[close]  William ShakespeareFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation <#mw-head>, search <#p-search>This ar...
Stratford around 1613, where he died three years later. Few records ofShakespeares private life survive, and there has bee...
*   10   Notes <#Notes>    *   11   References <#References>    *   12   Bibliography <#Bibliography>    *   13   External...
scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeares "lostyears".^[19] <#cite_note-22> Biographers attempting...
</wiki/James_I_of_England>, and changed its name to the Kings Men</wiki/King%27s_Men_(playing_company)>.^[33] <#cite_note-...
</wiki/File:ShakespeareMonument_cropped.jpg>Shakespeares funerary monument</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_funerary_monument> in Str...
Main articles: Shakespeares plays </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_plays> andShakespeares collaborations </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_coll...
lyrical /Richard II </wiki/Richard_II_(play)>/, written almost entirelyin verse, Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into ...
/The Winters Tale </wiki/The_Winter%27s_Tale>/ and /The Tempest</wiki/The_Tempest>/, as well as the collaboration, /Pericl...
</wiki/Dogberry> in /Much Ado About Nothing/, among othercharacters.^[109] <#cite_note-112> He was replaced around the tur...
<#cite_note-123> Both proved popular and were often reprinted duringShakespeares lifetime. A third narrative poem, /A Love...
Field </wiki/Richard_Field_(printer)> and John Davies.^[130]<#cite_note-Bruce_Shakesperian_Sonnets-133> The French and Ita...
releases the new power and flexibility of the poetry in plays such as/Julius Caesar </wiki/Julius_Caesar_(play)>/ and /Ham...
worthy topic for tragedy.^[145] <#cite_note-148> Soliloquies had beenused mainly to convey information about characters or...
Between the Restoration </wiki/The_Restoration> of the monarchy in 1660and the end of the 17th century, classical ideas we...
AuthorshipMain article: Shakespeare authorship question</wiki/Shakespeare_authorship_question>Around 150 years after Shake...
good likeness,^[185] <#cite_note-Cooper-188> and his Stratford monument</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_funeral_monument> provide th...
Main article: Shakespearean comedy </wiki/Shakespearean_comedy>    *   /Alls Well That Ends Well </wiki/All%27s_Well_That_...
* /The Rape of Lucrece </wiki/The_Rape_of_Lucrece>/    * /The Passionate Pilgrim </wiki/The_Passionate_Pilgrim>/^[nb 5]   ...
</wiki/Peter_Short_(printer)> • Valentine Simmes</wiki/Valentine_Simmes> • William Stansby </wiki/William_Stansby>   S...
7. *^ <#cite_ref-10>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 14 22. 8. *^ <#cite_ref-11>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSc...
50.   *^ <#cite_ref-53>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 272 274.  51.   *^ <#cite_ref-54>* Honan 1998 <#CITER...
2005 <#CITEREFMuir2005>, 12 16. 89.   *^ <#cite_ref-92>* Bradley 1991 <#CITEREFBradley1991>, 94. 90.   *^ <#cite_ref-93>...
124. *^ <#cite_ref-127>* Honan 1998 <#CITEREFHonan1998>, 180.125. *^ <#cite_ref-128>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1...
Apprenticeship/ (1795); Stendhals two-part pamphlet /Racine et      Shakespeare/ (1823 5); and Victor Hugos prefaces to ...
* Adams, Joseph Quincy </wiki/Joseph_Quincy_Adams> (1923), /A Life  of William Shakespeare/, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, OCL...
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
William shakespeare life and times
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William shakespeare life and times

  1. 1. [close] William ShakespeareFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation <#mw-head>, search <#p-search>This article is about the poet and playwright. For other persons of thesame name, see William Shakespeare (disambiguation)</wiki/William_Shakespeare_(disambiguation)>. For other uses of"Shakespeare", see Shakespeare (disambiguation)</wiki/Shakespeare_(disambiguation)>.Page semi-protected </wiki/Wikipedia:Protection_policy#semi>William Shakespeare</wiki/File:Shakespeare.jpg>The Chandos portrait </wiki/Chandos_portrait>, artist and authenticityunconfirmed. National Portrait Gallery, London</wiki/National_Portrait_Gallery,_London>.Born Baptised 26 April 1564 (birth date unknown)Stratford-upon-Avon </wiki/Stratford-upon-Avon>, Warwickshire</wiki/Warwickshire>, England </wiki/Kingdom_of_England>Died 23 April 1616 (aged 52)Stratford-upon-Avon </wiki/Stratford-upon-Avon>, Warwickshire</wiki/Warwickshire>, England </wiki/Kingdom_of_England>Occupation Playwright </wiki/Playwright>, poet </wiki/Poet>, actor</wiki/Actor>Literary movement English Renaissance theatre</wiki/English_Renaissance_theatre>Spouse(s) Anne Hathaway </wiki/Anne_Hathaway_(Shakespeare)>(m. 1582 1616) «start: (1582) end+1: (1617)»"Marriage: Anne Hathaway</wiki/Anne_Hathaway_(Shakespeare)> to William Shakespeare" Location:(linkback:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shakespeare)Children Susanna Hall </wiki/Susanna_Hall>Hamnet Shakespeare </wiki/Hamnet_Shakespeare>Judith Quiney </wiki/Judith_Quiney>------------------------------------------------------------------------Signature </wiki/File:William_Shakepeare_Signature.svg>*William Shakespeare* (baptised </wiki/Baptism> 26 April 1564; died 23April 1616)^[nb 1] <#cite_note-dates-0> was an English</wiki/English_people> poet </wiki/Poet> and playwright</wiki/Playwright>, widely regarded as the greatest writer in theEnglish language </wiki/English_language> and the worlds pre-eminentdramatist.^[1] <#cite_note-1> He is often called Englands national poet</wiki/National_poet> and the "Bard of Avon".^[2] <#cite_note-2> ^[nb 2]<#cite_note-national-cult-3> His surviving works, including somecollaborations </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_collaborations>, consist of about38 plays </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_plays>,^[nb 3]<#cite_note-exact-figures-4> 154 sonnets</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_Sonnets>, two long narrative poems</wiki/Narrative_poem>, and several other poems. His plays have beentranslated into every major living language and are performed more oftenthan those of any other playwright.^[3] <#cite_note-5>Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon</wiki/Stratford-upon-Avon>. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway</wiki/Anne_Hathaway_(Shakespeare)>, with whom he had three children:Susanna </wiki/Susanna_Hall>, and twins Hamnet</wiki/Hamnet_Shakespeare> and Judith </wiki/Judith_Quiney>. Between1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London </wiki/London> asan actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company</wiki/Playing_company> called the Lord Chamberlains Men</wiki/Lord_Chamberlain%27s_Men>, later known as the Kings Men</wiki/King%27s_Men_(playing_company)>. He appears to have retired to
  2. 2. Stratford around 1613, where he died three years later. Few records ofShakespeares private life survive, and there has been considerablespeculation about such matters as his physical appearance</wiki/Portraits_of_Shakespeare>, sexuality</wiki/Sexuality_of_William_Shakespeare>, religious beliefs</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_religion>, and whether the works attributed tohim were written by others </wiki/Shakespeare_authorship_question>.^[4]<#cite_note-Shapiro2005-6>Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613.^[5]<#cite_note-7> ^[nb 4] <#cite_note-play-dates-8> His early plays weremainly comedies </wiki/Shakespearean_comedy> and histories</wiki/Shakespearean_history>, genres he raised to the peak ofsophistication and artistry by the end of the 16th century. He thenwrote mainly tragedies </wiki/Shakespearean_tragedy> until about 1608,including /Hamlet </wiki/Hamlet>/, /King Lear </wiki/King_Lear>/, and/Macbeth </wiki/Macbeth>/, considered some of the finest works in theEnglish language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_late_romances>, also known as romances, andcollaborated with other playwrights.Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality andaccuracy during his lifetime. In 1623, two of his former theatricalcolleagues published the First Folio </wiki/First_Folio>, a collectededition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays nowrecognised as Shakespeares.Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but hisreputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th century.The Romantics </wiki/Romantics>, in particular, acclaimed Shakespearesgenius, and the Victorians </wiki/Victorian_era> worshipped Shakespearewith a reverence that George Bernard Shaw </wiki/George_Bernard_Shaw>called "bardolatry </wiki/Bardolatry>".^[6] <#cite_note-9> In the 20thcentury, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by newmovements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highlypopular today and are constantly studied, performed and reinterpreted indiverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world. Contents[hide <#>] * 1 Life <#Life> o 1.1 Early life <#Early_life> o 1.2 London and theatrical career <#London_and_theatrical_career> o 1.3 Later years and death <#Later_years_and_death> * 2 Plays <#Plays> o 2.1 Performances <#Performances> o 2.2 Textual sources <#Textual_sources> * 3 Poems <#Poems> o 3.1 Sonnets <#Sonnets> * 4 Style <#Style> * 5 Influence <#Influence> * 6 Critical reputation <#Critical_reputation> * 7 Speculation about Shakespeare <#Speculation_about_Shakespeare> o 7.1 Authorship <#Authorship> o 7.2 Religion <#Religion> o 7.3 Sexuality <#Sexuality> o 7.4 Portraiture <#Portraiture> * 8 List of works <#List_of_works> o 8.1 Classification of the plays <#Classification_of_the_plays> o 8.2 Works <#Works> * 9 See also <#See_also>
  3. 3. * 10 Notes <#Notes> * 11 References <#References> * 12 Bibliography <#Bibliography> * 13 External links <#External_links> * 14 Related information <#Related_information> LifeMain article: Shakespeares life </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_life> Early lifeWilliam Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare</wiki/John_Shakespeare>, a successful glover </wiki/Glove> and alderman</wiki/Alderman> originally from Snitterfield </wiki/Snitterfield>, andMary Arden </wiki/Mary_Shakespeare>, the daughter of an affluentlandowning farmer.^[7] <#cite_note-10> He was born inStratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actualbirthdate remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, StGeorges Day </wiki/St_George%27s_Day>.^[8] <#cite_note-11> This date,which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholars mistake, hasproved appealing to biographers, since Shakespeare died 23 April1616.^[9] <#cite_note-12> He was the third child of eight and the eldestsurviving son.^[10] <#cite_note-13>Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographersagree that Shakespeare probably was educated at the Kings New School</wiki/King_Edward_VI_School_Stratford-upon-Avon> in Stratford,^[11]<#cite_note-14> a free school chartered in 1553,^[12] <#cite_note-15>about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools</wiki/Grammar_school> varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, butthe curriculum was dictated by law throughout England,^[13]<#cite_note-16> and the school would have provided an intensiveeducation in Latin grammar </wiki/Latin_language> and the classics</wiki/Classical_literature>.</wiki/File:William_Shakespeares_birthplace,_Stratford-upon-Avon_26l2007.jpg></wiki/File:William_Shakespeares_birthplace,_Stratford-upon-Avon_26l2007.jpg>John Shakespeares house, believed to be Shakespeares birthplace</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_Birthplace>, in Stratford-upon-Avon</wiki/Stratford-upon-Avon>.At the age of 18, Shakespeare married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway</wiki/Anne_Hathaway_(Shakespeare)>. The consistory court</wiki/Consistory_court> of the Diocese of Worcester</wiki/Anglican_Diocese_of_Worcester> issued a marriage licence 27November 1582. The next day two of Hathaways neighbours posted bondsguaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage.^[14]<#cite_note-17> The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste, sincethe Worcester chancellor </wiki/Chancellor> allowed the marriage banns</wiki/Banns_of_marriage> to be read once instead of the usual threetimes,^[15] <#cite_note-18> and six months after the marriage Anne gavebirth to a daughter, Susanna </wiki/Susanna_Hall>, baptised 26 May1583.^[16] <#cite_note-19> Twins, son Hamnet </wiki/Hamnet_Shakespeare>and daughter Judith </wiki/Judith_Quiney>, followed almost two yearslater and were baptised 2 February 1585.^[17] <#cite_note-20> Hamnetdied of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August1596.^[18] <#cite_note-21>After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical tracesuntil he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592, and
  4. 4. scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeares "lostyears".^[19] <#cite_note-22> Biographers attempting to account for thisperiod have reported many apocryphal<http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/apocryphal> stories. Nicholas Rowe</wiki/Nicholas_Rowe_(dramatist)>, Shakespeare s first biographer,recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for Londonto escape prosecution for deer poaching </wiki/Poaching>.^[20]<#cite_note-23> Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting histheatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London.^[21]<#cite_note-24> John Aubrey </wiki/John_Aubrey> reported thatShakespeare had been a country schoolmaster.^[22] <#cite_note-25> Some20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have beenemployed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire</wiki/Lancashire>, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "WilliamShakeshafte" in his will.^[23] <#cite_note-26> No evidence substantiatessuch stories other than hearsay <http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hearsay>collected after his death, and Shakeshafte was a common name in theLancashire area.^[24] <#cite_note-27> London and theatrical career"All the worlds a stage,and all the men and women merely players:they have their exits and their entrances;and one man in his time plays many parts..."/As You Like It </wiki/As_You_Like_It>/, Act II, Scene 7, 139 42.^[25]<#cite_note-28>It is not known exactly when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporaryallusions and records of performances show that several of his playswere on the London stage by 1592.^[26] <#cite_note-29> He was wellenough known in London by then to be attacked in print by the playwrightRobert Greene </wiki/Robert_Greene_(16th_century)>: ...there is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his /Tigers heart wrapped in a Players hide/, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute /Johannes factotum/, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country.^[27] <#cite_note-30>Scholars differ on the exact meaning of these words,^[28]<#cite_note-31> but most agree that Greene is accusing Shakespeare ofreaching above his rank in trying to match university-educated writers,such as Christopher Marlowe </wiki/Christopher_Marlowe>, Thomas Nashe</wiki/Thomas_Nashe> and Greene himself.^[29] <#cite_note-32> Theitalicised phrase parodying the line "Oh, tigers heart wrapped in awomans hide" from Shakespeare s /Henry VI, part 3</wiki/Henry_VI,_part_3>/, along with the pun "Shake-scene", identifiesShakespeare as Greene s target.^[30] <#cite_note-33>Greene s attack is the first recorded mention of Shakespeare s career inthe theatre. Biographers suggest that his career may have begun any timefrom the mid-1580s to just before Greene s remarks.^[31] <#cite_note-34>From 1594, Shakespeares plays were performed only by the LordChamberlains Men </wiki/Lord_Chamberlain%27s_Men>, a company owned by agroup of players, including Shakespeare, that soon became the leadingplaying company </wiki/Playing_company> in London.^[32] <#cite_note-35>After the death of Queen Elizabeth </wiki/Elizabeth_I_of_England> in1603, the company was awarded a royal patent by the new king, James I
  5. 5. </wiki/James_I_of_England>, and changed its name to the Kings Men</wiki/King%27s_Men_(playing_company)>.^[33] <#cite_note-36>In 1599, a partnership of company members built their own theatre on thesouth bank of the Thames </wiki/Thames>, which they called the Globe</wiki/Globe_Theatre>. In 1608, the partnership also took over theBlackfriars indoor theatre </wiki/Blackfriars_Theatre>. Records ofShakespeares property purchases and investments indicate that thecompany made him a wealthy man.^[34] <#cite_note-37> In 1597, he boughtthe second-largest house in Stratford, New Place </wiki/New_Place>, andin 1605, he invested in a share of the parish </wiki/Parish> tithes</wiki/Tithes> in Stratford.^[35] <#cite_note-38>Some of Shakespeares plays were published in quarto</wiki/Quarto_(binding)> editions from 1594. By 1598, his name hadbecome a selling point and began to appear on the title pages</wiki/Title_page>.^[36] <#cite_note-39> Shakespeare continued to act inhis own and other plays after his success as a playwright. The 1616edition of Ben Jonson </wiki/Ben_Jonson>s /Works/ names him on the castlists for /Every Man in His Humour </wiki/Every_Man_in_His_Humour>/(1598) and /Sejanus, His Fall </wiki/Sejanus_(play)>/ (1603).^[37]<#cite_note-40> The absence of his name from the 1605 cast list forJonson s /Volpone </wiki/Volpone>/ is taken by some scholars as a signthat his acting career was nearing its end.^[38] <#cite_note-41> TheFirst Folio </wiki/First_Folio> of 1623, however, lists Shakespeare asone of "the Principal Actors in all these Plays", some of which werefirst staged after /Volpone/, although we cannot know for certain whichroles he played.^[39] <#cite_note-42> In 1610, John Davies of Hereford</wiki/John_Davies_of_Hereford> wrote that "good Will" played "kingly"roles.^[40] <#cite_note-43> In 1709, Rowe passed down a tradition thatShakespeare played the ghost of Hamlets father.^[41] <#cite_note-44>Later traditions maintain that he also played Adam in /As You Like It</wiki/As_You_Like_It>/ and the Chorus in /Henry V</wiki/Henry_V_(play)>/,^[42] <#cite_note-45> though scholars doubt thesources of the information.^[43] <#cite_note-46>Shakespeare divided his time between London and Stratford during hiscareer. In 1596, the year before he bought New Place as his family homein Stratford, Shakespeare was living in the parish </wiki/Parish> of St.Helens, Bishopsgate </wiki/Bishopsgate>, north of the RiverThames.^[44] <#cite_note-47> He moved across the river to Southwark</wiki/Southwark> by 1599, the year his company constructed the GlobeTheatre there.^[45] <#cite_note-48> By 1604, he had moved north of theriver again, to an area north of St Pauls Cathedral</wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral> with many fine houses. There he rentedrooms from a French Huguenot </wiki/Huguenot> called ChristopherMountjoy, a maker of ladies wigs and other headgear.^[46] <#cite_note-49> Later years and deathRowe was the first biographer to pass down the tradition thatShakespeare retired to Stratford some years before his death;^[47]<#cite_note-autogenerated1-50> but retirement from all work was uncommonat that time,^[48] <#cite_note-51> and Shakespeare continued to visitLondon.^[47] <#cite_note-autogenerated1-50> In 1612 he was called as awitness in a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoysdaughter, Mary.^[49] <#cite_note-52> In March 1613 he bought a gatehouse</wiki/Gatehouse> in the former Blackfriars </wiki/Blackfriars,_London>priory </wiki/Priory>;^[50] <#cite_note-53> and from November 1614 hewas in London for several weeks with his son-in-law, John Hall</wiki/John_Hall_(physician)>.^[51] <#cite_note-54></wiki/File:ShakespeareMonument_cropped.jpg>
  6. 6. </wiki/File:ShakespeareMonument_cropped.jpg>Shakespeares funerary monument</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_funerary_monument> in Stratford-upon-Avon.After 1606 1607, Shakespeare wrote fewer plays, and none are attributedto him after 1613.^[52] <#cite_note-55> His last three plays werecollaborations, probably with John Fletcher</wiki/John_Fletcher_(playwright)>,^[53] <#cite_note-56> who succeededhim as the house playwright for the King s Men.^[54] <#cite_note-57>Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616^[55] <#cite_note-58> and was survivedby his wife and two daughters. Susanna had married a physician, JohnHall, in 1607,^[56] <#cite_note-59> and Judith had married Thomas Quiney</wiki/Thomas_Quiney>, a vintner </wiki/Vintner>, two months beforeShakespeare s death.^[57] <#cite_note-60>In his will, Shakespeare left the bulk of his large estate to his elderdaughter Susanna.^[58] <#cite_note-61> The terms instructed that shepass it down intact to "the first son of her body".^[59] <#cite_note-62>The Quineys had three children, all of whom died without marrying.^[60]<#cite_note-63> The Halls had one child, Elizabeth, who married twicebut died without children in 1670, ending Shakespeare s directline.^[61] <#cite_note-64> Shakespeares will scarcely mentions hiswife, Anne, who was probably entitled to one third of his estateautomatically.^[62] <#cite_note-65> He did make a point, however, ofleaving her "my second best bed", a bequest that has led to muchspeculation.^[63] <#cite_note-66> Some scholars see the bequest as aninsult to Anne, whereas others believe that the second-best bed wouldhave been the matrimonial bed and therefore rich in significance.^[64]<#cite_note-67>Shakespeare was buried in the chancel </wiki/Chancel> of the HolyTrinity Church </wiki/Holy_Trinity_Church,_Stratford-upon-Avon> two daysafter his death.^[65] <#cite_note-68> The epitaph carved into the stoneslab covering his grave includes a curse </wiki/Curse> against movinghis bones, which was carefully avoided during restoration of the churchin 2008:^[66] <#cite_note-69></wiki/File:Shakespeare_grave_-Stratford-upon-Avon_-3June2007.jpg></wiki/File:Shakespeare_grave_-Stratford-upon-Avon_-3June2007.jpg>Shakespeares grave. /Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare,/ /To digg the dvst encloased heare./ /Bleste be ye man yt spares thes stones,/ /And cvrst be he yt moves my bones./^[67] <#cite_note-70>Sometime before 1623, a funerary monument</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_funerary_monument> was erected in his memory onthe north wall, with a half-effigy of him in the act of writing. Itsplaque compares him to Nestor </wiki/Nestor_(mythology)>, Socrates</wiki/Socrates>, and Virgil </wiki/Virgil>.^[68] <#cite_note-71> In1623, in conjunction with the publication of the First Folio</wiki/First_Folio>, the Droeshout engraving </wiki/Droeshout_engraving>was published.^[69] <#cite_note-NPG2006-72>Shakespeare has been commemorated in many statues and memorials</wiki/Memorials_to_William_Shakespeare> around the world, includingfuneral monuments in Southwark Cathedral </wiki/Southwark_Cathedral> andPoets Corner </wiki/Poet%27s_Corner> in Westminster Abbey</wiki/Westminster_Abbey>. Plays
  7. 7. Main articles: Shakespeares plays </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_plays> andShakespeares collaborations </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_collaborations>Most playwrights of the period typically collaborated with others atsome point, and critics agree that Shakespeare did the same, mostlyearly and late in his career.^[70] <#cite_note-73> Some attributions,such as /Titus Andronicus </wiki/Titus_Andronicus>/ and the earlyhistory plays, remain controversial, while /The Two Noble Kinsmen</wiki/The_Two_Noble_Kinsmen>/ and the lost /Cardenio </wiki/Cardenio>/have well-attested contemporary documentation. Textual evidence alsosupports the view that several of the plays were revised by otherwriters after their original composition.The first recorded works of Shakespeare are /Richard III</wiki/Richard_III_(play)>/ and the three parts of /Henry VI</wiki/Henry_VI,_Part_1>/, written in the early 1590s during a vogue forhistorical drama. Shakespeares plays are difficult to date,however,^[71] <#cite_note-74> and studies of the texts suggest that/Titus Andronicus </wiki/Titus_Andronicus>/, /The Comedy of Errors</wiki/The_Comedy_of_Errors>/, /The Taming of the Shrew</wiki/The_Taming_of_the_Shrew>/ and /The Two Gentlemen of Verona</wiki/The_Two_Gentlemen_of_Verona>/ may also belong to Shakespeare searliest period.^[72] <#cite_note-75> His first histories</wiki/Shakespearean_history>, which draw heavily on the 1587 edition ofRaphael Holinsheds </wiki/Raphael_Holinshed> /Chronicles of England,Scotland, and Ireland/,^[73] <#cite_note-76> dramatise the destructiveresults of weak or corrupt rule and have been interpreted as ajustification for the origins of the Tudor dynasty</wiki/Tudor_dynasty>.^[74] <#cite_note-77> The early plays wereinfluenced by the works of other Elizabethan dramatists, especiallyThomas Kyd </wiki/Thomas_Kyd> and Christopher Marlowe</wiki/Christopher_Marlowe>, by the traditions of medieval drama, and bythe plays of Seneca </wiki/Seneca_the_Younger>.^[75] <#cite_note-78>/The Comedy of Errors/ was also based on classical models, but no sourcefor /The Taming of the Shrew/ has been found, though it is related to aseparate play of the same name and may have derived from a folkstory.^[76] <#cite_note-79> Like /The Two Gentlemen of Verona/, in whichtwo friends appear to approve of rape,^[77] <#cite_note-80> the/Shrews/ story of the taming of a womans independent spirit by a mansometimes troubles modern critics and directors.^[78] <#cite_note-81></wiki/File:Oberon,_Titania_and_Puck_with_Fairies_Dancing._William_Blake._c.1786.jpg></wiki/File:Oberon,_Titania_and_Puck_with_Fairies_Dancing._William_Blake._c.1786.jpg>/Oberon, Titania and Puck with Fairies Dancing./ By William Blake</wiki/William_Blake>, c. 1786. Tate Britain </wiki/Tate_Britain>.Shakespeares early classical and Italianate comedies, containing tightdouble plots and precise comic sequences, give way in the mid-1590s tothe romantic atmosphere of his greatest comedies.^[79] <#cite_note-82>/A Midsummer Nights Dream </wiki/A_Midsummer_Night%27s_Dream>/ is awitty mixture of romance, fairy magic, and comic lowlife scenes.^[80]<#cite_note-83> Shakespeares next comedy, the equally romantic/Merchant of Venice </wiki/The_Merchant_of_Venice>/, contains aportrayal of the vengeful Jewish moneylender Shylock </wiki/Shylock>,which reflects Elizabethan views but may appear derogatory to modernaudiences.^[81] <#cite_note-84> The wit and wordplay of /Much Ado AboutNothing </wiki/Much_Ado_About_Nothing>/,^[82] <#cite_note-85> thecharming rural setting of /As You Like It </wiki/As_You_Like_It>/, andthe lively merrymaking of /Twelfth Night </wiki/Twelfth_Night>/ completeShakespeares sequence of great comedies.^[83] <#cite_note-86> After the
  8. 8. lyrical /Richard II </wiki/Richard_II_(play)>/, written almost entirelyin verse, Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into the histories of thelate 1590s, /Henry IV, parts 1 </wiki/Henry_IV,_Part_1>/ and /2</wiki/Henry_IV,_Part_2>/, and /Henry V </wiki/Henry_V_(play)>/. Hischaracters become more complex and tender as he switches deftly betweencomic and serious scenes, prose and poetry, and achieves the narrativevariety of his mature work.^[84] <#cite_note-87> This period begins andends with two tragedies: /Romeo and Juliet </wiki/Romeo_and_Juliet>/,the famous romantic tragedy of sexually charged adolescence, love, anddeath;^[85] <#cite_note-88> and /Julius Caesar</wiki/Julius_Caesar_(play)>/ based on Sir Thomas Norths</wiki/Thomas_North> 1579 translation of Plutarchs </wiki/Plutarch>/Parallel Lives </wiki/Parallel_Lives>/ which introduced a new kind ofdrama.^[86] <#cite_note-89> According to Shakespearean scholar JamesShapiro, in /Julius Caesar/ "the various strands of politics, character,inwardness, contemporary events, even Shakespeares own reflections onthe act of writing, began to infuse each other".^[87] <#cite_note-90></wiki/File:Henry_Fuseli_rendering_of_Hamlet_and_his_father%27s_Ghost.JPG></wiki/File:Henry_Fuseli_rendering_of_Hamlet_and_his_father%27s_Ghost.JPG>/Hamlet, Horatio, Marcellus, and the Ghost of Hamlets Father./ HenryFuseli </wiki/Henry_Fuseli>, 1780 5. Kunsthaus Zürich</wiki/Kunsthaus_Z%C3%BCrich>.In the early 17th century, Shakespeare wrote the so-called "problemplays" </wiki/Problem_plays_(Shakespeare)> /Measure for Measure</wiki/Measure_for_Measure>/, /Troilus and Cressida</wiki/Troilus_and_Cressida>/, and /Alls Well That Ends Well</wiki/All%27s_Well_That_Ends_Well>/ and a number of his best knowntragedies </wiki/Shakespearean_tragedy>.^[88] <#cite_note-91> Manycritics believe that Shakespeares greatest tragedies represent the peakof his art. The titular hero of one of Shakespeares most famoustragedies, /Hamlet </wiki/Hamlet>/, has probably been discussed morethan any other Shakespearean character, especially for his famoussoliloquy </wiki/Soliloquy> "To be or not to be; that is the question</wiki/To_be,_or_not_to_be>".^[89] <#cite_note-92> Unlike theintroverted Hamlet, whose fatal flaw is hesitation, the heroes of thetragedies that followed, Othello and King Lear, are undone by hastyerrors of judgement.^[90] <#cite_note-93> The plots of Shakespearestragedies often hinge on such fatal errors or flaws, which overturnorder and destroy the hero and those he loves.^[91] <#cite_note-94> In/Othello </wiki/Othello>/, the villain Iago </wiki/Iago> stokesOthellos sexual jealousy to the point where he murders the innocentwife who loves him.^[92] <#cite_note-95> In /King Lear</wiki/King_Lear>/, the old king commits the tragic error of giving uphis powers, initiating the events which lead to the murder of hisdaughter and the torture and blinding of the Earl of Gloucester.According to the critic Frank Kermode, "the play offers neither its goodcharacters nor its audience any relief from its cruelty".^[93]<#cite_note-96> In /Macbeth </wiki/Macbeth>/, the shortest and mostcompressed of Shakespeares tragedies,^[94] <#cite_note-97>uncontrollable ambition incites Macbeth and his wife, Lady Macbeth</wiki/Lady_Macbeth_(Shakespeare)>, to murder the rightful king andusurp the throne, until their own guilt destroys them in turn.^[95]<#cite_note-98> In this play, Shakespeare adds a supernatural element tothe tragic structure. His last major tragedies, /Antony and Cleopatra</wiki/Antony_and_Cleopatra>/ and /Coriolanus</wiki/Coriolanus_(play)>/, contain some of Shakespeares finest poetryand were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and criticT. S. Eliot </wiki/T._S._Eliot>.^[96] <#cite_note-99>In his final period, Shakespeare turned to romance</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_late_romances> or tragicomedy </wiki/Tragicomedy>and completed three more major plays: /Cymbeline </wiki/Cymbeline>/,
  9. 9. /The Winters Tale </wiki/The_Winter%27s_Tale>/ and /The Tempest</wiki/The_Tempest>/, as well as the collaboration, /Pericles, Prince ofTyre </wiki/Pericles,_Prince_of_Tyre>/. Less bleak than the tragedies,these four plays are graver in tone than the comedies of the 1590s, butthey end with reconciliation and the forgiveness of potentially tragicerrors.^[97] <#cite_note-100> Some commentators have seen this change inmood as evidence of a more serene view of life on Shakespeares part,but it may merely reflect the theatrical fashion of the day.^[98]<#cite_note-101> Shakespeare collaborated on two further survivingplays, /Henry VIII </wiki/Henry_VIII_(play)>/ and /The Two Noble Kinsmen</wiki/The_Two_Noble_Kinsmen>/, probably with John Fletcher</wiki/John_Fletcher_(playwright)>.^[99] <#cite_note-102> PerformancesMain article: Shakespeare in performance </wiki/Shakespeare_in_performance>It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays.The title page of the 1594 edition of /Titus Andronicus/ reveals thatthe play had been acted by three different troupes.^[100]<#cite_note-103> After the plagues </wiki/Black_Death> of 1592 3,Shakespeares plays were performed by his own company at The Theatre</wiki/The_Theatre> and the Curtain </wiki/Curtain_Theatre> inShoreditch </wiki/Shoreditch>, north of the Thames.^[101]<#cite_note-104> Londoners flocked there to see the first part of /HenryIV/, Leonard Digges </wiki/Leonard_Digges_(II)> recording, "Let butFalstaff come, Hal, Poins, the rest...and you scarce shall have aroom".^[102] <#cite_note-105> When the company found themselves indispute with their landlord, they pulled The Theatre down and used thetimbers to construct the Globe Theatre </wiki/Globe_Theatre>, the firstplayhouse built by actors for actors, on the south bank of the Thames atSouthwark </wiki/Southwark>.^[103] <#cite_note-106> The Globe opened inautumn 1599, with /Julius Caesar/ one of the first plays staged. Most ofShakespeares greatest post-1599 plays were written for the Globe,including /Hamlet/, /Othello/ and /King Lear/.^[104] <#cite_note-107></wiki/File:Globe_theatre_london.jpg></wiki/File:Globe_theatre_london.jpg>The reconstructed Globe Theatre </wiki/Globe_Theatre>, London.After the Lord Chamberlains Men were renamed the Kings Men</wiki/King%27s_Men_(playing_company)> in 1603, they entered a specialrelationship with the new King James </wiki/James_I_of_England>.Although the performance records are patchy, the Kings Men performedseven of Shakespeares plays at court between 1 November 1604 and 31October 1605, including two performances of /The Merchant ofVenice/.^[105] <#cite_note-108> After 1608, they performed at the indoorBlackfriars Theatre </wiki/Blackfriars_Theatre> during the winter andthe Globe during the summer.^[106] <#cite_note-109> The indoor setting,combined with the Jacobean </wiki/Jacobean_era> fashion for lavishlystaged masques </wiki/Masques>, allowed Shakespeare to introduce moreelaborate stage devices. In /Cymbeline/, for example, Jupiter</wiki/Jupiter_(mythology)> descends "in thunder and lightning, sittingupon an eagle: he throws a thunderbolt. The ghosts fall on theirknees."^[107] <#cite_note-110>The actors in Shakespeares company included the famous Richard Burbage</wiki/Richard_Burbage>, William Kempe </wiki/William_Kempe>, HenryCondell </wiki/Henry_Condell> and John Heminges </wiki/John_Heminges>.Burbage played the leading role in the first performances of many ofShakespeares plays, including /Richard III/, /Hamlet/, /Othello/, and/King Lear/.^[108] <#cite_note-111> The popular comic actor Will Kempeplayed the servant Peter in /Romeo and Juliet/ and Dogberry
  10. 10. </wiki/Dogberry> in /Much Ado About Nothing/, among othercharacters.^[109] <#cite_note-112> He was replaced around the turn ofthe 16th century by Robert Armin </wiki/Robert_Armin>, who played rolessuch as Touchstone </wiki/Touchstone_(As_You_Like_It)> in /As You LikeIt/ and the fool in /King Lear/.^[110] <#cite_note-113> In 1613, SirHenry Wotton </wiki/Henry_Wotton> recorded that /Henry VIII/ "was setforth with many extraordinary circumstances of pomp and ceremony".^[111]<#cite_note-WellsOxford1247-114> On 29 June, however, a cannon set fireto the thatch of the Globe and burned the theatre to the ground, anevent which pinpoints the date of a Shakespeare play with rareprecision.^[111] <#cite_note-WellsOxford1247-114> Textual sources</wiki/File:Title_page_William_Shakespeare%27s_First_Folio_1623.jpg></wiki/File:Title_page_William_Shakespeare%27s_First_Folio_1623.jpg>Title page of the First Folio </wiki/First_Folio>, 1623. Copperengraving of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout </wiki/Martin_Droeshout>.In 1623, John Heminges </wiki/John_Heminges> and Henry Condell</wiki/Henry_Condell>, two of Shakespeares friends from the Kings Men,published the First Folio </wiki/First_Folio>, a collected edition ofShakespeares plays. It contained 36 texts, including 18 printed for thefirst time.^[112] <#cite_note-115> Many of the plays had alreadyappeared in quarto </wiki/Book_size> versions flimsy books made fromsheets of paper folded twice to make four leaves.^[113]<#cite_note-Oxfxxxiv-116> No evidence suggests that Shakespeare approvedthese editions, which the First Folio describes as "stoln andsurreptitious copies".^[114] <#cite_note-117> Alfred Pollard</wiki/Alfred_W._Pollard> termed some of them "bad quartos</wiki/Bad_quarto>" because of their adapted, paraphrased or garbledtexts, which may in places have been reconstructed from memory.^[115]<#cite_note-118> Where several versions of a play survive, each differsfrom the other</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_plays#Shakespeare_and_the_textual_problem>. Thedifferences may stem from copying or printing</wiki/Typesetting#Letterpress_era> errors, from notes by actors oraudience members, or from Shakespeares own papers</wiki/Foul_papers>.^[116] <#cite_note-119> In some cases, for example/Hamlet/, /Troilus and Cressida </wiki/Troilus_and_Cressida>/ and/Othello/, Shakespeare could have revised the texts between the quartoand folio editions. In the case of King Lear </wiki/King_Lear>, however,while most modern additions do conflate them, the 1623 folio version isso different from the 1608 quarto, that the /Oxford Shakespeare/ printsthem both, arguing that they cannot be conflated withoutconfusion.^[117] <#cite_note-120> PoemsIn 1593 and 1594, when the theatres were closed because of plague</wiki/Bubonic_plague>, Shakespeare published two narrative poems onerotic themes, /Venus and Adonis</wiki/Venus_and_Adonis_(Shakespeare_poem)>/ and /The Rape of Lucrece</wiki/The_Rape_of_Lucrece>/. He dedicated them to Henry Wriothesley,Earl of Southampton </wiki/Henry_Wriothesley,_3rd_Earl_of_Southampton>.In /Venus and Adonis/, an innocent Adonis </wiki/Adonis> rejects thesexual advances of Venus </wiki/Venus_(mythology)>; while in /The Rapeof Lucrece/, the virtuous wife Lucrece </wiki/Lucretia> is raped by thelustful Tarquin </wiki/Sextus_Tarquinius>.^[118] <#cite_note-121>Influenced by Ovids </wiki/Ovid> /Metamorphoses</wiki/Metamorphoses>/,^[119] <#cite_note-122> the poems show the guiltand moral confusion that result from uncontrolled lust.^[120]
  11. 11. <#cite_note-123> Both proved popular and were often reprinted duringShakespeares lifetime. A third narrative poem, /A Lovers Complaint</wiki/A_Lover%27s_Complaint>/, in which a young woman laments herseduction by a persuasive suitor, was printed in the first edition ofthe /Sonnets/ in 1609. Most scholars now accept that Shakespeare wrote/A Lovers Complaint/. Critics consider that its fine qualities aremarred by leaden effects.^[121] <#cite_note-124> /The Phoenix and theTurtle </wiki/The_Phoenix_and_the_Turtle>/, printed in Robert Chesters1601 /Loves Martyr/, mourns the deaths of the legendary phoenix</wiki/Phoenix_(mythology)> and his lover, the faithful turtle dove</wiki/Turtle_dove>. In 1599, two early drafts of sonnets 138 and 144appeared in /The Passionate Pilgrim </wiki/The_Passionate_Pilgrim>/,published under Shakespeares name but without his permission.^[122]<#cite_note-125> SonnetsMain article: Shakespeares sonnets </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_sonnets></wiki/File:Sonnets1609titlepage.jpg></wiki/File:Sonnets1609titlepage.jpg>Title page from 1609 edition of /Shake-Speares Sonnets/.Published in 1609, the /Sonnets </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_Sonnets>/ werethe last of Shakespeares non-dramatic works to be printed. Scholars arenot certain when each of the 154 sonnets was composed, but evidencesuggests that Shakespeare wrote sonnets throughout his career for aprivate readership.^[123] <#cite_note-126> Even before the twounauthorised sonnets appeared in /The Passionate Pilgrim/ in 1599,Francis Meres </wiki/Francis_Meres> had referred in 1598 toShakespeares "sugred Sonnets among his private friends".^[124]<#cite_note-127> Few analysts believe that the published collectionfollows Shakespeares intended sequence.^[125] <#cite_note-128> He seemsto have planned two contrasting series: one about uncontrollable lustfor a married woman of dark complexion (the "dark lady"), and one aboutconflicted love for a fair young man (the "fair youth"). It remainsunclear if these figures represent real individuals, or if the authorial"I" who addresses them represents Shakespeare himself, though Wordsworth</wiki/Wordsworth> believed that with the sonnets "Shakespeare unlockedhis heart".^[126] <#cite_note-129> The 1609 edition was dedicated to a"Mr. W.H.", credited as "the only begetter" of the poems. It is notknown whether this was written by Shakespeare himself or by thepublisher, Thomas Thorpe </wiki/Thomas_Thorpe>, whose initials appear atthe foot of the dedication page; nor is it known who Mr. W.H. was,despite numerous theories, or whether Shakespeare even authorised thepublication.^[127] <#cite_note-130> Critics praise the /Sonnets/ as aprofound meditation on the nature of love, sexual passion, procreation,death, and time.^[128] <#cite_note-131>"Shall I compare thee to a summers day?Thou art more lovely and more temperate..."Lines from Shakespeares /Sonnet 18 </wiki/Sonnet_18>/.^[129]<#cite_note-132>The production of Shakespeares Sonnets was in some way influenced bythe Italian sonnet </wiki/Sonnet#Italian_.28Petrarchan.29_sonnet>: itwas popularised by Dante </wiki/Dante> and Petrarch </wiki/Petrarch> andrefined in Spain </wiki/Spain> and France </wiki/France> by DuBellay</w/index.php?title=Joachim_DuBellay&action=edit&redlink=1> and Ronsard</wiki/Pierre_Ronsard>.^[130]<#cite_note-Bruce_Shakesperian_Sonnets-133> Shakespeare probably hadaccess to these last two authors, and read English poets as Richard
  12. 12. Field </wiki/Richard_Field_(printer)> and John Davies.^[130]<#cite_note-Bruce_Shakesperian_Sonnets-133> The French and Italian poetsgave preference to the Italian form of sonnet two groups of four lines,or quatrains </wiki/Quatrain> (always rhymed a-b-b-a-b-b-a) followed bytwo groups of three lines, or tercets </wiki/Tercet> (variously rhymedc-c-d e-e-d or c-c-d e-d-e) which created a sonorous music in the vowel</wiki/Vowel> rich Romance languages </wiki/Romance_languages>, but inShakespeare it is artificial and monotonous for the English language</wiki/English_language>. To overcome this problem derived from thedifference of language, Shakespeare chose to follow the idiomatic rhymescheme used by Philip Sidney </wiki/Philip_Sidney> in his /Astrophel andStella </wiki/Astrophel_and_Stella>/ (published posthumously in 1591),where the rhymes are interlaced in two pairs of couplets to make thequatrain </wiki/Quatrain>.^[130]<#cite_note-Bruce_Shakesperian_Sonnets-133> StyleMain article: Shakespeares style </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_style>Shakespeares first plays were written in the conventional style of theday. He wrote them in a stylised language that does not always springnaturally from the needs of the characters or the drama.^[131]<#cite_note-134> The poetry depends on extended, sometimes elaboratemetaphors and conceits, and the language is often rhetorical written foractors to declaim rather than speak. The grand speeches in /TitusAndronicus </wiki/Titus_Andronicus>/, in the view of some critics, oftenhold up the action, for example; and the verse in /Two Gentlemen ofVerona </wiki/Two_Gentlemen_of_Verona>/ has been described asstilted.^[132] <#cite_note-135>Soon, however, Shakespeare began to adapt the traditional styles to hisown purposes. The opening soliloquy </wiki/Soliloquy> of /Richard III</wiki/Richard_III_(play)>/ has its roots in the self-declaration ofVice </wiki/The_Vice> in medieval drama. At the same time, Richard svivid self-awareness looks forward to the soliloquies of Shakespearesmature plays.^[133] <#cite_note-Brooke-136> No single play marks achange from the traditional to the freer style. Shakespeare combined thetwo throughout his career, with /Romeo and Juliet</wiki/Romeo_and_Juliet>/ perhaps the best example of the mixing of thestyles.^[134] <#cite_note-137> By the time of /Romeo and Juliet/,/Richard II </wiki/Richard_II_(play)>/, and /A Midsummer Nights Dream</wiki/A_Midsummer_Night%27s_Dream>/ in the mid-1590s, Shakespeare hadbegun to write a more natural poetry. He increasingly tuned hismetaphors and images to the needs of the drama itself.</wiki/File:Pity.jpg></wiki/File:Pity.jpg>/Pity </wiki/Pity_(William_Blake)>/ by William Blake</wiki/William_Blake>, 1795, Tate Britain </wiki/Tate_Britain>, is anillustration of two similes in /Macbeth/: "And pity, like a nakednew-born babe, / Striding the blast, or heavens cherubim, horsd / Uponthe sightless couriers of the air".Shakespeares standard poetic form was blank verse </wiki/Blank_verse>,composed in iambic pentameter </wiki/Iambic_pentameter>. In practice,this meant that his verse was usually unrhymed and consisted of tensyllables to a line, spoken with a stress on every second syllable. Theblank verse of his early plays is quite different from that of his laterones. It is often beautiful, but its sentences tend to start, pause, andfinish at the end of lines </wiki/End-stopping>, with the risk ofmonotony.^[135] <#cite_note-138> Once Shakespeare mastered traditionalblank verse, he began to interrupt and vary its flow. This technique
  13. 13. releases the new power and flexibility of the poetry in plays such as/Julius Caesar </wiki/Julius_Caesar_(play)>/ and /Hamlet</wiki/Hamlet>/. Shakespeare uses it, for example, to convey the turmoilin Hamlets mind:^[136] <#cite_note-Wright2004p868-139> /Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting/ /That would not let me sleep. Methought I lay/ /Worse than the mutines in the bilboes. Rashly / /And praisd be rashness for it let us know/ /Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well.../ /Hamlet/, Act 5, Scene 2, 4 8^[136] <#cite_note-Wright2004p868-139>After /Hamlet/, Shakespeare varied his poetic style further,particularly in the more emotional passages of the late tragedies. Theliterary critic A. C. Bradley </wiki/A._C._Bradley> described this styleas "more concentrated, rapid, varied, and, in construction, lessregular, not seldom twisted or elliptical".^[137] <#cite_note-140> Inthe last phase of his career, Shakespeare adopted many techniques toachieve these effects. These included run-on lines </wiki/Enjambment>,irregular pauses and stops, and extreme variations in sentence structureand length.^[138] <#cite_note-McDxxxxii-141> In /Macbeth</wiki/Macbeth>/, for example, the language darts from one unrelatedmetaphor or simile to another: "was the hope drunk/ Wherein you dressedyourself?" (1.7.35 38); "...pity, like a naked new-born babe/ Stridingthe blast, or heavens cherubim, horsd/ Upon the sightless couriers ofthe air..." (1.7.21 25). The listener is challenged to complete thesense.^[138] <#cite_note-McDxxxxii-141> The late romances, with theirshifts in time and surprising turns of plot, inspired a last poeticstyle in which long and short sentences are set against one another,clauses are piled up, subject and object are reversed, and words areomitted, creating an effect of spontaneity.^[139] <#cite_note-142>Shakespeares poetic genius was allied with a practical sense of thetheatre.^[140] <#cite_note-143> Like all playwrights of the time,Shakespeare dramatised stories from sources such as Petrarch</wiki/Petrarch> and Holinshed </wiki/Holinshed>.^[141] <#cite_note-144>He reshaped each plot to create several centres of interest and show asmany sides of a narrative to the audience as possible. This strength ofdesign ensures that a Shakespeare play can survive translation, cuttingand wide interpretation without loss to its core drama.^[142]<#cite_note-145> As Shakespeare s mastery grew, he gave his charactersclearer and more varied motivations and distinctive patterns of speech.He preserved aspects of his earlier style in the later plays, however.In Shakespeares late romances </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_late_romances>, hedeliberately returned to a more artificial style, which emphasised theillusion of theatre.^[143] <#cite_note-146> InfluenceMain article: Shakespeares influence </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_influence></wiki/File:Macbeth_consulting_the_Vision_of_the_Armed_Head.jpg></wiki/File:Macbeth_consulting_the_Vision_of_the_Armed_Head.jpg>/Macbeth Consulting the Vision of the Armed Head./ By Henry Fuseli</wiki/Henry_Fuseli>, 1793 94. Folger Shakespeare Library</wiki/Folger_Shakespeare_Library>, Washington.Shakespeares work has made a lasting impression on later theatre andliterature. In particular, he expanded the dramatic potential ofcharacterisation </wiki/Characterisation>, plot</wiki/Plot_(narrative)>, language </wiki/Language>, and genre</wiki/Genre>.^[144] <#cite_note-147> Until /Romeo and Juliet</wiki/Romeo_and_Juliet>/, for example, romance had not been viewed as a
  14. 14. worthy topic for tragedy.^[145] <#cite_note-148> Soliloquies had beenused mainly to convey information about characters or events; butShakespeare used them to explore characters minds.^[146]<#cite_note-149> His work heavily influenced later poetry. The Romanticpoets </wiki/Romanticism> attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama,though with little success. Critic George Steiner </wiki/George_Steiner>described all English verse dramas from Coleridge</wiki/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge> to Tennyson</wiki/Alfred_Tennyson,_1st_Baron_Tennyson> as "feeble variations onShakespearean themes."^[147] <#cite_note-150>Shakespeare influenced novelists such as Thomas Hardy</wiki/Thomas_Hardy>, William Faulkner </wiki/William_Faulkner>, andCharles Dickens </wiki/Charles_Dickens>. The American novelist HermanMelvilles </wiki/Herman_Melville> soliloquies owe much to Shakespeare;his Captain Ahab in /Moby-Dick </wiki/Moby-Dick>/ is a classic tragichero </wiki/Tragic_hero>, inspired by /King Lear/.^[148]<#cite_note-151> Scholars have identified 20,000 pieces of music linkedto Shakespeares works. These include two operas </wiki/Opera> byGiuseppe Verdi </wiki/Giuseppe_Verdi>, /Otello </wiki/Otello>/ and/Falstaff </wiki/Falstaff_(opera)>/, whose critical standing compareswith that of the source plays.^[149] <#cite_note-152> Shakespeare hasalso inspired many painters, including the Romantics and thePre-Raphaelites </wiki/Pre-Raphaelite_Brotherhood>. The Swiss Romanticartist Henry Fuseli </wiki/Henry_Fuseli>, a friend of William Blake</wiki/William_Blake>, even translated /Macbeth/ into German.^[150]<#cite_note-153> The psychoanalyst </wiki/Psychoanalyst> Sigmund Freud</wiki/Sigmund_Freud> drew on Shakespearean psychology, in particularthat of Hamlet, for his theories of human nature.In Shakespeares day, English grammar, spelling and pronunciation wereless standardised than they are now,^[151] <#cite_note-154> and his useof language helped shape modern English.^[152] <#cite_note-155> SamuelJohnson </wiki/Samuel_Johnson> quoted him more often than any otherauthor in his /A Dictionary of the English Language</wiki/A_Dictionary_of_the_English_Language>/, the first serious work ofits type.^[153] <#cite_note-156> Expressions such as "with bated breath"(/Merchant of Venice/) and "a foregone conclusion" (/Othello/) havefound their way into everyday English speech.^[154] <#cite_note-157> Critical reputationMain articles: Shakespeares reputation</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_reputation> and Timeline of Shakespeare criticism</wiki/Timeline_of_Shakespeare_criticism>"He was not of an age, but for all time."Ben Jonson </wiki/Ben_Jonson>^[155] <#cite_note-158>Shakespeare was never revered in his lifetime, but he received his shareof praise.^[156] <#cite_note-159> In 1598, the cleric and author FrancisMeres </wiki/Francis_Meres> singled him out from a group of Englishwriters as "the most excellent" in both comedy and tragedy.^[157]<#cite_note-160> And the authors of the /Parnassus/ plays at St JohnsCollege, Cambridge </wiki/St_John%27s_College,_Cambridge>, numbered himwith Chaucer </wiki/Geoffrey_Chaucer>, Gower </wiki/John_Gower> andSpenser </wiki/Edmund_Spenser>.^[158] <#cite_note-161> In the FirstFolio </wiki/First_Folio>, Ben Jonson </wiki/Ben_Jonson> calledShakespeare the "Soul of the age, the applause, delight, the wonder ofour stage", though he had remarked elsewhere that "Shakespeare wantedart". He was also recognised highly by James I by making them his KingsMen.^[159] <#cite_note-162>
  15. 15. Between the Restoration </wiki/The_Restoration> of the monarchy in 1660and the end of the 17th century, classical ideas were in vogue. As aresult, critics of the time mostly rated Shakespeare below John Fletcher</wiki/John_Fletcher_(playwright)> and Ben Jonson</wiki/Ben_Jonson>.^[160] <#cite_note-163> Thomas Rymer</wiki/Thomas_Rymer>, for example, condemned Shakespeare for mixing thecomic with the tragic. Nevertheless, poet and critic John Dryden</wiki/John_Dryden> rated Shakespeare highly, saying of Jonson, "Iadmire him, but I love Shakespeare".^[161] <#cite_note-164> For severaldecades, Rymers view held sway; but during the 18th century, criticsbegan to respond to Shakespeare on his own terms and acclaim what theytermed his natural genius. A series of scholarly editions of his work,notably those of Samuel Johnson </wiki/Samuel_Johnson> in 1765 andEdmond Malone </wiki/Edmond_Malone> in 1790, added to his growingreputation.^[162] <#cite_note-165> By 1800, he was firmly enshrined asthe national poet.^[163] <#cite_note-166> In the 18th and 19thcenturies, his reputation also spread abroad. Among those who championedhim were the writers Voltaire </wiki/Voltaire>, Goethe</wiki/Johann_Wolfgang_von_Goethe>, Stendhal </wiki/Stendhal> and VictorHugo </wiki/Victor_Hugo>.^[164] <#cite_note-Grady2001b-167>During the Romantic era </wiki/Romanticism>, Shakespeare was praised bythe poet and literary philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge</wiki/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge>; and the critic August Wilhelm Schlegel</wiki/August_Wilhelm_Schlegel> translated his plays in the spirit ofGerman Romanticism </wiki/German_Romanticism>.^[165] <#cite_note-168> Inthe 19th century, critical admiration for Shakespeares genius oftenbordered on adulation.^[166] <#cite_note-169> "That King Shakespeare,"the essayist Thomas Carlyle </wiki/Thomas_Carlyle> wrote in 1840, "doesnot he shine, in crowned sovereignty, over us all, as the noblest,gentlest, yet strongest of rallying signs; indestructible".^[167]<#cite_note-170> The Victorians </wiki/Victorian_era> produced his playsas lavish spectacles on a grand scale.^[168] <#cite_note-171> Theplaywright and critic George Bernard Shaw </wiki/George_Bernard_Shaw>mocked the cult of Shakespeare worship as "bardolatry</wiki/Bardolatry>". He claimed that the new naturalism</wiki/Naturalism_(theatre)> of Ibsens </wiki/Henrik_Ibsen> plays hadmade Shakespeare obsolete.^[169] <#cite_note-172>The modernist revolution in the arts during the early 20th century, farfrom discarding Shakespeare, eagerly enlisted his work in the service ofthe avant garde </wiki/Avant_garde>. The Expressionists</wiki/German_expressionism> in Germany and the Futurists</wiki/Futurism_(art)> in Moscow mounted productions of his plays.Marxist playwright and director Bertolt Brecht </wiki/Bertolt_Brecht>devised an epic theatre </wiki/Epic_theatre> under the influence ofShakespeare. The poet and critic T. S. Eliot </wiki/T._S._Eliot> arguedagainst Shaw that Shakespeares "primitiveness" in fact made him trulymodern.^[170] <#cite_note-173> Eliot, along with G. Wilson Knight</wiki/G._Wilson_Knight> and the school of New Criticism</wiki/New_Criticism>, led a movement towards a closer reading ofShakespeares imagery. In the 1950s, a wave of new critical approachesreplaced modernism and paved the way for "post-modern</wiki/Postmodernism>" studies of Shakespeare.^[171] <#cite_note-174> Bythe eighties, Shakespeare studies were open to movements such asstructuralism </wiki/Structuralism>, feminism </wiki/Feminism>, NewHistoricism </wiki/New_Historicism>, African American studies</wiki/African_American_studies>, and queer studies</wiki/Queer_studies>.^[172] <#cite_note-175> ^[173] <#cite_note-176> Speculation about Shakespeare
  16. 16. AuthorshipMain article: Shakespeare authorship question</wiki/Shakespeare_authorship_question>Around 150 years after Shakespeares death, doubts began to emerge aboutthe authorship of the works attributed to him.^[174] <#cite_note-177>Proposed alternative candidates include Francis Bacon</wiki/Francis_Bacon>, Christopher Marlowe </wiki/Christopher_Marlowe>,and Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford</wiki/Edward_de_Vere,_17th_Earl_of_Oxford>.^[175] <#cite_note-178>Several "group theories" have also been proposed.^[176] <#cite_note-179>Only a small minority of academics believe there is reason to questionthe traditional attribution,^[177] <#cite_note-180> but interest in thesubject, particularly the Oxfordian theory </wiki/Oxfordian_theory>,continues into the 21st century.^[178] <#cite_note-Kathman_a-181> ReligionMain article: Shakespeares religion </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_religion>Some scholars claim that members of Shakespeares family were Catholics</wiki/Roman_Catholic_Church>, at a time when Catholic practice wasagainst the law.^[179] <#cite_note-182> Shakespeares mother, Mary Arden</wiki/Mary_Shakespeare>, certainly came from a pious Catholic family.The strongest evidence might be a Catholic statement of faith signed byJohn Shakespeare </wiki/John_Shakespeare>, found in 1757 in the raftersof his former house in Henley Street. The document is now lost, however,and scholars differ on its authenticity.^[180] <#cite_note-183> In 1591,the authorities reported that John had missed church "for fear ofprocess for debt", a common Catholic excuse.^[181] <#cite_note-Cath-184>In 1606, Williams daughter Susanna was listed among those who failed toattend Easter communion </wiki/Eucharist> in Stratford.^[181]<#cite_note-Cath-184> Scholars find evidence both for and againstShakespeares Catholicism in his plays, but the truth may be impossibleto prove either way.^[182] <#cite_note-185> SexualityMain article: Sexuality of William Shakespeare</wiki/Sexuality_of_William_Shakespeare>Few details of Shakespeares sexuality are known. At 18, he married the26-year-old Anne Hathaway </wiki/Anne_Hathaway_(Shakespeare)>, who waspregnant. Susanna, the first of their three children, was born sixmonths later on 26 May 1583. However, over the centuries readers havepointed to Shakespeares sonnets as evidence of his love for a youngman. Others read the same passages as the expression of intensefriendship rather than sexual love.^[183] <#cite_note-186> At the sametime, the twenty-six so-called "Dark Lady" </wiki/The_Dark_Lady>sonnets, addressed to a married woman, are taken as evidence ofheterosexual liaisons.^[184] <#cite_note-187> PortraitureMain article: Portraits of Shakespeare </wiki/Portraits_of_Shakespeare>There is no written description of Shakespeares physical appearance andno evidence that he ever commissioned a portrait, so the Droeshoutengraving </wiki/Droeshout_engraving>, which Ben Jonson approved of as a
  17. 17. good likeness,^[185] <#cite_note-Cooper-188> and his Stratford monument</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_funeral_monument> provide the best evidence ofhis appearance. From the 18th century, the desire for authenticShakespeare portraits fuelled claims that various surviving picturesdepicted Shakespeare. That demand also led to the production of severalfake portraits, as well as misattributions, repaintings and relabellingof portraits of other people.^[186] <#cite_note-Pressly1993-189> ^[187]<#cite_note-Piper-190> List of worksFurther information: List of Shakespeares works</wiki/List_of_Shakespeare%27s_works> and Chronology of Shakespeareplays </wiki/Chronology_of_Shakespeare_plays> Classification of the plays</wiki/File:Gilbert_WShakespeares_Plays.jpg></wiki/File:Gilbert_WShakespeares_Plays.jpg>/The Plays of William Shakespeare/. By Sir John Gilbert</wiki/John_Gilbert_(painter)>, 1849.Shakespeares works include the 36 plays printed in the First Folio</wiki/First_Folio> of 1623, listed below according to their folioclassification as comedies </wiki/Shakespearean_comedy>, histories</wiki/Shakespearean_history> and tragedies</wiki/Shakespearean_tragedy>.^[188] <#cite_note-191> Two plays notincluded in the First Folio, /The Two Noble Kinsmen</wiki/The_Two_Noble_Kinsmen>/ and /Pericles, Prince of Tyre</wiki/Pericles,_Prince_of_Tyre>/, are now accepted as part of thecanon, with scholars agreed that Shakespeare made a major contributionto their composition.^[189] <#cite_note-Kathman_b-192> No Shakespeareanpoems were included in the First Folio.In the late 19th century, Edward Dowden </wiki/Edward_Dowden> classifiedfour of the late comedies as romances</wiki/Shakespeare%27s_late_romances>, and though many scholars preferto call them /tragicomedies/ </wiki/Tragicomedy>, his term is oftenused.^[190] <#cite_note-193> These plays and the associated /Two NobleKinsmen/ are marked with an asterisk (*) below. In 1896, Frederick S.Boas </wiki/Frederick_S._Boas> coined the term "problem plays</wiki/Problem_plays>" to describe four plays: /Alls Well That EndsWell </wiki/All%27s_Well_That_Ends_Well>/, /Measure for Measure</wiki/Measure_for_Measure>/, /Troilus and Cressida</wiki/Troilus_and_Cressida>/ and /Hamlet </wiki/Hamlet>/.^[191]<#cite_note-194> "Dramas as singular in theme and temper cannot bestrictly called comedies or tragedies", he wrote. "We may thereforeborrow a convenient phrase from the theatre of today and class themtogether as Shakespeares problem plays."^[192] <#cite_note-195> Theterm, much debated and sometimes applied to other plays, remains in use,though /Hamlet/ is definitively classed as a tragedy.^[193]<#cite_note-196> The other problem plays are marked below with a doubledagger (‡).Plays thought to be only partly written by Shakespeare are marked with adagger (†) below. Other works occasionally attributed to him are listedas apocrypha. WorksComedies
  18. 18. Main article: Shakespearean comedy </wiki/Shakespearean_comedy> * /Alls Well That Ends Well </wiki/All%27s_Well_That_Ends_Well>/‡ * /As You Like It </wiki/As_You_Like_It>/ * /The Comedy of Errors </wiki/The_Comedy_of_Errors>/ * /Loves Labours Lost </wiki/Love%27s_Labour%27s_Lost>/ * /Measure for Measure </wiki/Measure_for_Measure>/‡ * /The Merchant of Venice </wiki/The_Merchant_of_Venice>/ * /The Merry Wives of Windsor </wiki/The_Merry_Wives_of_Windsor>/ * /A Midsummer Nights Dream </wiki/A_Midsummer_Night%27s_Dream>/ * /Much Ado About Nothing </wiki/Much_Ado_About_Nothing>/ * /Pericles, Prince of Tyre </wiki/Pericles,_Prince_of_Tyre>/*†* /The Taming of the Shrew </wiki/The_Taming_of_the_Shrew>/ * /The Tempest </wiki/The_Tempest>/* * /Twelfth Night </wiki/Twelfth_Night>/ * /The Two Gentlemen of Verona </wiki/The_Two_Gentlemen_of_Verona>/ * /The Two Noble Kinsmen </wiki/The_Two_Noble_Kinsmen>/*†* /The Winters Tale </wiki/The_Winter%27s_Tale>/*HistoriesMain article: Shakespearean history </wiki/Shakespearean_history> * /King John </wiki/The_Life_and_Death_of_King_John>/ * /Richard II </wiki/Richard_II_(play)>/ * /Henry IV, part 1 </wiki/Henry_IV,_part_1>/ * /Henry IV, part 2 </wiki/Henry_IV,_part_2>/ * /Henry V </wiki/Henry_V_(play)>/ * /Henry VI, part 1 </wiki/Henry_VI,_part_1>/†* /Henry VI, part 2 </wiki/Henry_VI,_part_2>/ * /Henry VI, part 3 </wiki/Henry_VI,_part_3>/ * /Richard III </wiki/Richard_III_(play)>/ * /Henry VIII </wiki/Henry_VIII_(play)>/â€TragediesMain article: Shakespearean tragedy </wiki/Shakespearean_tragedy> * /Romeo and Juliet </wiki/Romeo_and_Juliet>/ * /Coriolanus </wiki/Coriolanus_(play)>/ * /Titus Andronicus </wiki/Titus_Andronicus>/†* /Timon of Athens </wiki/Timon_of_Athens>/†* /Julius Caesar </wiki/Julius_Caesar_(play)>/ * /Macbeth </wiki/Macbeth>/†* /Hamlet </wiki/Hamlet>/ * /Troilus and Cressida </wiki/Troilus_and_Cressida>/‡ * /King Lear </wiki/King_Lear>/ * /Othello </wiki/Othello>/ * /Antony and Cleopatra </wiki/Antony_and_Cleopatra>/ * /Cymbeline </wiki/Cymbeline>/*Poems * /Shakespeares Sonnets </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_Sonnets>/ * /Venus and Adonis </wiki/Venus_and_Adonis_(Shakespeare_poem)>/
  19. 19. * /The Rape of Lucrece </wiki/The_Rape_of_Lucrece>/ * /The Passionate Pilgrim </wiki/The_Passionate_Pilgrim>/^[nb 5] <#cite_note-Passionate-Pilgrim-197> * /The Phoenix and the Turtle </wiki/The_Phoenix_and_the_Turtle>/ * /A Lovers Complaint </wiki/A_Lover%27s_Complaint>/Lost plays * /Loves Labours Won </wiki/Love%27s_Labour%27s_Won>/ * /Cardenio </wiki/Cardenio>/â€ApocryphaMain article: Shakespeare Apocrypha </wiki/Shakespeare_Apocrypha> * /Arden of Faversham </wiki/Arden_of_Faversham>/ * /The Birth of Merlin </wiki/The_Birth_of_Merlin>/ * /Locrine </wiki/Locrine>/ * /The London Prodigal </wiki/The_London_Prodigal>/ * /The Puritan </wiki/The_Puritan>/ * /The Second Maidens Tragedy </wiki/The_Second_Maiden%27s_Tragedy>/ * /Sir John Oldcastle </wiki/Sir_John_Oldcastle>/ * /Thomas Lord Cromwell </wiki/Thomas_Lord_Cromwell>/ * /A Yorkshire Tragedy </wiki/A_Yorkshire_Tragedy>/ * /Edward III </wiki/Edward_III_(play)>/ * /Sir Thomas More </wiki/Sir_Thomas_More_(play)>/[show <#>]v </wiki/Template:Earlybard> *·* d</wiki/Template_talk:Earlybard> *·* e<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Earlybard&action=edit>Earlyeditions of *William Shakespeare*s works*Folios and Quartos </wiki/Early_texts_of_Shakespeare%27s_works>*Foul papers </wiki/Foul_papers> • Quarto </wiki/Quarto> • Folio</wiki/Folio_(printing)> • Bad quarto </wiki/Bad_quarto> • First Quarto</wiki/First_Quarto> • First Folio </wiki/First_Folio> • Second Folio</wiki/Second_Folio> • False Folio </wiki/False_Folio>*Early editors </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_editors>*John Heminges </wiki/John_Heminges> • Henry Condell</wiki/Henry_Condell> • Edward Knight</w/index.php?title=Edward_Knight_(Shakespeare)&action=edit&redlink=1> •John Leason </w/index.php?title=John_Leason&action=edit&redlink=1>*Publishers*Robert Allot </wiki/Robert_Allot> • William Aspley</wiki/William_Aspley> • John Benson </wiki/John_Benson_(publisher)> •Edward Blount </wiki/Edward_Blount> • Cuthbert Burby</wiki/Cuthbert_Burby> • Nathaniel Butter </wiki/Nathaniel_Butter> •Philip Chetwinde </wiki/Philip_Chetwinde> • Richard Hawkins</wiki/Richard_Hawkins_(publisher)> • Henry Herringman</wiki/Henry_Herringman> • William Leake </wiki/William_Leake> • RichardMeighen </wiki/Richard_Meighen> • Thomas Millington</wiki/Thomas_Millington> • Thomas Pavier </wiki/Thomas_Pavier> • JohnSmethwick </wiki/John_Smethwick> • Thomas Thorpe </wiki/Thomas_Thorpe> •Thomas Walkley </wiki/Thomas_Walkley> • John Waterson</wiki/John_Waterson> • Andrew Wise </wiki/Andrew_Wise>*Printers*Edward Allde </wiki/Edward_Allde> • Thomas Cotes </wiki/Thomas_Cotes> •Thomas Creede </wiki/Thomas_Creede> • George Eld </wiki/George_Eld> •Richard Field </wiki/Richard_Field_(printer)> • William Jaggard</wiki/William_Jaggard> • Augustine Matthews </wiki/Augustine_Matthews>• Nicholas Okes </wiki/Nicholas_Okes> • Peter Short
  20. 20. </wiki/Peter_Short_(printer)> • Valentine Simmes</wiki/Valentine_Simmes> • William Stansby </wiki/William_Stansby> See also</wiki/File:Quill_and_ink.svg> /*Poetry portal </wiki/Portal:Poetry>*/</wiki/File:Shakespeare.jpg> /*Shakespeare portal</wiki/Portal:Shakespeare>*/ * World Shakespeare Bibliography </wiki/World_Shakespeare_Bibliography> * Wikipedia Books </wiki/Wikipedia:Books>: William Shakespeare </wiki/Wikipedia:Books/William_Shakespeare> Notes 1. *^ <#cite_ref-dates_0-0>* Dates follow the Julian calendar </wiki/Julian_calendar>, used in England throughout Shakespeares lifespan, but with the start of year adjusted to 1 January (see Old Style and New Style dates </wiki/Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates>). Under the Gregorian calendar </wiki/Gregorian_calendar>, adopted in Catholic countries in 1582, Shakespeare died on 3 May (Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, xv). 2. *^ <#cite_ref-national-cult_3-0>* The "national cult" of Shakespeare, and the "bard" identification, dates from September 1769, when the actor David Garrick </wiki/David_Garrick> organised a week-long carnival at Stratford to mark the town council awarding him the freedom </wiki/Freedom_of_the_City> of the town. In addition to presenting the town with a statue of Shakespeare, Garrick composed a doggerel verse, lampooned in the London newspapers, naming the banks of the Avon as the birthplace of the "matchless Bard" (McIntyre 1999 <#CITEREFMcIntyre1999>, 412 432). 3. *^ <#cite_ref-exact-figures_4-0>* The exact figures are unknown. See Shakespeares collaborations </wiki/Shakespeare%27s_collaborations> and Shakespeare Apocrypha </wiki/Shakespeare_Apocrypha> for further details. 4. *^ <#cite_ref-play-dates_8-0>* Individual play dates and precise writing span are unknown. See Chronology of Shakespeares plays </wiki/Chronology_of_Shakespeare%27s_plays> for further details. 5. *^ <#cite_ref-Passionate-Pilgrim_197-0>* /The Passionate Pilgrim/, published under Shakespeares name in 1599 without his permission, includes early versions of two of his sonnets, three extracts from /Loves Labours Lost/, several poems known to be by other poets, and eleven poems of unknown authorship for which the attribution to Shakespeare has not been disproved (Wells et al. 2005 <#CITEREFWellsTaylorJowettMontgomery2005>, 805) References 1. *^ <#cite_ref-1>* Greenblatt 2005 <#CITEREFGreenblatt2005>, 11; Bevington 2002 <#CITEREFBevington2002>, 1 3; Wells 1997 <#CITEREFWells1997>, 399. 2. *^ <#cite_ref-2>* Dobson 1992 <#CITEREFDobson1992>, 185 186 3. *^ <#cite_ref-5>* Craig 2003 <#CITEREFCraig2003>, 3. 4. *^ <#cite_ref-Shapiro2005_6-0>* Shapiro 2005 <#CITEREFShapiro2005>, xvii xviii; Schoenbaum 1991 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1991>, 41, 66, 397 98, 402, 409; Taylor 1990 <#CITEREFTaylor1990>, 145, 210 23, 261 5 5. *^ <#cite_ref-7>* Chambers 1930 <#CITEREFChambers1930>, Vol. 1: 270 71; Taylor 1987 <#CITEREFTaylor1987>, 109 134. 6. *^ <#cite_ref-9>* Bertolini 1993 <#CITEREFBertolini1993>, 119.
  21. 21. 7. *^ <#cite_ref-10>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 14 22. 8. *^ <#cite_ref-11>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 24 6. 9. *^ <#cite_ref-12>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 24, 296; Honan 1998 <#CITEREFHonan1998>, 15 16.10. *^ <#cite_ref-13>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 23 24.11. *^ <#cite_ref-14>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 62 63; Ackroyd 2006 <#CITEREFAckroyd2006>, 53; Wells et al. 2005 <#CITEREFWellsTaylorJowettMontgomery2005>, xv xvi12. *^ <#cite_ref-15>* Baldwin 1944 <#CITEREFBaldwin1944>, 464.13. *^ <#cite_ref-16>* Baldwin 1944 <#CITEREFBaldwin1944>, 164 84; Cressy 1975 <#CITEREFCressy1975>, 28, 29.14. *^ <#cite_ref-17>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 77 78.15. *^ <#cite_ref-18>* Wood 2003 <#CITEREFWood2003>, 84; Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 78 79.16. *^ <#cite_ref-19>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 93.17. *^ <#cite_ref-20>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 94.18. *^ <#cite_ref-21>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 224.19. *^ <#cite_ref-22>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 95.20. *^ <#cite_ref-23>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 97 108; Rowe 1709 <#CITEREFRowe1709>.21. *^ <#cite_ref-24>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 144 45.22. *^ <#cite_ref-25>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 110 11.23. *^ <#cite_ref-26>* Honigmann 1999 <#CITEREFHonigmann1999>, 1; Wells et al. 2005 <#CITEREFWellsTaylorJowettMontgomery2005>, xvii24. *^ <#cite_ref-27>* Honigmann 1999 <#CITEREFHonigmann1999>, 95 117; Wood 2003 <#CITEREFWood2003>, 97 109.25. *^ <#cite_ref-28>* Wells et al. 2005 <#CITEREFWellsTaylorJowettMontgomery2005>, 66626. *^ <#cite_ref-29>* Chambers 1930 <#CITEREFChambers1930>, Vol. 1: 287, 29227. *^ <#cite_ref-30>* Greenblatt 2005 <#CITEREFGreenblatt2005>, 213.28. *^ <#cite_ref-31>* Greenblatt 2005 <#CITEREFGreenblatt2005>, 213; Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 153.29. *^ <#cite_ref-32>* Ackroyd 2006 <#CITEREFAckroyd2006>, 176.30. *^ <#cite_ref-33>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 151 52.31. *^ <#cite_ref-34>* Wells 2006 <#CITEREFWells2006>, 28; Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 144 46; Chambers 1930 <#CITEREFChambers1930>, Vol. 1: 59.32. *^ <#cite_ref-35>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 184.33. *^ <#cite_ref-36>* Chambers 1923 <#CITEREFChambers1923>, 208 209.34. *^ <#cite_ref-37>* Chambers 1930 <#CITEREFChambers1930>, Vol. 2: 67 71.35. *^ <#cite_ref-38>* Bentley 1961 <#CITEREFBentley1961>, 36.36. *^ <#cite_ref-39>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 188; Kastan 1999 <#CITEREFKastan1999>, 37; Knutson 2001 <#CITEREFKnutson2001>, 1737. *^ <#cite_ref-40>* Adams 1923 <#CITEREFAdams1923>, 27538. *^ <#cite_ref-41>* Wells 2006 <#CITEREFWells2006>, 28.39. *^ <#cite_ref-42>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 200.40. *^ <#cite_ref-43>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 200 201.41. *^ <#cite_ref-44>* Rowe 1709 <#CITEREFRowe1709>.42. *^ <#cite_ref-45>* Ackroyd 2006 <#CITEREFAckroyd2006>, 357; Wells et al. 2005 <#CITEREFWellsTaylorJowettMontgomery2005>, xxii43. *^ <#cite_ref-46>* Schoenbaum 1987 <#CITEREFSchoenbaum1987>, 202 3.44. *^ <#cite_ref-47>* Honan 1998 <#CITEREFHonan1998>, 121.45. *^ <#cite_ref-48>* Shapiro 2005 <#CITEREFShapiro2005>, 122.46. *^ <#cite_ref-49>* Honan 1998 <#CITEREFHonan1998>, 325; Greenblatt 2005 <#CITEREFGreenblatt2005>, 405.47. ^ ^/*a*/ <#cite_ref-autogenerated1_50-0> ^/*b*/ <#cite_ref-autogenerated1_50-1> Ackroyd 2006 <#CITEREFAckroyd2006>, 476.48. *^ <#cite_ref-51>* Honan 1998 <#CITEREFHonan1998>, 382 83.49. *^ <#cite_ref-52>* Honan 1998 <#CITEREFHonan1998>, 326; Ackroyd 2006 <#CITEREFAckroyd2006>, 462 464.
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