Prof. ioannis gitas (au th) “forest fuel classification and mapping at large scale in mediterran
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Prof. ioannis gitas (au th) “forest fuel classification and mapping at large scale in mediterran

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  • BEHAVE, FARSITE, the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), the FlamMap fire potential simulator and the Prometheus
  • As input data set concerning the types of Ecoregion is considered the respective data layer that has been developed within FUELMAP project and which is based on the Environmental stratification of Europe Metzger et al. (2005), the Pan-European map of Biogeograhical regions of Roekaerts (2002, ETC/BD 2006) and the map of Environmental Zones in Europe (Mücher et al, 2003). The JRC Forest type map 2006 was produced based on IRS-P6 LISS-III, SPOT4 (HRVIR) and SPOT5 (HRG) data acquired in 2006. It provides the location of areas in Europe covered by Broadleaved and Coniferous forests, at a 25m spatial resolution. The JRC forest density map is produced every year based on summer-time MODIS data. It provides forest density information across Europe at a 250m spatial resolution CLC2000 discriminates between 44 land-cover classes, organised hierarchically in three levels. It was produced by visually interpreting a mosaic of Landsat 7, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images belonging to the IMAGE2000 collection. The spatial resolution of the map is 100m and its thematic accuracy is estimated to exceed 85%the 2nd version of the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) derived by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), released by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) of Japan and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 2011. The second version (ASTER GDEM2) is an improvement of the previous release in 2009, and provides above sea level elevations over the greater part of the Earth’s surface (within the region between the 83° south and 83° north parallels) at a 30m spatial resolution the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Collection 5, Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) also known as product MOD44B. The product provides global 250m sub-pixel estimates of percent tree cover, based on MODIS reflective and emissive data composites
  • European Forest Fire Information System
  • Fire behaviour simulation models are often used for assessing these fire-related characteristics. There are several existing models of this kind, such as the Rothermel’s surface fire behaviour and spread model [21], the BEHAVE [22], [23], the FARSITE [24], the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS)[25], the FlamMap fire potential simulator [26], and the Prometheus [27], [28] which is part of the Canadian Wildland Fire Growth Model (CWFGM). The reliability of these models is directly linked to the quality of the environmental data they require to function, which typically include topographical, meteorological and vegetation fuel data [21]-[31].
  • Nowadays there are a large number of computer fire simulators (Farsite, Firestation, ArcFIRE, BehavePlus, DYNAFIRE, FLAMMAP etc) but almost all based on Rothermel’s surface fire spread model. The basic inputs for this model are related to terrain slope, wind speed and fuels description. This set of values bridges the Fuel Type term with the Fuel Model used in fire modelling. A fuel model can thus be described as a set of fuelbed inputs needed by particular fire behaviour or fire effects model. The needed inputs of fuel model for fire simulation are: • Fuel load by category (live and dead) and particle size class (0 to 0.6 mm, 0.6 to 2.5 mm, and 2.5 to 7.6 mm in diameter) • Surface-area-to-volume (SAV) ratio by component and size class • Heat content by category • Fuelbed depth • Dead fuel moisture of extinction

Transcript

  • 1. Forest fuel classification and mapping at large scale in Mediterranean Areas ArcFUEL Final Workshop, 18/12/2013, Thessaloniki “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” Dr. Pericles Toukiloglou, Dr. George Eftitsidis & Prof. Ioannis Gitas Aristotle University | Faculty of Forestry and Natural Environment | 55143, Greece ptoukiloglou@for.auth.gr ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 18 December 2013, Aristotle University Research Dissemination Center, Thessaloniki, Greece 1
  • 2. Methodology considerations Low cost Applicable across Europe Emphasis on Mediterranean ecosystems Medium spatial resolution (~50m) Results compatible with existing applications & projects (e.g. FUELMAP) ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 2
  • 3. Pilot study sites Greek (Taksiarhis) Italian (Cosenza) Portuguese (Lousã Mountains) Spanish (Sierra de Las Nieves Natural Park) ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 3
  • 4. Greek study site Area: 10400 ha Altitude range: 320-1195m Climate: Mediterranean Main vegetation: Trees, Shrubs & Grasses ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 4
  • 5. Datasets used EEA, Corine landcover map JRC, Forest type map EFFIS, Forest damage assessment maps MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (collection 5) Ecoregion type map Landsat TM & ETM+ images ASTER, GDEM v2 ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 5
  • 6. Classification scheme Compliance with FUELMAP Hierarchical      Main classes Seasonal behavior Vegetation density Ecoregion type Full detail ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 6
  • 7. Main class Temporal detail level Vegetation density detail level Ecoregion type detail level Full detail level Scrub Deciduous Broadleaved forest Open Dense Scrub Evergreen Open Dense Scrub Open Black Sea Mediterranean East Anatolian Lusitanian Pannonic – Pontic Continental Mediterranean North Deciduous Alpine South Scrub Atlantic North Dense Boreal Open Nemoral Evergreen Alpine North Scrub Atlantic Central Dense Mediterranean South Open Mediterranean Mountain Deciduous Coniferous forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion Forest Ecoregion + Scrub Deciduous Broadleaved + Open Deciduous Broadleaved + Dense Deciduous Broadleaved + Scrub Evergreen Broadleaved + Open Evergreen Broadleaved + Dense Evergreen Broadleaved + Scrub Deciduous Coniferous + Open Deciduous Coniferous + Dense Deciduous Coniferous + Scrub Evergreen Coniferous + Open Evergreen Coniferous + Dense Evergreen Coniferous + Scrub Deciduous Mixed Forest Ecoregion + Open Deciduous Mixed Forest Dense Surface fuels Ground fuels Non Wildland fuels Azonic fuels Agroforestry Burned areas No fuels Grasses Shrubs Ecoregion + Scrub Evergreen Mixed Forest Open Ecoregion + Open Evergreen Mixed Forest Dense Evergreen Ecoregion + Dense Deciduous Mixed Forest Scrub Mixed forest Ecoregion + Dense Evergreen Mixed Forest Ecoregion + Grasses Ecoregion + Shrubs Ecoregion + Ground fuels Ecoregion + Non Wildland fuels Ecoregion + Azonic fuels Ecoregion + Agroforestry Ecoregion + Burned areas No fuels ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 7
  • 8. Detailed FUELMAP class Peat bogs Wooded peat bogs Pastures Sparse grasslands Mediterranean grasslands and steppes Temperate, Alpine and Northern grasslands Mediterranean moors and heathlands Temperate, Alpine and Northern moors and heathlands Basic FUELMAP class Associated ArcFuel class Ground fuels Ground fuels Surface fuels Surface fuels Mediterranean open shrublands (sclerophylous) Mediterranean shrublands (sclerophylous) Deciduous broadleaved shrublands (thermophilous) Alpine open shrub lands (conifers) Shrublands in Mediterranean conifer forests Shrublands in Mediterranean sclerophylous forests Scrub Broadleaved forest Shrublands in Mediterranean montane conifer forests Shrublands in thermophilous broadleaved forests Shrublands in beech and mesophytic broadleaved forests Transitional forest Northern open shrublands in broadleaved forests Shrublands in Alpine and Northern conifer forests Mediterranean long needled conifer forest (mediterranean pines) Scrub Coniferous forest Scrub Mixed forest Mediterranean scale-needled open woodlands (juniperus, cupressus) Open Coniferous forest Mediterranean montane long needled conifer forest (black and scots pines) Mediterranean montane short needled conifer forest (firs, cedar) Coniferous forest Alpine long needled conifer forest (pines) Alpine short needled conifer forest (fir, alp. spruce) Northern long needled conifer forest (scots pine) Northern short needled conifer forest (spruce) Mediterranean evergreen broadleaved forest Thermophilous broadleaved forest Mesophytic broadleaved forest Beech forest Montane beech forest White birch boreal forest Mixed Mediterranean evergreen broadleaved with conifers forest Mixed thermophilous broadleaved with conifers forest Mixed mesophytic broadleaved with conifers forest Mixed beech with conifers forest Riparian vegetation Coastal and inland halophytic vegetation and dunes Aquatic Marshes Agroforestry areas No fuel Dense Coniferous forest Open Broadleaved forest Broadleaved forest Dense Broadleaved forest Open Mixed forest Mixed forest Dense Mixed forest Other fuels No fuel Non Wildland fuels Azonic fuels Burned areas Agroforestry No fuel ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 8
  • 9. Data update Use latest available dataset release Assume fire as the primary cause of broad land cover change between official land cover map releases Update land cover datasets for burned areas using the yearly EFFIS forest damage assessment maps ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 9
  • 10. Data update Collect all the EFFIS forest damage assessment maps produced since the release year of the landcover map ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 10
  • 11. Data update Append the burned areas ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 11
  • 12. Data update Convert the land cover dataset to vector format ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 12
  • 13. Data update Update the vector dataset for burned areas CORINE, update the “Burnt area” class JRC, update the “Non Forest” class ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 13
  • 14. Data update Convert the updated dataset back to raster format using a majority filter CORINE->50m JRC ->25m ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 14
  • 15. Main fuel classes originating from the JRC forest type map Broadleaved, Coniferous and Mixed Forest classes Aggregate groups of four neighboring 25m pixels to 50m ones The mixed class is created through the aggregation of both broadleaved and coniferous pixels ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 15
  • 16. C C C C C B B C B B B C Aggregation to 50 m B C C B B Updated forest type map Aggregation rules Number of 25m resolution pixels Broadleaved Coniferous Non Forest 4 0 0 3 0 1 3 1 0 2 0 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 1 0 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 0 0 0 4 0 1 3 0 2 2 0 3 1 0 4 0 C C M B Assigned class Broadleaved Forest Broadleaved Forest Broadleaved Forest Broadleaved Forest Broadleaved Forest Mixed Forest Non Forest Mixed Forest Coniferous Forest Coniferous Forest Non Forest Non Forest Coniferous Forest Coniferous Forest Coniferous Forest M Forest main classes ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 16
  • 17. JRC Forest type Aggregation ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 17
  • 18. Main fuel classes originating from the CORINE map ArcFuel main class Ground fuels Non Wildland fuels Azonic fuels Agroforestry Burned areas No fuels CORINE class Peat bogs Discontinuous urban fabric Green urban areas Sport and leisure facilities Non-irrigated arable land Vineyards Inland marshes Salt marshes Agro-forestry areas Burnt areas Estuaries Industrial or commercial units Port areas Airports Coastal lagoons Fruit trees and berry plantations Olive groves Annual crops associated with permanent crops Complex cultivation patterns Permanently irrigated land Salines Intertidal flats Land principally occupied by agriculture, with significant areas of natural vegetation Dump sites Water courses Beaches, dunes, sands Road and rail networks and associated land Water bodies Continuous urban fabric Bare rocks Rice fields Glaciers and perpetual snow Mineral extraction sites Construction sites Sea and ocean ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 18
  • 19. Main fuel classes originating from the CORINE map ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 19
  • 20. Surface fuels The area not covered by any of the other classes Assumed to be covered by Grasses and Shrubs ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 20
  • 21. Surface fuels ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 21
  • 22. Conflict resolution In case of conflicting main classes over the same area, the class originating from the most recent dataset is retained If the conflicting classes originate from equally current datasets, then the class originating from the highest resolution dataset is retained ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 22
  • 23. Temporal refinement Certain main fuel classes contain sub-classes with distinctly different seasonal behavior. The physical properties of these sub-classes differ over different seasons and thus so do their properties as a fuel. The main fuel classes that can be further sub-classified based on their seasonal behavior are:  the Broadleaved, Coniferous and Mixed forest fuels, which can be sub-classified to Deciduous and Evergreen  and the Surface fuels, which can be sub-classified to Grasses and Shrubs ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 23
  • 24. Temporal refinement ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 24
  • 25. Temporal refinement Assumption: Distinctly different seasonal NDVI value differences imply vegetation types with distinctly different seasonal behavior Assumption: Seasonal NDVI value differences are not affected considerably by factors other than the physical properties of the vegetation ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 25
  • 26. Temporal refinement Landsat images selection rules:  Captured recently and during:  Summer  Winter  Low cloud cover ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 26
  • 27. Temporal refinement Landsat image pre-processing       Calibration Atmospheric correction Cloud and shadow masking Topographic correction NDVI calculation Seasonal NDVI value difference calculation (summer-winter) ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 27
  • 28. Temporal refinement ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 28
  • 29. Temporal refinement Over areas covered solely by trees, the highest seasonal NDVI value differences should be recorded over Deciduous, and the lowest over Evergreen trees Over areas covered solely by surface fuels, the highest seasonal NDVI value differences should be recorded over Grasses, and the lowest over Shrubs ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 29
  • 30. Temporal refinement How can the seasonal NDVI value differences, which are neither too high and neither too low, be classified? No optimum set of seasonal NDVI value criteria for distinguishing the classes across Europe  Wide in-class variability  Wide range of possible image reception dates Empirical criteria would be costly ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 30
  • 31. Temporal refinement Alternative: use an automated clustering algorithm such as ISODATA to perform an unsupervised classification  Two classes  Performed over an area covered solely by two vegetation types with distinctly different seasonal behavior  Classified area should be large enough to include both vegetation types ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 31
  • 32. Temporal refinement ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 32
  • 33. Vegetation Density Vegetation density is an important fuel property At the time, the available data (MOD44B) is restricted to tree forest fuels Three sub-classes based on vegetation coverage percentage:  Scrub (0-10%)  Open (10-40%)  Dense (40-100%) ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 33
  • 34. Vegetation Density ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 34
  • 35. Ecoregion type Ecoregion type effects fire behavior Improves the compliance with FUELMAP 15 ecoregion types identified over Europe ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 35
  • 36. Ecoregion type European Ecoregion types Alpine North Boreal Nemoral Atlantic North Alpine South Continental Atlantic Central Pannonic – Pontic Lusitanian Anatolian Mediterranean Mountain Mediterranean North Mediterranean South Mediterranean East Black Sea ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 36
  • 37. Full detail Combine all the available fuel property layers ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 37
  • 38. Full detail Vegetation fuel class name Area coverage percentage Dense Broadleaved Deciduous 15.975% Dense Broadleaved Evergreen 20.564% Dense Coniferous Deciduous 0.026% Dense Coniferous Evergreen 5.585% Dense Mixed Evergreen 0.128% Grasses 24.170% Non Fuels 17.635% Non Wildland Fuels 0.662% Scrub Broadleaved Deciduous 5.146% Scrub Broadleaved Evergreen 4.007% Scrub Coniferous Deciduous 0.004% Scrub Coniferous Evergreen 1.078% Scrub Mixed Evergreen 0.252% Shrubs 4.770% ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 38
  • 39. Methodology overview ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 39
  • 40. Discussion Optimum Landsat images may be harder to find than originally anticipated Topographic correction is important Compositing Landsat images may improve the results ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 40
  • 41. Conclusions The proposed methodology can be used to regularly map forest fuel maps suitable for policy making over Europe, at low cost The methodology could be further improved in the future ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 41
  • 42. Thank you ArcFUEL Final Workshop “Forest Fires: Fuel mapping in the Mediterranean countries” 42