Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial1Class 10Strategi...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial2What is Informat...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial3Planning IS and ...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial4Strategic Enviro...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial5Generic Competit...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial6Business Value C...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial7Value Web
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial8The Process of S...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial9Selecting Projec...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial10Portfolio Analy...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial11Multicriteria M...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial12Valuing Informa...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial13Example of Crea...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial14Example of Crea...
Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial15Example of Crea...
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Aula 10 16052013 sii-v1

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Aula 10 16052013 sii-v1

  1. 1. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial1Class 10Strategic Planning of InformationSystemsAno 2013Sistemas de Informaçãopara a IndústriaAntónio GriloProf. Auxiliar FCT-UNL,
  2. 2. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial2What is Information Systems (IS) planning?Is the process of developing a view of the future that guides decisionmaking today. It states the direction we want to go and how we intend toget there.• There is a need to make the alignment of strategic business goals andinformation systems plans.• Often the Chief Information Officer is not in the inner circle of strategicdecision making• Technologies are rapidly changing• Continuous planning (monitoring, adjustments)• “Built to Change”
  3. 3. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial3Planning IS and Organizational FactorsWhen planning and designing a new information system, there are centralorganizational factors to consider :• Environment• Structure (Hierarchy, specialization, routines, business processes)• Culture and politics• Type of organization and style of leadership• Main interest groups affected by system; attitudes of end users• Tasks, decisions, and business processes the system will assist
  4. 4. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial4Strategic Environmental Challenges for IS PlanningPorter’s Competitive Force:
  5. 5. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial5Generic Competitive Strategies and ISLow-cost leadershipProduce products and services at a lower price than competitors whileenhancing quality and level of service. Examples: Continente, Pingo DoceProduct differentiationEnable new products or services, greatly change customer convenienceand experience. Examples: Google, Nike, AppleFocus on market nicheUse information systems to enable a focused strategy on a single marketniche; specialize. Example: Hilton HotelsStrengthen customer and supplier intimacyUse information systems to develop strong ties and loyalty with customersand supplier or increase switching costs. Example: Netflix, Amazon
  6. 6. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial6Business Value Chain Model
  7. 7. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial7Value Web
  8. 8. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial8The Process of Strategic IS Planning
  9. 9. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial9Selecting ProjectsIn all but the smallest of firms, there is a considerable organizationalapparatus involved in projects, which is one reason why they can be sodifficult to manage.The management structure for information systems projects (hierarchy inlarge firms):• Corporate strategic planning group - responsible for firm’s strategicplan• Information systems steering committee - reviews and approves plansfor systems in all divisions• Project management group - responsible for overseeing specificprojects• Project team - responsible for individual systems projectPortfolio analysis is used to evaluate alternative system projects. Hence, itis necessary to inventory all of the organization’s information systemsprojects and assets, and each system has a profile of risk and benefit
  10. 10. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial10Portfolio AnalysisTo improve return on portfolio, balance risk and return from systemsinvestments. Companies should analyse their portfolio of projects in termsof potential benefits and likely risks. Certain kinds of projects should beavoided altogether and others developed rapidly. There is no ideal mix.Companies in different industries have different profiles.
  11. 11. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial11Multicriteria Methods for SelectionFor selecting projects a multicriteria method can be used, like theAnalytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), or simplifying with a more linearscoring model, that can be used to evaluate alternative system projects,especially when many criteria exist. This method assigns weights tovarious features of system and calculates weighted totals.
  12. 12. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial12Valuing Information SystemsInformation systems capital budgeting models measure value of investingin long-term capital investment projects. These methods rely on measuresof the firm’s:Cash outflows• Expenditures for hardware, software, laborCash inflows• Increased sales• Reduced costsThere are various capital budgeting models used for IT projects: Paybackmethod, accounting rate of return on investment, net present value (NPV),internal rate of return (IRR)
  13. 13. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial13Example of Creating a Business CaseFinancial modelers use roughly two dozen shared files. When current datain these shared files is overwritten with obsolete data, financial modelersmust recheck and redo their models. No records are kept for this work, butanecdotal evidence suggests that up to 40 hours per year may be wastedredoing financial models. At €50 per hour, this lost time costs ABCCompany up to €2,000 a year.CostsElectroWorkFlow purchase price: €10,000.Estimated life cycle: three years.Installation fee: €2,000.Annual maintenance contract: €500.Cash Flow Statement (three years)ABC Companys discount rate is 5%.
  14. 14. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial14Example of Creating a Business Case (cont.)The volume of shared files will remain the same or increase over the nextthree years.Significant changes will not occur in the way most shared files aredistributed, used, and updated.To realize €7,800 in annual labor savings, ABC Company must reduceadministrative assistant (AA) labor by 260 hours per year.Currently, ABC Company employs three full-time AAs and one part-timeAA who works on average 34 hours per week. In 2005 ABC Companyhired a leased worker to perform 120 hours of AA tasks.By eliminating the leased worker (120 hours saved) and reducing the part-time AA to 31 hours per week (140 hours saved), ABC Company will save260 hours per year in AA labor.
  15. 15. Sistemas de Informação para Indústria© António Grilo 2013Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial15Example of Creating a Business Case (cont.)Net present value (NPV):€13,530Internal rate of return (IRR):68%Payback period: 1.2 years

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