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Building a culture of operating room safety using crew resource management
 

Building a culture of operating room safety using crew resource management

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    Building a culture of operating room safety using crew resource management Building a culture of operating room safety using crew resource management Document Transcript

    • Pennsylvania Patient Safety Advisory Building a Culture of Operating Room Safety Using Crew Resource Management of care. The surgical service line (SSL) leadership felt Stephanie McKoin, RN, BSN, MPAHSA, that implementing a CRM training program for all NEA-BC, Clinical Director of Surgical Services, members of the OR team might lead to a decrease in York Hospital these events. CRM was chosen because it emphasizes Douglas Arbittier, MD, Chair, Department techniques that improve communication and interde- of Anesthesiology, and Medical Director, Periop- pendence among the team members. These include erative Services, York Hospital briefings, a shared mental model, situational aware- Virginia S. Wesner, MPA, Research Manager, ness, debriefings, and communication techniques Surgical Services, WellSpan Health that permit each team member to voice concerns in a Donald W. Moorman, MD, FACS, Vice-Chair of timely way. Clinical Affairs and Associate Surgeon-in-Chief, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and The SSL and patient safety officer evaluated several Associate Professor of Surgery, Harvard companies and individuals prior to development of Medical School the CRM program. Crew resource management has John J. Castronuovo, Jr., MD, FACS, Director, been adapted to healthcare in multiple formats. One Surgical Service Line, WellSpan Health, and of the earlier programs (introduced in 2000), which Chair, Department of Surgery, York Hospital has now been recognized with the prestigious Eisen- berg Award, was implemented by Benjamin Sachs Address Correspondence to: John J. Castronuovo, and colleagues in the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Jr., MD, Chair, Department of Surgery, York Hos- Center (BIDMC) labor and delivery unit in Boston, pital, 1001 South George St, York, PA 17403 Massachusetts.2,3 The SSL leadership had discussions with Donald Introduction Moorman, MD, then at BIMDC, and developed a curriculum for the OR team members. Moorman Crew resource management (CRM) can be defined facilitated development of the delivery of this curricu- as a group of techniques that can be used by a crew lum by creating a model whereby successive teams of or team to reduce human performance errors. Those learners drawn from the OR staff become team train- techniques form the basis of a training program that ers. The educational approach espoused by Moorman we used in the York Hospital operating room (OR) to embraces a “train the trainers” philosophy because create a culture of safety. it is more effective than straightforward didactic CRM originated from a National Aeronautics and instruction about the goals of highly effective teams in Space Administration workshop in 1979. In the 1960s creating cultural change. The SSL elected to work with and 70s, the aviation industry began to realize that Dr. Moorman to adapt his program to our local needs. the primary cause of commercial aviation accidents The hospital CRM steering committee was created had shifted from equipment failure to human error. with leadership representation from all stakeholder The concepts and techniques encompassed in CRM disciplines in our ORs. The steering committee set help teams perform at optimum levels, recognize and its project goals and defined the behaviors it wished correct errors and other threats, and reduce incidents to inculcate; developed its own curriculum; enlisted and accidents. For several years, commercial air carri- surgeons, anesthesia providers, nurses, and surgical ers have utilized CRM techniques to reduce human technologists as the trainers; and developed its own performance errors on the flight deck, thereby reduc- training videos and observational measurement tools ing airline accidents. These techniques have proven to measure the impact of the program on daily work so successful that CRM training is mandated by the performance. (See Table.) Federal Aviation Administration, and CRM has been adapted in such diverse activities as nuclear power sta- Methods tion control rooms and medical operating theaters.1 Developing the York Hospital OR CRM training York Hospital is a 572-bed, Magnet designated, program was a two-year project that required the nonprofit community hospital located in York, commitment and attention of the 17-member CRM Pennsylvania. In 2006, the hospital began discus- steering committee. The steering committee’s primary sions to enhance the culture of safety in the OR. In focus was developing the CRM presentation and the ORs, despite implementing numerous nationally acting as CRM trainers and champions by coaching recognized safety initiatives, there continued to be a surgical teams in the OR on conducting briefs and significant number of adverse outcomes, including debriefs. In order to facilitate day-to-day operations of retained foreign objects and wrong-site surgeries. the project, the CRM executive committee, consist- An internal analysis revealed that some errors were ing of the SSL medical director/chair of the surgery related to issues of communication and coordination department, clinical director of surgical services, Vol. 7, Suppl. 2—June 16, 2010 REPRINTED ARTICLE - ©2010 Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority Page 1
    • Pennsylvania Patient Safety Advisory Table. Curricular Goals of Crew Resource Management Team Training MODULE/LENGTH (MIN) TITLE TOPICS PRESENTED Module 1/60 “History of Crew Resource Management Analogy of aviation disasters to operating and its Potential to Improve Patient Safety” room misadventure, Institute of Medicine recommendations, definition of a team Module 2/30 “How Team Leader Constitutes a Team” Introductions, shared mental model, briefings, team leader’s role, situational awareness Module 3/30 “Effective Team Communication” Differences in communication style between disciplines, standards of effective communication, information transfer techniques, appropriately assertive communication, conflict management Module 4/30 “Postoperative Debrief” Checklist, what went well, what could have been done better, what were additional resources needed that were not anticipated, as well as follow-up on significant events perioperative medical director/anesthesia depart- combinations of OR team members who represented ment chair, patient safety officer, and CRM project surgeons, anesthesia providers, and nursing and manager, was formed. The CRM project manager OR staff. was a designated assignment that allotted 25% of the To illustrate the modules, CRM steering committee manager’s time to the project. The project manager members acted in a series of videos, which were filmed was responsible for logistically implementing the in the OR. An internal marketing campaign, includ- program and developing program outcome measure- ing “Where’s the Brief?” posters, was implemented ment tools. The total time commitment to complete along with monthly three-hour training sessions. To the development and implementation of this program encourage attendance at educational sessions, classes was approximately 2,200 hours. The members of the were approved for physician and nurse continuing OR and the steering committee committed to design- education credits and patient safety credits. Hospital ing scenarios and presentations and producing videos, staff members were also compensated for their train- with an emphasis on creating a hospital-centric pro- ing time. To avoid closing the OR, presentations were gram. This commitment has been a primary factor in scheduled during the evening and weekend hours. the positive reception of the use of CRM techniques SSL leaders were present at every training session given to foster better communication, enhance teamwork, by steering committee members. Usually, a physician and improve patient safety. member of the SSL acted as the program facilitator. The goal of York Hospital’s CRM training program The trainers for each session consisted of a surgeon or was to encourage each OR team, as it gathers to per- anesthesia provider and a registered nurse or surgical form a procedure, to participate in a brief, creating technologist. The educational sessions were attended the same mental model of the goals to be accom- by interdisciplinary teams of surgeons, anesthesia plished at surgery. The brief included introductions providers, registered nurses, surgical technologists, of all team members; identification of the patient; anesthesia and instrument technicians, secretaries, confirmation of the procedure to be performed, as nursing assistants, and housekeeping staff. In addition well as site, side, or level; summation of the patient’s to the hospital-developed videos, two videos from the medical history; and anticipation of potential prob- BIDMC program were used to further emphasize the lems and key portions of the procedure. Another goal importance of using CRM tools in the OR. of the CRM training was to encourage each OR team to participate in a debrief to determine what went Results well and what could have been done better, thus cre- In April 2008, the first CRM training classes were ating an environment that encourages everyone, from given; by May 2009, more than 530 (98%) surgi- surgeons to housekeeping staff, to speak up if they cal services staff members were trained. Anecdotal feel that patient safety needs to be addressed. reports of staff practicing the CRM techniques were noted in June 2008. The SSL charged the CRM steering committee to develop an overall CRM delivery strategy. CRM team In evaluating the results of the implementation of CRM training consisted of four modules: (1) the history in the OR, there has been a slight decrease in the of CRM and its potential to improve patient safety, percentage of problematic responses in the Stanford (2) how a team leader constitutes a team in the OR, Patient Safety Consortium: Patient Safety Culture (3) effective team communication, and (4) postopera- Survey from 15.9% in 2006 to 15.2% in 2008, scoring tive debrief. The modules were delivered to groups a lower percent problematic response than the mean of 30 to 40 members of the OR staff by various (17.2%) for all ORs in the consortium, as well as lower Page 2 REPRINTED ARTICLE - ©2010 Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority Vol. 7, Suppl. 2—June 16, 2010
    • Pennsylvania Patient Safety Advisory than the overall hospital mean (16.1%) score. While program was the gradual adoption of communication some studies demonstrate a positive correlation techniques and was best measured by assessing the between safety culture and clinical outcomes, in our voluntary implementation of the brief and debrief. case, the Stanford survey was coincidentally carried We have utilized quarterly, joint grand rounds on out before and after our CRM team training program patient safety topics to re-emphasize the value of and was not part of a study design. No p-value calcula- CRM. To measure progress, we have developed tions or formal statistical analysis has been done nor several observational strategies that will help us moni- would such analysis be appropriate. There also has tor CRM activity, including using a tracking system been a slight improvement in National Database of that indicates when a brief/debrief activity is done dur- Nursing Quality Indicators RN satisfaction scores in ing a surgical procedure and, over time, looking at our the RN:RN and RN:MD dimensions, but this again data to see if there has been a decrease in incidence of is a coincidental observation and was not part of a retained foreign objects and wrong-site surgeries. Steady study design. increases in the utilization of these CRM techniques confirm that there has been widespread adoption of At the completion of team training, the brief/debrief CRM in the York Hospital OR. The SSL will continue utilization rate was estimated in an observational to assess the impact of the CRM program on chang- study to be 67% and 42%, respectively. A year after ing the culture of safety in the OR. We will continue the CRM training program was initiated, a second to closely follow these trends and others, including observational study was implemented to monitor Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality safety progress and found that the brief/debrief utilization indicators, nurse satisfaction scores, and patient out- rate had increased to 100% and 87%, respectively. comes (e.g., postoperative complication rates). We believe the best evidence of success of our CRM program can be measured by the use of the brief and Notes debrief because these moments of leadership and 1. Fuller D. Crew resource management: reducing human team cohesion have not been mandated but rather performance errors in space operations. Presented at: are voluntarily adopted and observed. The effect of 20th AIAA International Communication Satellite observer presence in the OR may have been a factor Systems Conference and Exhibit; 2002 May 12-15; in the utilization rates, but the observers were medical Montreal, Quebec, Canada. students present each summer for educational pur- 2. Sachs BP. A 38-year-old woman with fetal loss and hyster- poses and not identified as observers collecting data. ectomy. JAMA 2005 Aug 17:294(7);833-40. Conclusion 3. Pratt SD, Mann S, Salisbury M, et al. John M. Eisen- berg Patient Safety and Quality Awards. Impact of We have demonstrated that a community teaching CRM-based team training on obstetric outcomes and hospital can develop and implement a CRM program clinicians’ patient safety attitudes. Jt Comm J Qual Patient tailored to local needs. The response to our CRM Saf 2007 Dec;33(12):720-5. Vol. 7, Suppl. 2—June 16, 2010 REPRINTED ARTICLE - ©2010 Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority Page 3
    • PENNSYLVANIA PATIENT SAFETY ADVISORY This article is reprinted from the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Advisory, Vol. 7, Suppl. 2—June 16, 2010. The Advisory is a publication of the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, produced by ECRI Institute and ISMP under contract to the Authority. Copyright 2010 by the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. This publication may be reprinted and distributed without restriction, provided it is printed or distributed in its entirety and without alteration. Individual articles may be reprinted in their entirety and without alteration provided the source is clearly attributed. This publication is disseminated via e-mail. To subscribe, go to https://www.papsrs.state.pa.us/ Workflow/MailingListAddition.aspx. To see other articles or issues of the Advisory, visit our Web site at http://www.patientsafetyauthority.org. Click on “Patient Safety Advisories” in the left-hand menu bar. THE PENNSYLVANIA PATIENT SAFETY AUTHORITY AND ITS CONTRACTORS The Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority is an independent state agency created by Act 13 of 2002, the Medical Care Availability and Reduction of Error (“Mcare”) Act. Consistent with Act 13, ECRI Institute, as contractor for the Authority, is issuing this publication to advise medical facilities of immediate changes that can be instituted to reduce Serious Events and Incidents. For more information about the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, see the Authority’s Web An Independent Agency of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania site at http://www.patientsafetyauthority.org. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization, dedicates itself to bringing the discipline of applied scientific research in healthcare to uncover the best approaches to improving patient care. As pioneers in this science for nearly 40 years, ECRI Institute marries experience and independence with the objectivity of evidence-based research. More than 5,000 healthcare organizations worldwide rely on ECRI Institute’s expertise in patient safety improvement, risk and quality management, and healthcare processes, devices, procedures and drug technology. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) is an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated solely to medication error prevention and safe medication use. ISMP provides recommendations for the safe use of medications to the healthcare community including healthcare professionals, government agencies, accrediting organizations, and consumers. ISMP’s efforts are built on a nonpunitive approach and systems-based solutions.