ETHICAL CONDUCT IN SCIENCE STM895   Postgraduate Research Skills In Science,  Technology, Maths and Computing Payam Rezaie...
 
LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the...
LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the...
What is the purpose of (academic) science? <ul><li>To advance knowledge and contribute towards the betterment and  </li></...
GENERAL PRINCIPLES <ul><li>When considering that </li></ul><ul><li>Science and technology impact on society </li></ul><ul>...
Conduct becoming of scientists <ul><li>Scientists  should   </li></ul><ul><li>not  act in ways that cause needless injury ...
Conduct becoming of scientists <ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct  </li></u...
LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the...
MORAL AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES IN SCIENCE <ul><li>Progress in science depends on the honest pursuit of scientific rese...
MORAL AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES IN SCIENCE <ul><li>Honesty   – do not commit fraud (e.g. fabricate, deceive, misreprese...
MORAL AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES IN SCIENCE <ul><li>Other general ethical principles include rules concerning  </li></ul...
LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the...
<ul><li>Sound scientific practice and integrity of the researcher and the method or process of scientific enquiry fosters ...
<ul><li>Society consists of many social institutions (e.g. business and industry, religion, law, government, education, me...
LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the...
RESPONSIBILITIES OF  THE RESEARCHER <ul><li>Maintaining academic integrity (responsibility in the acquisition, management,...
RESPONSIBILITIES OF  THE SUPERVISOR  (MENTOR) <ul><li>Setting guidelines and examples of good conduct in laboratory work (...
RESPONSIBILITIES OF  THE INSTITUTION <ul><li>Defining clear guidance and policies on codes of ethical conduct, and reviewi...
RESPONSIBILITIES OF  FUNDING BODIES <ul><li>Providing explicit ethical guidelines when calling for submission of research ...
RESPONSIBILITIES OF PEER-REVIEWED  SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS <ul><li>Providing explicit criteria for acceptance of research for ...
LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the...
WHAT CONSTITUTES ETHICAL MISCONDUCT <ul><li>FABRICATION   </li></ul><ul><li>(making up experimental data) </li></ul><ul><l...
WHAT DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ETHICAL MISCONDUCT <ul><li>HONEST ERROR </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNICAL/METHODOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES </...
LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the...
Human and Animal Subjects in Research –  OU policies and guidelines <ul><li>STRATEGY UNIT – RESEARCH ETHICS: HUMAN RESEARC...
Fabrication and Falsification
Importance of Peer Review
Consequences and Accountability
Publishing Research Consortium  Peer Review in Scholarly Journals  (2008);  available at   http://www.publishingresearch.n...
Fabrication and Falsification
PLAGIARISM
 
Source: Nature (2005) Volume 435, page 737
http://spore.swmed.edu/dejavu/
 
CASE STUDIES <ul><li>Fabrication in a grant application </li></ul><ul><li>A case of plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Publicati...
FABRICATION IN A GRANT APPLICATION Don is a first-year graduate student applying to the National Science Foundation for a ...
A CASE OF PLAGIARISM May is a second-year graduate student preparing the written portion of her qualifying exam. She incor...
PUBLICATION PRACTICES Paula, a young assistant professor, and two graduate students have been working on a series of relat...
CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE Ben, a third-year graduate student, had been working on a research project that involved an imp...
A CAREER IN THE BALANCE Francine was just months away from finishing her Ph.D. dissertation when she realized that somethi...
REFERENCES <ul><li>OU Research School Research Ethics Website </li></ul><ul><li>www.open.ac.uk/research-ethics/index.shtml...
http://www.open.ac.uk/StudentWeb/STM895/
http://intranet.open.ac.uk/research/ethics/index.shtml
http://intranet.open.ac.uk/strategy-unit/offices/ethics/index.shtml
http://www.aaas.org/spp/video/
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Ethical Conduct In Science March 2010

1,791 views
1,687 views

Published on

Payam's Rezaie's presentation on Ethical Conduct in Science

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,791
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
48
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ethical Conduct In Science March 2010

  1. 1. ETHICAL CONDUCT IN SCIENCE STM895 Postgraduate Research Skills In Science, Technology, Maths and Computing Payam Rezaie PhD Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, The Open University, Milton Keynes The Open University
  2. 3. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the basis for the rules of conduct and ethical standards, and how these may conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Justify the necessity for ethical principles and why they should be adhered to in science </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the responsibilities of the researcher, institution, funding agencies and scientific journals in ensuring the integrity of the scientific process </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between what does and does not constitute scientific misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Consider ethical and legal issues in the use of human and animal subjects in scientific research </li></ul>
  3. 4. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the basis for the rules of conduct and ethical standards, and how these may conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Justify the necessity for ethical principles and why they should be adhered to in science </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the responsibilities of the researcher, institution, funding agencies and scientific journals in ensuring the integrity of the scientific process </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between what does and does not constitute scientific misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Consider ethical and legal issues in the use of human and animal subjects in scientific research </li></ul>
  4. 5. What is the purpose of (academic) science? <ul><li>To advance knowledge and contribute towards the betterment and </li></ul><ul><li> welfare of mankind and the world we inhabit </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge brings with it responsibility </li></ul>
  5. 6. GENERAL PRINCIPLES <ul><li>When considering that </li></ul><ul><li>Science and technology impact on society </li></ul><ul><li>Affect our day-to-day lives </li></ul><ul><li>Have the potential for misuse and causing harm </li></ul><ul><li>It is clear that scientists and scientific practices need to be </li></ul><ul><li>regulated (monitored) by a system of ‘morals’ and </li></ul><ul><li>ethical ‘codes of conduct’ </li></ul>
  6. 7. Conduct becoming of scientists <ul><li>Scientists should </li></ul><ul><li>not act in ways that cause needless injury or harm to others </li></ul><ul><li>act in ways that promote the welfare of humanity </li></ul><ul><li>consult on equal, fair-minded, rational and objective </li></ul><ul><li> (unbiased) terms </li></ul><ul><li>uphold the fundamental tenets of integrity in the pursuit of </li></ul><ul><li> scientific enquiry </li></ul><ul><li>adhere to a system of rules (scientific codes of conduct) </li></ul><ul><li>set down by organizations, institutions and enforced through </li></ul><ul><li>legislation </li></ul>
  7. 8. Conduct becoming of scientists <ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct </li></ul><ul><li> (i) academic integrity of the researcher </li></ul><ul><li> (ii) ethical integrity of the scientific activity (method and process) </li></ul><ul><li> experimentation </li></ul><ul><li> testing </li></ul><ul><li> education </li></ul><ul><li> analysis </li></ul><ul><li> storage and dissemination of data </li></ul><ul><li> sources of funding </li></ul><ul><li> peer review </li></ul><ul><li> etc. </li></ul>
  8. 9. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the basis for the rules of conduct and ethical standards, and how these may conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Justify the necessity for ethical principles and why they should be adhered to in science </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the responsibilities of the researcher, institution, funding agencies and scientific journals in ensuring the integrity of the scientific process </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between what does and does not constitute scientific misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Consider ethical and legal issues in the use of human and animal subjects in scientific research </li></ul>
  9. 10. MORAL AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES IN SCIENCE <ul><li>Progress in science depends on the honest pursuit of scientific research </li></ul><ul><li> and truthful representation of the findings – this is the scientific process </li></ul><ul><li>That is, the ability to </li></ul><ul><li> obtain knowledge, </li></ul><ul><li> validate and confirm findings through reproducing research methods, </li></ul><ul><li> to evaluate existing knowledge critically, </li></ul><ul><li> and explore new avenues of discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Such progress has to be tempered with </li></ul><ul><li> Honesty </li></ul><ul><li> Carefulness </li></ul><ul><li> Openness </li></ul><ul><li> Intellectual freedom </li></ul><ul><li> Credit and acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li> Public responsibility </li></ul>
  10. 11. MORAL AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES IN SCIENCE <ul><li>Honesty – do not commit fraud (e.g. fabricate, deceive, misrepresent, omit or destroy data) </li></ul><ul><li>Carefulness – avoid careless errors in scientific work that may give rise to potentially </li></ul><ul><li> disastrous consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Openness – be willing to share data, methods, theories and so forth once these have been </li></ul><ul><li> validated, and be open to constructive criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual freedom – the freedom to explore new ideas and to criticise old ones, with </li></ul><ul><li> implications that the peer-review process and decisions regarding funding for science are fair </li></ul><ul><li> and unbiased </li></ul><ul><li>Credit and acknowledgement – give credit where credit is due, and do not plagiarise the </li></ul><ul><li> works of others (with implications for rules governing co-authorship of scientific works and </li></ul><ul><li> appropriate acknowledgements of contributions to said works) </li></ul><ul><li>Public responsibility – report research in the public media when the work has been </li></ul><ul><li> validated by scientific peers, and it has important and direct bearing on the advancement of </li></ul><ul><li> knowledge and/or on human welfare </li></ul>
  11. 12. MORAL AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES IN SCIENCE <ul><li>Other general ethical principles include rules concerning </li></ul><ul><li>discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>mentorship </li></ul><ul><li>public policy </li></ul><ul><li>vandalism </li></ul><ul><li>forms of harassment </li></ul><ul><li>These are enforced by both institutions and government </li></ul>
  12. 13. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the basis for the rules of conduct and ethical standards, and how these may conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Justify the necessity for ethical principles and why they should be adhered to in science </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the responsibilities of the researcher, institution, funding agencies and scientific journals in ensuring the integrity of the scientific process </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between what does and does not constitute scientific misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Consider ethical and legal issues in the use of human and animal subjects in scientific research </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Sound scientific practice and integrity of the researcher and the method or process of scientific enquiry fosters mutual trust and respect among scientists and the general public, and maintains confidence in and acceptance of science. </li></ul><ul><li>As individuals, scientists are fallible and mistakes will be made. Considering the principles of honesty, carefulness and openness however, those scientists who acknowledge their errors and publish retractions should of course, be forgiven. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Society consists of many social institutions (e.g. business and industry, religion, law, government, education, medicine, military etc.) with their own rules that guide human conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Moral dilemmas can arise not only when ethical principles and values conflict, but when the principles upheld by one social institution conflict with those of another. </li></ul><ul><li>The onus on scientists is strictly on their responsibility, accountability and conduct. That is to say, not only should scientists act responsibly in principle, but they will also be held accountable for their conduct. For this purpose, every organisation and institution (including universities) has a regulatory code that applies to its members. The Open University has an agreed code entitled: “Code of Practice for Research and Those Conducting Research” http://www.open.ac.uk/research/__assets/hqsmswvsfqj1budqwg.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>This covers the broader research issues including ethics. </li></ul>INSTITUTIONAL CODES OF CONDUCT - POLICIES
  15. 16. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the basis for the rules of conduct and ethical standards, and how these may conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Justify the necessity for ethical principles and why they should be adhered to in science </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the responsibilities of the researcher, institution, funding agencies and scientific journals in ensuring the integrity of the scientific process </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between what does and does not constitute scientific misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Consider ethical and legal issues in the use of human and animal subjects in scientific research </li></ul>
  16. 17. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE RESEARCHER <ul><li>Maintaining academic integrity (responsibility in the acquisition, management, analysis, dissemination and ownership of data; and proper disposition of grant incomes, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Human values (adherent to stringent moral, ethical and academic standards, and behavioural conduct) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining the dignity of science (through truth, fairness, openness, tolerance, honouring of collaborations, and rational enquiry) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining rigorous ethical standards in research </li></ul><ul><li>Working in line with guidelines set by their respective institutions, in accordance with rules determined by scientific peer-review (and lay-person-review panels where appropriate), within the confines of the law. </li></ul>
  17. 18. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SUPERVISOR (MENTOR) <ul><li>Setting guidelines and examples of good conduct in laboratory work (including keeping laboratory notebooks and sound laboratory practices), data analysis etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing ethical rules and examples, and importantly </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing the justification of these rules </li></ul>
  18. 19. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE INSTITUTION <ul><li>Defining clear guidance and policies on codes of ethical conduct, and reviewing these when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Educating their members </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcing their policies </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical reviews of proposals to carry out research involving human or animal subjects should be made outside the governance of science faculties (it is considered a conflict of interest for the faculty to establish the ethical rules under which they will work) </li></ul>
  19. 20. RESPONSIBILITIES OF FUNDING BODIES <ul><li>Providing explicit ethical guidelines when calling for submission of research proposals, and subsequently screening these to ensure that they fulfil their criteria prior to funding </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. the proposals having been submitted for and receiving approval by an appropriate internal ethical review board where necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. that there are no overlapping sources of funding for the same work) </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. that there are no conflicts of interest – that is when an author or an author’s institution has financial or personal relationships with other individuals or organisations that inappropriately influence or ‘bias’ their actions.) </li></ul>
  20. 21. RESPONSIBILITIES OF PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS <ul><li>Providing explicit criteria for acceptance of research for publication </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. ensuring that authors adhere to codes of conduct regarding authorship and contribution, experimental conduct, declare any conflicts of interest, sources of funding, and abide by nationally and internationally accepted ethical guidelines such as in the use of animals or human subjects). </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. ensure that the peer-review process is fair and unbiased, and the reviewers selected for their qualifications/expertise in the field of science under review, and for their impartiality, objectivity and confidentiality) </li></ul>
  21. 22. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the basis for the rules of conduct and ethical standards, and how these may conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Justify the necessity for ethical principles and why they should be adhered to in science </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the responsibilities of the researcher, institution, funding agencies and scientific journals in ensuring the integrity of the scientific process </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between what does and does not constitute scientific misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Consider ethical and legal issues in the use of human and animal subjects in scientific research </li></ul>
  22. 23. WHAT CONSTITUTES ETHICAL MISCONDUCT <ul><li>FABRICATION </li></ul><ul><li>(making up experimental data) </li></ul><ul><li>FALSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>(altering results or data without statistical justification) </li></ul><ul><li>PLAGIARISM </li></ul><ul><li>(appropriating the words or ideas of another and presenting these as one’s own) </li></ul><ul><li>Making unfound accusations regarding another researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Mischievous or malicious misrepresentations of one’s own or another’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting unethical or illegal experiments involving human or animal subjects </li></ul>
  23. 24. WHAT DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ETHICAL MISCONDUCT <ul><li>HONEST ERROR </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNICAL/METHODOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENCES IN THE INTERPRETATION OR JUDGEMENT OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE AUTHORSHIP DISPUTES </li></ul>
  24. 25. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Understand the general principles of ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the basis for the rules of conduct and ethical standards, and how these may conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Justify the necessity for ethical principles and why they should be adhered to in science </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the responsibilities of the researcher, institution, funding agencies and scientific journals in ensuring the integrity of the scientific process </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between what does and does not constitute scientific misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Consider ethical and legal issues in the use of human and animal subjects in scientific research </li></ul>
  25. 26. Human and Animal Subjects in Research – OU policies and guidelines <ul><li>STRATEGY UNIT – RESEARCH ETHICS: HUMAN RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>http://intranet.open.ac.uk/strategy-unit/offices/ethics/human.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>STRATEGY UNIT – RESEARCH ETHICS: ANIMAL RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>http://intranet.open.ac.uk/strategy-unit/offices/ethics/animals.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN PARTICIPANTS AND MATERIALS ETHICS COMMITTEE </li></ul><ul><li>http://intranet.open.ac.uk/strategy-unit/committees/hpmec/ </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMAL ETHICS ADVISORY GROUP, OPEN UNIVERSITY ANIMAL USE STATEMENT University Policy on Teaching and Research Involving Animals </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.open.ac.uk/science/lifesciences/about-the-department/life-sciences-animal-statement.php </li></ul>
  26. 27. Fabrication and Falsification
  27. 28. Importance of Peer Review
  28. 29. Consequences and Accountability
  29. 30. Publishing Research Consortium Peer Review in Scholarly Journals (2008); available at http://www.publishingresearch.net/PeerReview.htm
  30. 31. Fabrication and Falsification
  31. 32. PLAGIARISM
  32. 34. Source: Nature (2005) Volume 435, page 737
  33. 35. http://spore.swmed.edu/dejavu/
  34. 37. CASE STUDIES <ul><li>Fabrication in a grant application </li></ul><ul><li>A case of plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Publication practices </li></ul><ul><li>Credit where credit is due </li></ul><ul><li>A career in the balance </li></ul>
  35. 38. FABRICATION IN A GRANT APPLICATION Don is a first-year graduate student applying to the National Science Foundation for a predoctoral fellowship. His work in a lab where he did a rotation project was later carried on successfully by others, and it appears that a manuscript will be prepared for publication by the end of the summer. However, the fellowship application deadline is June 1, and Don decides it would be advantageous to list a publication as &quot;submitted.&quot; Without consulting the faculty member or other colleagues involved, Don makes up a title and author list for a &quot;submitted&quot; paper and cites it in his application. After the application has been mailed, a lab member sees it and goes to the faculty member to ask about the &quot;submitted&quot; manuscript. Don admits to fabricating the submission of the paper but explains his actions by saying that he thought the practice was not uncommon in science. The faculty members in Don's department demand that he withdraw his grant application and dismiss him from the graduate program. After leaving the university, Don applies for a master's degree, since he has fulfilled the course requirements. Although the department votes not to grant him a degree, the university administration does so because it is not stated in the university graduate bulletin that a student in Don's department must be in &quot;good standing&quot; to receive a degree. They fear that Don will bring suit against the university if the degree is denied. Likewise, nothing will appear in Don's university transcript regarding his dismissal. 1. Do you agree with Don that scientists often exaggerate the publication status of their work in written materials? 2. Do you think the department acted too harshly in dismissing Don from the graduate program? 3. Do you believe that being in &quot;good standing&quot; should be a prerequisite for obtaining an advanced degree in science? If Don later applied to a graduate program at another institution, does that institution have the right to know what happened? Source: National Academy of Press 1995 (www.nap.edu/html/obas)
  36. 39. A CASE OF PLAGIARISM May is a second-year graduate student preparing the written portion of her qualifying exam. She incorporates whole sentences and paragraphs verbatim from several published papers. She does not use quotation marks, but the sources are suggested by statements like &quot;(see . . . for more details).&quot; The faculty on the qualifying exam committee note inconsistencies in the writing styles of different paragraphs of the text and check the sources, uncovering May's plagiarism. After discussion with the faculty, May's plagiarism is brought to the attention of the dean of the graduate school, whose responsibility it is to review such incidents. The graduate school regulations state that &quot;plagiarism, that is, the failure in a dissertation, essay, or other written exercise to acknowledge ideas, research or language taken from others&quot; is specifically prohibited. The dean expels May from the program with the stipulation that she can reapply for the next academic year. 1. Is plagiarism like this a common practice? 2. Are there circumstances that should have led to May's being forgiven for plagiarizing? 3. Should May be allowed to reapply to the program? Source: National Academy of Press 1995 (www.nap.edu/html/obas)
  37. 40. PUBLICATION PRACTICES Paula, a young assistant professor, and two graduate students have been working on a series of related experiments for the past several years. During that time, the experiments have been written up in various posters, abstracts, and meeting presentations. Now it is time to write up the experiments for publication, but the students and Paula must first make an important decision. They could write a single paper with one first author that would describe the experiments in a comprehensive manner, or they could write a series of shorter, less complete papers so that each student could be a first author. Paula favors the first option, arguing that a single publication in a more visible journal would better suit all of their purposes. Paula's students, on the other hand, strongly suggest that a series of papers be prepared. They argue that one paper encompassing all the results would be too long and complex and might damage their career opportunities because they would not be able to point to a paper on which they were first authors. 1. If the experiments are part of a series, are Paula and her students justified in not publishing them together? 2. If they decided to publish a single paper, how should the listing of authors be handled? 3. If a single paper is published, how can they emphasize to the review committees and funding agencies their various roles and the importance of the paper? Source: National Academy of Press 1995 (www.nap.edu/html/obas)
  38. 41. CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE Ben, a third-year graduate student, had been working on a research project that involved an important new experimental technique. For a national meeting in his discipline, Ben wrote an abstract and gave a brief presentation that mentioned the new technique. After his presentation, he was surprised and pleased when Dr. Freeman, a leading researcher from another university, engaged him in an extended conversation. Dr. Freeman asked Ben extensively about the new technique, and Ben described it fully. Ben's own faculty advisor often encouraged his students not to keep secrets from other researchers, and Ben was flattered that Dr. Freeman would be so interested in his work. Six months later Ben was leafing through a journal when he noticed an article by Dr. Freeman. The article described an experiment that clearly depended on the technique that Ben had developed. He didn't mind; in fact, he was again somewhat flattered that his technique had so strongly influenced Dr. Freeman's work. But when he turned to the citations, expecting to see a reference to his abstract or presentation, his name was nowhere to be found. 1. Does Ben have any way of receiving credit for his work? 2. Should he contact Dr. Freeman in an effort to have his work recognized? 3. Is Ben's faculty advisor mistaken in encouraging his students to be so open about their work? Source: National Academy of Press 1995 (www.nap.edu/html/obas)
  39. 42. A CAREER IN THE BALANCE Francine was just months away from finishing her Ph.D. dissertation when she realized that something was seriously amiss with the work of a fellow graduate student, Sylvia. Francine was convinced that Sylvia was not actually making the measurements she claimed to be making. They shared the same lab, but Sylvia rarely seemed to be there. Sometimes Francine saw research materials thrown away unopened. The results Sylvia was turning in to their common thesis advisor seemed too clean to be real. Francine knew that she would soon need to ask her thesis advisor for a letter of recommendation for faculty and postdoc positions. If she raised the issue with her advisor now, she was sure that it would affect the letter of recommendation. Sylvia was a favorite of her advisor, who had often helped Sylvia before when her project ran into problems. Yet Francine also knew that if she waited to raise the issue the question would inevitably arise as to when she first suspected problems. Both Francine and her thesis advisor were using Sylvia's results in their own research. If Sylvia's results were inaccurate, they both needed to know as soon as possible. 1. Should Francine first try to talk with Sylvia, with her thesis advisor, or with someone else entirely? 2. Does she know enough to be able to raise concerns? 3. Where else can Francine go for information that could help her decide what to do? Source: National Academy of Press 1995 (www.nap.edu/html/obas)
  40. 43. REFERENCES <ul><li>OU Research School Research Ethics Website </li></ul><ul><li>www.open.ac.uk/research-ethics/index.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>OU Strategy Unit Research Ethics Website </li></ul><ul><li>intranet.open.ac.uk/strategy-unit/offices/ethics/index.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>OU Research Policy, Governance and Information </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.open.ac.uk/research/research-school/resources/policy-information-governance.php </li></ul><ul><li>OU Code of Practice for Research and Those Conducting Research </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.open.ac.uk/research/__assets/hqsmswvsfqj1budqwg.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>OU Ethics Principles for Research Involving Human Participants </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.open.ac.uk/research/__assets/zucmtefbmrivu9r1ps.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>STM895 Postgraduate Research Skills in science, technology, </li></ul><ul><li>maths and computing </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical conduct in science </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.open.ac.uk/StudentWeb/STM895/docs/EthicalConduct/Ethical_conduct_final.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property, copyright issues (‘Rights’) and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>in research </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.open.ac.uk/StudentWeb/STM895/docs/IntellectualProperty/Intellectual_copyright_final2.pdf </li></ul>
  41. 44. http://www.open.ac.uk/StudentWeb/STM895/
  42. 45. http://intranet.open.ac.uk/research/ethics/index.shtml
  43. 46. http://intranet.open.ac.uk/strategy-unit/offices/ethics/index.shtml
  44. 47. http://www.aaas.org/spp/video/

×