 802.16a 802.16e 2G, 2.5G, Tooth WiFi WWiSE WiMax WiMax 3G TGnSync Mobile Range <10m 100m 100m 50 km < 5 km < 10K Status Mature Widely emerging Std. Pre-std. mature deployed Freq. 2.4 2.4, 5.8 Ghz 2.4 Ghz 2-11 2-6 869- Ghz Ghz Ghz 894 Mhz Speeds Low - Very high, Very high, Med- Med- Low-high, kbps 11-55 Mbps 100 Mbps high, 1- high, ~1 kbps - 10 Mbps Mbps MbpsDRAFT App. Phone Local Area Local Metro Metro Cellular Laptop Network, Area B-band Mobile PDA laptop, PDA Network, Internet laptop, PC PDA M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Coverage and Throughput of Current Systems 802.15 (Bluetooth 1.1) 802.11b (WLAN) 802.11a/g (WLAN) 802.16 - 2004 (WiMAX) Frequenza di 5 GHz 802.11a 2.4 GHz 802.11b,g 2.4 GHz (ISM) 2.4-2.4835GHz 2-11 GHz Licensed/Unlicensed lavoro Unlicensed Fino a 10m (Short-range, NLOS Fino a 50km, dimensione media di Raggio <100m < 100m Piconet) cella 6-9km (NLOS) Bit Rate Fino a 1 Mbps Fino a 11.5Mbps 54Mbps di picco Fino a 75 Mbps in canali da 20MHz <100mW Indoor & outdoor 802.11g Tre classi di potenza <1mW, <2,5mW Potenza <100mW <200mW Indoor & <1000mW outdoor 1W-3W e <100mW 802.11a Piconetcom: nodo master e massimo 13 canali parzialmente sovrapposti, 7 nodi slave. Usa 79 canali con ognuno largo 22 MHz, utilizzanti la 23 canali in 802.11a e 3 canali in Allocazione di banda flessibile e Scalabilità frequency hopping, ciascuno di banda modulazione DSSS - Direct 802.11g pianificazione di celle semplice 1 MHz Sequence Spread Spectrum Usa uno schedulatore Round-robin o 802.11e sviluppa lo standard - 802.11e sviluppa lo standard - QoS QoS inclusa nel livello MAC schedulatori costruiti ad hoc attualmente no QoS attualmente no QoS 802.16e (WiMAX) 802.20 (MobileFi) WCDMA (UMTS) 2-6 GHz Licensed bands ( < 6 GHz) < 3,5 GHz Licensed 1,920 – 2,170 GHz Accesso MAN, NLOS, roaming Accesso MAN > 15 km, NLOS, WAN con dimensione media cella locale/regionale utilizzando impianti roaming e mobilità 500-1000m 802.16-2004 > 4Mbps (picco DL aggregato perDRAFT Fino a 75Mbps downstream cella) >800kbps (picco UL aggregato 384kbps mobile e 2Mbps stanziale per cella) TBD 500mW 125mW-2W Banda di canale 1.25 MHz (2x1.25 Compatibile con tecniche di accesso MHz paired FDD, 2.5 MHz unpaired Cellulare con 5MHz carrier fisse TDD), Tipicamente < 5 MHz QoS inclusa nel livello MAC Allo studio QoS garantita M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 12
  13. 13. Comparison of Complimentary Standards 802.15.1 802.11a/g 802.16a 802.16e 802.20 Comments (Bluetooth (WLAN) (WiMAX) (WiMAX) 1.1) Frequency 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 802.11a 2-11 GHz 2-6 GHz < 3.5 GHz • 802.16e is a mobility ISM band 2.4 GHz 802.11b,g Licensed/Unlice Licensed bands ( < 6 Licensed adjunct to high-data rate Unlicensed nsed GHz) fixed service, symmetric data with local/Regional mobility. Vehicular speeds of 120-150 km/h Range Up to 10m Sub – 100m Up to 50km, Metropolitan Area Metropolitan Area • 802.20 fully mobile, Short-range, Avg. cell size: 6- Access, NLOS, Access, > 15 kms, 250km/h, high throughput, NLOS Piconet 9km, Local/Regional NLOS, ubiquitous symmetric data service – NLOS, optional roaming support and MAN, global mobility suitable for high-speed STC deployable in existing and roaming trains 16a footprint Typical cellular? Bit Rate Up to 1 Mbit/s Peak 54 Mb/s Up to 74.7 High-data rate fixed >4 Mbps (DL peak Mbit/s in 20 wireless user with aggregate/cell) MHz channels adjunct mobility >800 kbps (UL peak service aggregate/cell) Power < 30mA < 350mA TBD TBD TBDDRAFT Scalability Piconet with Channel BW is 20 Flexible ch. BW Channel BW >5 MHz Channel BW is 1.25 802.16a limited by master and up to MHz wide and cell to accommodate Optimized for and MHz (2x1.25 MHz available spectrum (150 7 slaves. Uses planning is license & backwards paired FDD, 2.5 MHz in 2.5 GHz, 12 MHz in 79, 1 MHz constrained license-exempt compatible with Fixed MHz unpaired TDD), 2.1 GHz) Channels for bands Stations Typically < 5 MHz 802.16 has large blocks on frequency Easy cell the order of 1 GHz+ hopping planning QoS Uses basic No QoS support. QoS built into Channelization and Under Study! 802.16a: grant request Round-robin 802.11e working to MAC control for multimedia MAC Scheduler or standardize Voice/video, services with QoS 802.11: contention based M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 custom-built Differentiated Source [] MAC schedulers services Coverage and Throughput of Current SystemsDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 13
  14. 14. Spectrum Allocation Providing affordable coverage is crucial in wireless telecommunications Lower frequencies are best for lower coast circuits WCDMA 2.1 TD-SCDMA GSM 2.1 900 802.15.3a CDMA CDMA 802.15.1 UWB CDMA 1.7 1.9 Bluetooth 3.1-10.6 800 2.4 802.16 GSM 802.11 a, e LMDS CDMA 802.11 b, g Wi-Fi 1.8 28-29 450 Wi-Fi 5.0 2.4 1GHz 2GHz 5GHz 11GHz 29GHzDRAFT cdma2000® 802.16a, e 802.16a, e 450, 800, 1.7, 1.9, 2.1 WiMAX WiMAX Licensed 2-11 5.8 Licensed & Unlicensed Unlicensed Licensed Spectrum vs Unlicensed Spectrum The use of unlicensed spectrum creates interference issues M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] UMTS (3G) Spectrum 2005 - 2007DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 14
  15. 15. WiMax Spectrum by Region 2005 - 2007 2.3, 2.5, 3.5, 2.5, 3.5, 2.3, 2.5, 3.5, 5.8 GHz 5.8 GHz 5.8 GHz 2.3, 2.5, 3.7, 5.8 GHz 2.3, 2.5, 3.3, 3.5, 5.8 GHz 3.5, 5.8 GHz 2.5, 3.5, 5.8 GHzDRAFT Expect WiMAX deployments Expect WiMAX deployments Also at ~~700 MHz Also at 700 MHz M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WiMax Spectrum by Region 2005 - 2007 • Favored frequencies – 2.3 GHz - 2.5 GHz : Mobile services – 3.5 GHz : Fixed servicesDRAFT 700MHz ??? Source: IDATE M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 15
  16. 16. WiMax Spectrum License Licensed Licensed Exempt 2.5 GHz 3.5 GHz 5.8 GHz Mobile Fixed / Nomadic Fixed / Nomadic (mobile)DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Evolutions of Current Standards Toward 3GDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 16
  17. 17. Evolutions of Current Standards Toward 3G Future 2G Initial 3G Evolved 3G Evolution IS-2000 IS-2000 IS-2000 * Rev C Rev D Rev A (1xEV-DV) 1994 1998 1999 (1xEV-DV) IS-2000 IS-95A IS-95B (cdma2000 1x) 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 IS-856 IS-856 IS-856 IS-856 Rev 0 Rev A Rev B Rev C (1xEV-DO) (1xEV-DO) (1xEV-DO) (1xEV-DO) Standards Completion Dates (or expected completion dates) shown IS-1006 IS-1006-A in RED (BCMCS) (EBCMCS) 2008+ R’99 Rel’6 Rel’7 Rel’8 Rel’5 (UMTS) (E-DCH, (Enhanced HSPA+? (HSDPA) MBMS) HSDPA) LTE?DRAFT 1989 1997 1998 Rel’97 Rel’98 1999 2006 GSM 2002 2005 2007 (GPRS) (AMR) Rel’7 Jordan R’99 Rel 6 (GERAN (EDGE) (SAIC) M.K. In 2007 Ph.D./2007 Nezami, Source [ ] Enhancements) Evolutions of Current Standards Toward 4G 2000~2002 2003~2004 2005~2006 2008~2010 2Mbps/2Mbps 2Mbps/14.4Mbps 30Mbps WCDMA WCDMA(R5) WCDMA(R6) Cellular HSDPA HSUPA Based 153kbps/ (3GPP, 307kbps 153kbps/2.4Mbps 1.8Mbps/3.1Mbps 3G LTE EV-DO 3GPP2) 1.8Mbps/4.9Mbps* HSOPA EV-DO cdma2000 1x Rev. A EV-DO Rev. B EV-DO 100Mbps Rev. C 802.11n 4G 11Mbps 54Mbps 6Mbps/18.4Mbps 100Mbps 802.11b 802.11a/g WiBroDRAFT Internet Based 802.20 (IEEE) 75Mbps(Fixed) Harmonization 802.16a/b/d 802.16e M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 17
  18. 18. Evolutions of Current Standards to Beyond 4G 1G 1G 2G - 2,5G - 2,75G –– 3G 2G - 2,5G - 2,75G 3G 3,5G –– B3G –– 4G 3,5G B3G 4G WCDMA WCDMA 384kbps - 2 Mbps TACS TACS GSM GSM (UMTS) HSPDA HSPDA (UMTS) Analog Analog GPRS GPRS (UMTSR5) 8-10 Mbps? (UMTSR5) WWAN WWAN 115 kbps 384 kbps EDGE EDGE 3.1 Mbps AMPS AMPS CDMA2000 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO 1xEV-DV 1xEV-DV 2-75 Mbps? Cognitive Analog Analog 1xRTT 1xRTT Cognitive 144 kbps 2.4 Mbps MobileFi MobileFi Radio Radio 802.20 802.20 WRAN WRAN WiMAX WiMAX 80.22 BWA 80.22 BWA WLL WLL 802.16-2004 802.16-2004 802.16-2001 802.16-2001 802.16e 802.16e 18 Mbps? 2-155 Mbps (802.16REVd) (802.16REVd) At 10-60GHz 2-75 Mbps 2-4 Mbps? WiFi WiFi 802.11g 802.11g 802.11b Increasing Range and Mobility Ł WLAN 802.11b WLAN 54 Mbps 802.11n 802.11n At 2,4 GHz 11 Mbps WiFi5 WiFi5 100+ Mbps At 2,4 GHz 802.11a 802.11a 54 Mbps At 5GHzDRAFT Bluetooth Bluetooth Bluetooth Bluetooth Bluetooth 2.0 Bluetooth 2.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 EDR EDR WPAN 721 kbps 2,1 Mbps WPAN 1 Mbps 802.15.1 802.15.1 Zigbee Zigbee Zigbee + 802.15.4 250 Kbps Zigbee + 1 Mbps 802.15.4 UWB UWB NG UWB NG UWB 802.15.3a 802.15.3a 100 Mbps+ 480 Mbps M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007+ 2007+ Source [ ] iDEN Evolutions world GSM GPRS EDGE NTT DoCoMo Japan PDC W-CDMA HSPDA &T AT iDEN iDEN U.S. packet data Jordan a re Xpress IS-136 Ko U.S. Is dead!DRAFT IS-95B cdma2000 1xEV-DV U.S./Asia IS-95A (1XTREME) 1xEV-DO 2G 2.5G 3G (HDR) M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 18
  19. 19. Current 3G-GSM integration into an all IP network v IMS : IP Multimedia SubSystems Node-B RNC/MSC SGSN GGSN I-CSCF BGCF MGCF Other IMS P-CSCF S-CSCF SGW BTS BSC/MSC PDSN IMS-MGW PSTN MRFDRAFT RAN Domain IMS Domain M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Evolution of 3G Radio Rates • Release 99 Early 3G deployment • Release 5 IMS - IP-based Multimedia Services • HSDPA - High Speed Downlink Packet Access • Release 6 2nd phase of IMS nd • Many other features designed to exploit multimedia communications, Internet accessDRAFT LTE Release TBD ??? 3GPP WCDMA HSDPA HSUPA LTE M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 19
  20. 20. Evolution of 3G Radio Rates Peak Network Data Rates 100000 10000 kbits/sec 1000 UL DL 100 10 1 GPRS EDGE WCDMA HSPA HSPA+ LTEDRAFT Technology LTE was initiated to make 3G competitive with WiMax M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 3G Long Term Evolution LTE • Physical layer: – Downlink based on OFDMA • OFDMA offers improved spectral efficiency, capacity etc – Uplink based on SC-FDMA • SC-FDMA is technically similar to OFDMA but is better suited for uplink from hand-held devices • (battery power considerations) • Access Network consideration: – For the access network it was agreed to get rid of the RNC which minimized the number of nodesDRAFT 3GPP WCDMA HSDPA HSUPA LTE M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 20
  21. 21. 3G Long Term Evolution LTE – Data rate of 100Mbit/s (downlink) – Cellular VoIP – < 20ms latency • Competes with WiMAX and DVB-H • IP optimize networkDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Ready HSDPA Laptops Now Selling ! Fujitsu Lifebook Q2010 Lenovo T60 Dell Latitude 620 Cat 12 HSDPA Laptop Cat 12 HSDPA Laptop Cat 12 HSDPA Laptop UMTS 2100 UMTS 1900/850 UMTS 2100 Quadband GSM Quadband GSM Quadband GSM Dell Latitude 820 Acer 5650 Lenovo X60DRAFT Cat 12 HSDPA Laptop Cat 12 HSDPA Laptop Cat 12 HSDPA Laptop UMTS 2100 UMTS 2100 UMTS 2100 Quadband GSM Triband GSM Quadband GSM M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 21
  22. 22. What is Beyond 3G? Advanced techniques: HARQ, Turbo Coding, LDPC • Suitable for emerging applications. Advanced Packet MIMO Antenna Diversity Beamforming • IP-based. All-IP All- Link adaptation Smarter MACs OFDMA • Ubiquitous seamless service. Scheduling Inter-cell coordination …etc • Higher speed. Crete new technology Bandwidth request and allocation • Cheaper.DRAFT • Lower Battery consumption M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Mobile Packet Networks Service Domain Host Subscriber Server (HSS) Emergency WiFi/WiMax Alert System (EAS) IP Multimedia Subsystem Access Point Call Session Media Transit Control Resource Switching Site Router Function Function (MRF) Center (TSC) (CSCF) PSTN/ Media Base Transceiver Mobile Gateway ISDN Station (BTS) Switching Center (MSC) Base Station Controller (BSC) Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Base Switching Station (GSM/EDGE) Mobile Packet BackboneDRAFT Gateway Network GSN Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Intranets/ Radio Network Controller (RNC) Multimedia Internet Gateway WLAN Access Server M.K. Nezami,(WCDMA) UTRAN Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 22
  23. 23. Benefits of 3G, WiFi, and WiMaxDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Comparison of 3G, WiFi, and WiMaxDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 23
  24. 24. WiMaxDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WiMAX • Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave AccessDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 24
  25. 25. WiMAX Applications • Broadband Internet • Multimedia • IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) • Cellular Alternative • Other emerging data applicationsDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WiMAX as Cellular AlternativeDRAFT • Support IP by default • VoIP M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 25
  26. 26. WiMAX as Cellular AlternativeDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] The Family of WiMAX standards WiMAX is a trade name for a group of IEEE wireless standards. In that respect, WiMAX like Wi-Fi: Wi-Fi labels IEEE 802.11 (802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g., 802.11n) standards, WiMAX labels 802.16, Mobile WiMAX labels 802.16e.DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 26
  27. 27. The Family of WiMAX standards 802.16(2004) : •2~11/10 66GHz. ‐ •line of sight(LOS) •point to multipoint topology ‐ ‐ •FDD/TDD Link •QoS •120Mbit/son each 25MHz channel.(64QAM) •Single CarrierDRAFT •Fixed •max 50Km Radius M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] The Family of WiMAX standards –802.16a •2 11GHz, 75Mbps ‐ •mesh (without relaying by base station) •OFDM •Not LOS – 802.16e(2005.09) : Physical and Medium Access Control Layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands •Mobile WirelessMANDRAFT •2~6GHz, 15Mbps •3~5Km cell radius •NLOS M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 27
  28. 28. The Family of WiMAX standards –WiBro (Korea) •2.3GHz Licenced Band •OFDMA PHY •60Km/h •Hard Handover•NLOSDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] IEEE 802.16-2004 Fixed WiMax IEEE 802.16-2004 is a fixed wireless access technology, meaning that it is designed to serve as a wireless DSL replacement technology, to compete with the incumbent DSL or broadband cable providers or to provide basic voice and broadband access in underserved areas where no other access technology exists: • Developing countries • Rural areas (DSLAMs does not make sense) • backhaul for WiFi access points or potentially for cellular networks,DRAFT • Can be used to provide much higher data rates and therefore be used as a T-1 replacement option for high- value corporate subscribers. Wireless backhaul in a Wi-Fi network. M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 28
  29. 29. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL): – ADSL technology can deliver data upstream 640 kbps and downstream more than 6 mbps. – ADSL uses that portion of the telephone line’s bandwidth that is not utilized by voice, allowing for simultaneous voice and data transmission.DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMax IEEE 802.16e is intended to offer a key feature that 802.16-2004 lacks - portability and mobility. This standard requires a new hardware/software solution since it is not backward compatible with 802.16-2004DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 29
  30. 30. IEEE 802.16-2004 Licensed The licensed spectrum is found at 700MHz, 2.3GHz, 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz, with the latter two frequency bands currently receiving the most attention. Unlicensed In most markets, the unlicensed spectrum that could be used for WiMAX is 2.4GHz and 5.8GHz.DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Broadband MarketDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 30
  31. 31. Broadband MarketDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 802.16 for Broadband Wireless Access • DSL complement § DSL is not available, e.g. poor copper infrastructure 802.16 § DSL OPEX too high, e.g. low population density § Central Office is too far away for DSL § CLEC bypassing incumbent • DSL competition § If DSL is available, hard to beatDRAFT • M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 31
  32. 32. ADSL2/ADSL2+/VDSL2 Facts Data Rate, Mbps • • ADSL ADSL >100 – Basis for the first commercial solution – Basis for the first commercial solution • • ADSL2 ADSL2 VDSL2 – Boosts performance:13 Mbps // 3 Mbps (DS/US) – Boosts performance:13 Mbps 3 Mbps (DS/US) – provides service over longer loop lengths – provides service over longer loop lengths – Approx. 500 m more compared with G992.1 – Approx. 500 m more compared with G992.1 – Annex L even more on long loop lengths – Annex L even more on long loop lengths • • ADSL2+ ADSL2+ 28 – Boosts performance even more – Boosts performance even more – Up to 28 Mbps // 3 Mbps (DS/US) – Up to 28 Mbps 3 Mbps (DS/US) – ADSL2+ relevant for loop lengths up to 2 km – ADSL2+ relevant for loop lengths up to 2 km • • VDSL2 VDSL2 13 ADSL2+ – Superior within 1500m range – Superior within 1500m range – ITU standard from May 2005 – ITU standard from May 2005 ADSL2DRAFT 8 ADSL 1 Km 2 Km 3 Km 4 Km 5 Km 6 Km 7 Km Length, Km M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] ADSL2/ADSL2+/VDSL2 FactsDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 32
  33. 33. IEEE 802.16 Operation A WiMAX Receiver The receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card, or they could be built into A WiMAX tower, similar in concept to a laptop the way WiFi access is today a cell-phone towerDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WiMAX VisionDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 33
  34. 34. WiMAX Vision 04 Metro Gov’t 6-20 802.1 WiFi Hotzone WiFi WiFi Urban WiFi DSL/T1 04 WiFi 802.16-20 Replacement WiFi WiFi 4 802 200 .16e 16- WiFi 802. WCDM A Rural WCDM 802. Rural A 16eDRAFT Rural Rural WCDM Broadband A Cellular Operator Data Overlay M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WiMAX Vision BROADBAND WIRELESS ACCESS 802.16/a Backhaul WiFi 802.16 LOS to fixed outdoor 802.16e antenna NLOS to MSS (laptop/PDA.. ) • Fixed Wireless Access: 802.16a WiFi WiFi – DSL to homes and business 802.16a NLOS to NLOS to fixed fixed IndoorDRAFT outdoor antenna antenna MSS: Mobile Subscriber Station; LOS: Line of Sight; NLOS: Non Line of Sight M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 34
  35. 35. WiMAX Vision Wi-Fi Wi- Nomadic Broadband Broadband Access complementary to for Enterprise 3G, EDGE & WiFi 802.16-2004 802.16-e Broadband Access for Public hotspots 802.16-2004 Broadband Access @ Home Wi-Fi Wi- complementary to DSL & CableDRAFT 802.16-2004 WiFi *Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners. M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WiMAX VisionDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 35
  36. 36. WiMAX VisionDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WiMAX VisionDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 36
  37. 37. WiMAX VisionDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WiMAX VisionDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 37
  38. 38. DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Migration of WiMAX Data Rate Standard Maturing Standard Maturing Fixed WiMAX IEEE 802.16d 2005 Portable WiMAX Nomadic WiMAXDRAFT IEEE 802.16d/e 2006? Mobile WiMAX IEEE 802.16e 2007? Mobility M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 38
  39. 39. Mobile WiMAX • IEEE 802.16e • 2-3km coverage • High speed hand over (< 50ms latencies) • Ensures performance at vehicular speeds greater than >120km/hDRAFT • < 30Mbps for downlink • < 15Mbps for uplink M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Fixed and Mobile WiMAX • WiMAX Fixed / Nomadic • WiMAX Mobile – 802.16d or 802.16-2004 – 802.16e – Usage: Backhaul, Wireless DSL – Usage: Long-distance mobile – Devices: outdoor and indoor wireless broadband installed CPE – Devices: PC Cards, Notebooks and future handsets – Frequencies: 2.5GHz, 3.5GHz and 5.8GHz (Licensed and LE) – Frequencies: 2.5GHz – Description: wireless connections – Description: Wireless connections to homes, businesses, and other to laptops, PDAs and handsets WiMAX or cellular network towers when outside of Wi-Fi hotspot coverageDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 39
  40. 40. Performance WiMAX standardsDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Comparison of WiMAX, WiFi and 3G TechnologyDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 40
  41. 41. The Comparison with HSDPA 802.16-2004 802.16e HSDPA Data Rate 75 Mbps/20MHz 15 Mbps/5MHz 14.4Mbps/5MHz Cell Radius 5 km 5 km 2 km Mobility Portable Up to 100 km/hr Up to 120 km/hr Freq. Allocation 2~11GHz 2~6GHz 1.9~2.2GHz Spectral Efficiency 3.75 bps/Hz 3 bps/Hz 2.9 bps/Hz Access Tech. OFDM OFDM/OFDMA CDMADRAFT Modulation BPSK, QPSK, BPSK, QPSK, BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM 16QAM, 64QAM 16QAM M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] The Comparison with WiBro IEEE 802.16-2004 IEEE 802.16e WiBro Frequency 2 GHz to 66GHz 2 GHz-11GHz 2.3 GHz to 2.4 GHz Range Modulation BPSK (pilot), QPSK, BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, QPSK (8PSK), 16QAM, 16QAM, 64 QAM 64 QAM 64 QAM Multiple Access TDMA, OFDM, 256 FFT, Scalable OFDMA 128 OFDMA 1024 FFT OFDMA, SC to 2048 FFT, TDMA, OFDM 256 FFT, SC Duplex TDD/FDD TDD/FDD TDD Sample 3.5 MHz, 7 MHz 5 MHz, 10MHz 10 MHz FrequencyDRAFT Peak Data Rate 134 Mbit/s SC (28 MHz 15 Mbit (in 5 MHz 30 Mbit/s (60 Mbit/s channel bandwith) channel) with smart 75 Mbit/s OFDM antenna/MIMO) Mobility - 100 km/h 100 km/h Guard Interval 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 1/8 M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 41
  42. 42. Mobile WiMAX is a couple of years ahead of LTEDRAFT LTE is the technology that is closer to WiMAX but direct comparison is yet premature M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] WiMAX Aspect The advantage compare with WiFi The advantage compare with •Coverage wider Nomadic , , HSDPA •Capacity and throughout higher • Coverage wider •Replace DSL in suburban • The mobility is Similar to •Backhaul solution HSDPA The disadvantage compare With The disadvantage compare With HSDPA WiFi • Complete HSDPA Chains • PWLAN had existed • HSDPA could upgrade from • Complete WiFi chains WCDMA • WiFi low cost • There were already 82 WCDMA • WiMAX portable NetworksDRAFT • WiMAX CPE cost still high • There were already48 HSPDA Networks M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 42
  43. 43. Concluding Remarks • 3G will stay, WiMAX will make personal broadband a reality • WiMAX will capture a market different from 3G – Emerging markets will be at the forefront – 3G operators will not, for once, be first adopters – WiMAX is designed to cover large area (multiple homes/buildings), while Wi-Fi is to cover small area (a home/building) • 3G has a current time-to-market advantage for mobility solutions. Proprietary vs. 802.16g based solutions will determine how long it takes to incorporate mobility into 802.16.DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Concluding Remarks • WiMAX was not developed to compete with cellular voice market. • Delivers wireless broadband anytime, anywhere. • Internet technology from the ground up. • One common standard delivers a global platform for mobile Internet services • 3G and WiMAX will compete, but also have to coexist • The technology roadmap for cellular and WiMAX is converging fast towards OFDMA, IP core, IMS – Will we be able to keep cellular and WiMAX apart? • 3G and WiMAX differ in their approach to wireless data: – 3G is a voice technology moving towards data – WiMAX is a data technology moving towards mobility • Both 3G and WiMAX meet the requirements for wireless broadbandDRAFT • Performance differences will not decide which technology is adopted and where • The challenge for service providers is to understand which technology is better suited to their needs M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 43
  44. 44. Concluding RemarksDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Concluding RemarksDRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 44
  45. 45. DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] Who Will Deploy WiMax Fixed broadband Personal broadband Mobile broadband Mobile operators with a 3G Mobile operators with a 3G network : extend offering of wireless network: provide increased capacity broadband to include fixed wireless broadband. Relationship with for data users. No need for extra RBOCs may make this difficult capacity in the next few years (or easier to add capacity to existing networks) DSL incumbents: offer wireless broadband as an add-on, DSL incumbents: DSL fill-in strategy. and improve DSL coverage. Relationship with mobile May not be cost effective operator may make this move difficult MSOs: 1. cable modem fill-in strategy. MSOs: Extend bundling of services to mobile data, without May not be cost effective need of MVNO deal. Offer BWA where cable modem is not 2. Enter the business data market availableDRAFT New entrants, ISPs, IXCs, national carriers: facilities-based approach, offer fixed and mobile services on own infrastructrure. Significant funding required M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 45
  46. 46. Wireless IP multimedia subsystem (IMS)DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ]DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 46
  47. 47. IMS Architecture Service Network Application User / Session Application Applications Mgmt Charging Application Control IMS IMS TeS Telephony Mobile Softswitch Softswitch Connectivity PSTN IP Backbone MGW PLMN MGW BRAS GGSN AN Fixed Broadband 2G/3G Access Access WLANDRAFT BSC RNC M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] What is IMS? • 3GPP IMS standards define a network domain dedicated to the control and integration of multimedia services. • IMS is defined by 3GPP from Release 5 onwards (2002). • IMS is an Open-systems architecture that supports a range of IP-based services over both wireless and fixed access technologies.DRAFT M.K. Nezami, Ph.D./2007 Source [ ] 47